Updated Essay on U.S. China Relations, Secret History and My Father’s Memories

Emblem and patch worn by aircrews of the 490th Bombardment Squadron “Burma Bridge Busters” of the 14th Airforce

U.S.-China Relations: Some Secret History and My Father’s Memories

By James M. Craven/Omahkohkiaaiipooyii

Introduction—My Father

Every time I am in China, I am struck with how kind, open, warm and helpful people are to me; especially as it is obvious that I am a foreigner, and many think, another American (I am also Canadian and a Blackfoot Indian and a veteran of the U.S. Army 1963-66). I wonder how many would be so kind and open if they knew some of the real history of U.S.-China “relations” even prior to Liberation in China in 1949. On the other hand, I wonder how many of the reflexive “China-bashers” in America and would continue their anti-China posturing, rants about being in debt to China (who forced them to borrow?), memes about China as a supposed “existential threat”, if they knew some of the same secret history.

I learned some of the real and secret history behind U.S.-China relations, in books and documents that have been leaked or declassified that I later found buried in all sorts of leaked secrets and declassified archives. Yet some of it I, early on, got from my father who was part of some of this secret history. What he told me of it, he did not discuss outside of our home; and he told me also not to speak of his views on U.S.-China relations or his views on U.S. Government policies and actions against China to any outsiders.

My father, Homer Henry Craven Jr., was a top-turret gunner and engineer on B-25s with the 14th Air Force, the successor to the Flying Tigers, with the 490th Bomb Squadron the famed “Burma Bridge Busters”, and flew 94 missions against the Japanese forces in (then-called) Burma and in China. He also flew, as an engineer on C-46 missions over “The Hump” from Burma into China. My father later became a pilot for Northwest Airlines, for 33 years, many of those years as a 747 captain and who spent most of his 33 years flying in Asia—many times to Taiwan since the mid-1950s. He once flew Chiang Kai-Shek from Taipei to Tokyo and according to the captain of that flight, for whom my father was a co-pilot and a friend, he was angered at my father when he refused to shake the hand of Chiang Kai Shek (often flew in commercial airliners for security against assassination attempts thinking no one would take out a whole airliner to get him) causing him to “lose face” when he came up to the cockpit to inspect, eyeball-to-eyeball, as he did at all times, who would be flying him.

Later, in the early 1970s, my father, a senior 707-320 captain, flew some of the very last flights into and out of Vietnam (he was opposed to the Vietnam War and U.S. involvement and went into Vietnam empty to take out troops and to witness the war). In the early 1980s, as a senior 747 captain, he finally got to see the new China he always wanted to see but couldn’t because of the Cold War isolation imposed upon China, when he flew some of the first flights back into Shanghai and Beijing, as Northwest Airlines resumed their historical routes into China with more US-China engagement. My father believed that Taiwan was part of China (as was Hong Kong, Macao, Xinjiang and Tibet) and that the Kuomintang on Taiwan had largely continued and expanded their corruption and despotism that he saw during World War II in Burma and China in Taiwan and elsewhere. He believed this even as, in fact because, he was flying in and out of Taiwan regularly; he was not the kind to stay isolated in 5-star hotels but wandered around, with the everyday working people, wherever he went. My father did not want his children to be taken in by Cold War lies that he knew from direct experience to be lies including the notion of any kind of “democracy” under the KMT and their kind on Taiwan.

But such thinking was extremely dangerous not only in Taiwan, but in America even today. Among pilots, (I am also a pilot) many of whom were then and still are, ultra-conservative, not well schooled or educated, even about the world they fly around, and with many who were military veterans conditioned just to follow orders without asking a lot of questions, my father’s views would have been considered treason even though they were not. I say this as a former commercial pilot who, especially in those days, knew few pilots with my father’s experiences and whose views were similar; and they all kept their views very covert.

My father had respect for the original Flying Tigers. He would also quip that unlike them, he was not a mercenary or adventurer although for a good cause, and he did not get $500 (a lot of money then and now) for each Japanese aircraft shot down. Plus he lived most of his time in the jungles in tents. My father told me that Japanese forces were often so near them that sometimes they could be observed in the hills watching them and even their outdoor movies. My father and his comrades slept with guns under their pillows because Kuomintang (KMT) troops, supposedly their allies, would come in the night and try to bayonet them through the tents to steal valuables for sale on black markets. My father only had any respect for the communist or “Red Army” forces. That was not something one openly said in America in the 1950s and 60s; and really not even now is such a statement healthy to say and believe.

I remember my father telling me these things, expressing these views quietly and not publicly, and telling me not to repeat them outside the house in the 1950s when I was seven or eight years old. Specifically, I remember 1954, I was eight years old, when the Army-McCarthy hearings were going on, and, although we were poor, we got a television just so we could watch them. My mother, of Blackfoot Indian ancestry that she was taken away from early on in her life, married to a white man in 1945, which was very rare, a man who had only $35.00 and a lot of wounds and combat fatigue to his name when they married, would point to the demagogue Joe McCarthy and the McCarthy-Army hearings on TV and say: “See and remember that always; that is one of the many faces of evil.”

Red Allies in World War II

My father told me that it was well known among the aircrews in the 14th Air Force, that if shot down and captured by the Japanese, they would die a very horrible death—usually as the object of bayonet practice. But they also knew that their so-called “allies”, the KMT (Kuomintang) forces of Chiang Kai Shek, were often far more anti-communist than anti-Japanese (many were former or present collaborators and some trained by the Japanese in military academies) and some would sell them to the Japanese. So the first lesson I learned as a child was that the crews, the real ones, not the ones “in the rear with the gear”, but the ones who flew so low that they did not carry parachutes, knew that only the “Red Army” forces, the communists, could be trusted and were the most effective forces against the Japanese. But was this just my father’s memories (often we find that “the older we get the better we used to be”) and ideology being passed on to me? Well in my over 40 years of study of the nature, contradictions, intentions, logic, dynamics and victims of imperialism and colonialism, inspired by my mother, father, grandfather and my own life experiences, I have found as 60-year-old documents are declassified, or leaked as they have been in some cases, more is coming to light about a history nowhere to be found in U.S. history books. We are finding in various documents of the U.S. Government and its allies, and in the work of scholars like William Blum[1], some of the history that remains hidden to this day.

In fact, Americans owe the “Red Army” of China a large debt of gratitude and assistance for their fierce and principled resistance to Japanese imperialism during WWII, resistance that saved many American lives:

“The communists in China had worked closely with the American military during the war, providing important intelligence about Japanese occupiers, rescuing and caring for downed U.S. airmen.” [2]

“United States planes regularly made reconnaissance flights over communist territory to scout the position of their forces. The communists claimed that American planes frequently strafed and bombed their troops and in one instance machine-gunned a communist-held town.” [3]

“There were, however, American survivors in some of the many crashes of the United States aircraft. Surprisingly, the Reds continued to rescue them, tend to their wounds, and return them to US bases. It may be difficult to appreciate now, but at this time the mystique and the myth of ‘America’ still gripped the imagination of people all over the world, and the Reds helped to rescue scores of American flyers and had transported them through Japanese lines to safety. ‘The Communists’ wrote the New York Times ‘did not lose one airman under their protection. They made a point of never accepting rewards for saving American airmen.’ “ [4]

Now that alone should cause one to wonder between the U.S. and China, who exactly is an “existential threat” to whom? If communists automatically viewed capitalists as an “existential threat” (merely because of fundamental differences in ideologies and systems and not to do with any declared threats or actions), as we view China in our own classified and even unclassified documents to this very day, then why would the Chinese take such care with US airmen to ensure their return to U.S. forces?

Yet in internal documents, it is clear that the U.S. Government knew very well that their own allies were hated by the people for their corruption and that the communists were admired not only for their fierceness and courage in their resistance to Japanese invasion and occupation, but for their honestly, kindness and refusal to tolerate corruption. For but one of many examples that my father told me about long before I read this:

“ ‘By 1949, United States aid to the Nationalists since the war amounted to almost $2 billion in cash and $1 billion worth of military hardware; 39 Nationalist army divisions had been trained and equipped.[5] Yet the Chiang dynasty was collapsing all around in bits and pieces. It has not only been the onslaught of Chiang’s communist foes, but the hostility of the Chinese people at large to his tyranny, his wanton cruelty, and the extraordinary corruption and decadence of his entire bureaucratic and social system. By contrast, the large areas under communist administration were models of honesty, progress, and fairness; entire divisions of the Generalissimo’s forces defected to the communists. American political and military leaders had no illusions about the nature and quality of Chiang’s rule. The Nationalist forces, said General David Barr, head of the U.S. Military Mission in China, were under ‘the world’s worst leadership’.” [6]

Former Enemies as New Allies vs. Former Allies as New Enemies

But this is only the tip of the iceberg. Now imagine, that after the war, after all that China suffered, including many years while the world stood by and watched and even profited from the rape of China by foreign powers, that former Japanese occupiers, torturers, war criminals and troops would be given back their arms, and, worse yet, turned into garrison police to control and kill some of the very same communist forces (which also included a united front of many non-communists but patriotic bourgeoisie) that had saved U.S. Airmen. And this was not only the pattern in China, but also in Vietnam, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Europe, under the banner of “the enemy of my enemy is my friend”. Even in Europe, former Nazis and war criminals were turned into police, prison guards and spies against communists that had once been U.S. allies and the most effective anti-fascists.

President Truman was up front about what he described as “using the Japanese to hold off the communists”:

“It was perfectly clear to us that if we told the Japanese to lay down their arms immediately and march to the seaboard, the entire country would be taken over by the communists. We therefore had to take the unusual step of using the enemy as a garrison until we could airlift Chinese National [Chiang’s] troops to South China and send Marines to guard the seaports.” [7]

“The American soldiers in China began to protest about not being sent home, a complaint echoed around the world by other GIs kept overseas for political (usually anti-communist) purposes. ‘They ask me too, why they’re here, said a Marine lieutenant in China at Christmas time, 1945. As an officer, I am supposed to tell them, but you can’t tell a man he’s here to disarm the Japanese when he’s guarding the same railway with [armed] Japanese’. “ [8]

Well I never learned any of this in school; not anywhere in my thirteen some years of university. And when my father told me about this, and he mentioned this use of former fascist enemies as police and to spy on and kill former communist allies, I was told never to mention this and other things he and my mother told us to outsiders. But there is more to this story; so much more.

WMD and War Criminals as Blowbacks and Sub-Contractors in Genocide

This is a story that remains still highly secret and covered-up. How top Japanese and German War Criminals, were protected from prosecution after WWII in return for their twisted “research” on human subjects in China and elsewhere including on American and Allied POWs

This is a horrible story of cover-ups of monstrous crimes that continues to this day. This shows clearly which system is an “existential threat” to which and it has been China that has been victimized and is the victim not the victimizer.

Imperial forces have used biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction over many centuries actually. Smallpox was used in the 1700s in the U.S. and Canada, including by Major Stephen Amherst, after whom a university is named, against Indigenous populations:

” 1763…Sir Jeffrey Amherst noted for his deliberate use of smallpox-infected blankets as a weapon against Indians, Amheerst and his British lieutenants were a change from the French commanders at forts throughout the Old Nothwest and Canada. He made no effort to build goodwill with Indian peoples. He had no respect for Indian leaders, treated them contemptuously, and frequently described them as ‘wretched people’…Lord Amherst (for whom Amherst College is named) initiated a genocidal[emphasis added] new policy: ‘Could it not be contrived’, he wrote to one of his officers, ‘to send the smallpox among the disaffected tribes of Indians? We must on this occasion use every strategem in our power to reduce them’ ” Blankets were taken from recent smallpox victims and given to healthy Indians, thus spreading the fatal epidemic. ” [9].

The Japanese had several units such as the infamous Unit 731 that operated in Japan, China and elsewhere that used live Chinese, minorities, and U.S.-Allied POWs, as experimental subjects to develop ultimately, ABC (Atomic, Biological and Chemical) weapons. The Nazis did the same in parallel, and shared “findings”, and interestingly, pathologically, both the Japanese and the German fascists referred to the human subjects as “logs”.[10] They also tested their weapons of mass populations in Manchuria and elsewhere and even in Japan itself.

After the war, the U.S Government and its allies, did not put these types of top Japanese and German war criminals on trial with others. Rather, members of Unit 731 and like units, wanted as Class-A war criminals for war crimes by name by the US. Army CIC, were hidden by other agencies of the U.S. Government, sometimes even by other fellow members of the same U.S. Army CIC, and protected from trial and punishment. These war criminals, Japanese and German, along with collaborators from occupied nations, in exchange for their “research” findings on human subjects that shipped to Fort Dietrich Maryland and other U.S. and Allied ABC “research centers”, they were given protection and much more.

Many of them, in Japan and Germany, even while being sought by U.S. Army Counter-Intelligence (CIC) by name and after, wound up in high positions in elite clusters[11] as physicians, educators, politicians, industrialists, financiers, businessmen, media celebrities and Yakuza leaders[12]. Even one of them, Kishi Nobosuke was installed as a Prime Minister of Japan. This pattern was replicated in Germany, Italy and other places where wanted war criminals, and their collaborators wound up in the highest positions in the various elite clusters of the post-war governments. They also went on to fuel Cold War conflicts and escalations with falsified intelligence estimates of the intentions and capabilities of the USSR and China.

In Japan, others like Sasakawa Ryoichi and Kodama Yoshio wound up at the highest levels of the Yakuza and Japanese Kereitsu. These wanted war criminals were also influential in shaping post-war foreign policy and faked intelligence estimates fueling the Cold War, their job security and immunity from prosecution. Also the results and findings of these ABC experiments were then continued by the U.S. Government and its allies, also using live-human-subject experimentation; this time using poor whites, African-Americans and American Indians as well as indigenous minorities abroad[13]. The U.S. Government after World War II, in the 1950s up to the late 1970s, even used civilian populations in cities in the U.S. to conduct covert aerial spraying and water contamination to test biological and chemical agents and optimum means of delivery to mass populations.

And in China, from the record of the International Scientific Committee a 600-page report on U.S. activities in China post-war[14], after an investigation in China of more than two months, the committee produced a report of some 600 pages, many photos and the conclusion that:

“‘The peoples of Korea and China have been the objectives of bacteriological weapons. These have been employed by units of the U.S.A. armed forces, using a great variety of different methods for the purpose, some of which seem to be the developments of those applied by the Japanese during the second world war.’ “The last reference has to do with the bacteriological warfare warfare experiments the Japanese had carried out against China between 1940 and 1942” [15]

“The Japanese scientists responsible for this program were captured by the United States in 1945 and given immunity from prosecution in return for proving technical information about the experiments to American scientists from the Army biological research center at Fort Dietrick, Maryland. The Chinese were aware of this at the time of the International Scientific Committee’s investigation.[16] …In 1970… the “New York Times” reported that during the Korean War, when US forces were overwhelmed by ‘human waves’ of Chinese, the Army dug into captured Nazi chemical warfare documents describing Sarin, a nerve gas so lethal that a few pounds could kill thousands of people in minutes…By the mid nineteen-fifties, the Army was manufacturing thousands of gallons of Sarin.” [17]

In various internal documents that have surfaced, the U.S. Government was well aware of how the results of “medical experiments” were gathered and the horrible prices paid for the data. The U.S. government was also aware that U.S. and Allied POWs, along with Chinese and various indigenous minorities (they were also seeking, as the U.S. Government sought then and still seeks now, race-ethnicity-specific biological and chemical weapons both WMD and “surgical” or “tactical” were used:

“Evidence gathered in this investigation has greatly supplemented and amplified previous aspects of this field. It represents data which we have obtained by Japanese scientists at the expenditure of many millions of dollars and years of work. Information has accrued with respect to human susceptibility to those diseases as indicated by specific infectious doses of bacteria. Such information could not be obtained in our own laboratories because of scruples attached to human experimentation. These data were secured with a total outlay of Yen 250,000 to date, a mere pittance by comparison with the actual cost of the studies.” [18]

And of course many U.S. and Allied veterans who were subjects and victims of these “medical experiments”, and their families, were denied any legal or other recourse and not even recognition for their own heroism and suffering. The history books have been denied this story largely because:

“Some veterans today—veterans captured and imprisoned in World War II’s Pacific Theater—have a story to tell and an agonizing chapter of their lives to resolve. These veterans…have not received justice…These men are victims of a terrible secret, born 44 years ago deep in Manchuria in Japanese POW camps. Theirs perhaps has been the longest and best kept secret of World War II, long denied by Japan and long concealed by the U.S. Government…. Bit by bit and year by year, despite our government’s public statements of ignorance, the truth has been leaking out. We know now that Mukden was more than just another Japanese POW camp for Allied soldiers….Operated by Japanese scientists from Unit 731, Mukden was a site for deadly chemical and biological experiments, for injections, body dissections, blood and feces tests, freezing of body parts, infection of wounds with anthrax, the applications of plague bacillus, cholera, dysentery, and typhoid….That.. Was what was waiting for many of the American fighting men who survived the Bataan Death March? Along with our soldiers at those terrible camps were also men from China, Great Britain, Australia, and the Soviet Union. We don’t know how many survived, but we do know that the U.S. government knew of the experiments at the war’s end.”[19]

And many communities and citizens of the U.S. have a lot more in common with the people and victims of China than with “their own” government for sure. I only half-agree with the statement of Martin Luther King on April 4, 1967 in his “After Vietnam” speech, often not quoted: “The greatest purveyor of violence in the world today—is my own government”. Well I agree with half of his statement and it still applies, even more, than when he spoke it in 1967, that the U.S. Government is, and has been for some time, “the greatest purveyor of violence [terrorism] in the world today”. But that Government is not and never was, “ ‘my’ government” or even MLK’s government. And just as lies beget more lies, and violence begets more violence, so U.S. Imperial violence against innocents abroad, eventually causes “blowbacks” to be used against American citizens at home:

“And during the 1950s and 1960s, the Army and the CIA conducted numerous experiments with biological agents within the United States. To cite just two examples: In 1955, there is compelling evidence that the CIA released whooping-cough bacteria into the open air in Florida, followed by an extremely sharp increase in the incidence of the disease in the state that year.[20]

The CIA received the bacteria from the Army’s bacteriological research center at Fort Dietrick, Maryland.] The following year another toxic substance was disseminated in the streets and tunnels of New York City.[21]

The cover-up continues to this day including in the findings of the War Crimes Trials of the German and Japanese war criminals that were basically cover-ups and selective prosecution as in the case of the Nuremberg Trials. Cover-ups of facts like: that some 380 U.S. corporations continued to trade with the Axis powers throughout World War II; that one-third of the trucks used by the Nazis were produced during the war by Ford Co; that the German Focke-Wulf 190 aircraft and fighter, that shot down many allied aircraft, was produced through subsidiaries by the American ITT Corporation that was even given actual “reparations” payments for Allied bombings during World War II as late as 1967; that Coca Cola developed the soft drink “Fanta” to refresh Nazi troops.[22] Also:

“The story of Japanese bacteriological warfare implicates more than half the persons tried by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and moiré than 5,000 others who worked on the BW program in some capacity. It involved a genuine conspiracy of silence…Allied prosecutors from half a dozen countries affected by the issue remained silent at the Tokyo War Crimes Trial about what they knew…The Chinese [Nationalists]…must have lived in hope of gaining some kind of quid pro quo for their silence….The Russian authorities who sought to raise the matter…allowed themselves to be silenced…What seems quite incredible is that the cover-up conspiracy—for it is by no means a demonological exaggeration to speak of it as a conspiracy—was maintained throughout the three years which elapsed between the Japanese defeat and the conclusion of the Tokyo trial…and that…the conspiracy was sustained for so long afterwards.” [23]…”how many survived, but we do know that the U.S. government knew of the experiments at the war’s end.” [24]

Why do I say that the Tokyo and Nuremberg War Crimes Trials were cover-ups and show-trials? Am I saying that those tried and executed or imprisoned did not deserve their fate and worse? No I am not saying that. I am only saying that there is a whole lot of secret history, very damaging to many U.S. Government notions of “democracy”, “city-on-the-hill-leader” of “civilization; etc. Real trials, without fear or favor, would have revealed all sorts of ugly crimes on all sides at Nuremberg and Tokyo.

For example, take those evil German and Japanese “Scientists” who used live human beings from many nationalities, including American POWs, for their barbaric research into “genetics”, “immunology”, “bacteriology” and “biochemistry”, etc. What were they looking for and what and who inspired them? The answer can be found in the history of the British and American “Eugenics Movement” that began in the late nineteenth century in England and spread rapidly to America.

This is the Eugenics “movement”, with many conferences in America and England during the early 1900s, that was forging policies and laws through networking and connections that later showed up in Nazi Germany as models and templates for Nazi “Race Hygiene” theories, policies, laws and extermination campaigns. These connections and shared “research” and “research paradigms”, produced the 1928 Alberta [compulsory] Sterilization Act first used in Canada against my own ancestors Blackfoot and other Indian nations along with the 1933 British Columbia Race Hygiene Law. The “Eugenics Movement”, in which Theodore Roosevelt was very prominent and active, also produced the “sterilization laws” of 27 U.S. states that defined poor Whites, along with all African-Americans, Indians, and disabled people, as “feeble-minded” to be sterilized as a mandate of law. These specific laws, the Nazis specifically cited in speeches and documents as their inspiration for their 1933 Race Hygiene Law and 1935 Nuremberg Race Laws.[25] In fact, not only were U.S. and British sterilization laws and inspiration for the German and Japanese racial laws and constructs about “race” and “racism”, but from Hitler’s own mouth, in his “table talk” recorded by Martin Bormann, his inspiration for the possibility of genocide, for the possibility of covering–up and even gaining mass participation in and acceptance of genocide, came from his reading of U.S. and Canadian histories with respect to “treatment” of Indians:

Hitler’s concept of concentration camps as well as the practicality of genocide owed much, so he claimed, to his studies of English and United States history. He admired the camps for Boer prisoners in South Africa And for the Indians in the Wild West; and often praised to his inner circle the efficiency of America’s extermination-by starvation and uneven combat-of the ‘Red Savages’ who could not be tamed by captivity.[26]

And from the Canadian side, while using literally the same language of the Nazis:

“It is readily acknowledged that Indian children lose their natural resistance to illness by habitating[sic] so closely in these schools, and that they die at a much higher rate than in their villages. But this alone does not justify a change in the policy of this Department, which is geared towards the FINAL SOLUTION [emphasis added] of our Indian problem.”[27]

From an internal document of the Bureau of Indian Affairs:

“Set the blood-quantum at one-quarter, hold to it as a rigid definition of Indians, let intermarriage proceed, and eventually Indians will be defined out of existence. When that happens, the federal government will finally be freed from its persistent Indian problem.” [28]

Tibet as an Historic and Integral Part of China

My father had an opinion on Tibet as being an integral part of China. He did not know a lot about Tibet and had been only as close as Chongqing (Chunking then) in China. But he was aware of some of the history. He knew that the Tibet before Liberation in 1949 was a place of barbarism under the Tibetan aristocrats and rich monks who kept the serfs illiterate and brutalized. He did not know about a Nazi expedition in 1938, of five hard-core Nazi SS “scientists” two of whom, Ernst Shafer and Bruno Berger, unrepentant Nazis, who became life-long friends (along with another life-long Nazi, Heinrich Harrer) of the so-called current “Dali Lama in exile”. He did not know that these life-long Nazis and close friends of the Dali had praised the cruelty in Tibet in 1938 as a “model” of the kind of cruel Nazi society they wanted to create[29]. But my father did see the wartime newsreels and the maps that portrayed Tibet and Taiwan as unalienable parts of China. And of course there was the official position of the U.S. Government that recognized the claims of the Peking Government over Tibet for over two centuries, which was well known and broadcast, in all the wartime newsreels on China and in the “Why We Fight Series” of Frank Capra on what was at stake in China and the war against the Axis powers. It was not until after 1949 that the U.S. Government began to make moves to try to suggest and deny Tibet as an integral and historical part of a wider China that has included different minority groups ruling a broader China over hundreds of years. This was the official position of the U.S. and Allied governments in 1943, as it was on Taiwan as a part of China, when allied with the Kuomintang forces, but also supposedly with Red Army forces as allies as well. This was testified to in Congress as the official policy and understanding of the U.S. Government with respect to Tibet as an integral part of a broader China:

“The Government of the United States has borne in mind the fact that the Chinese Government has long claimed suzerainty over Tibet and that the Chinese constitution lists Tibet among areas constituting the Territory of the Republic of China. This Government has at no time raised a question regarding either of these claims.” [30]

U.S. Imperial Social Systems Engineering (SSE) Campaigns Against China

This remarkable scholarship by James Bradey documents U.S. Imperial intentions against China since the mid 1830s and covert operations and agreements since the 1870s in concert with the Empire of Japan (regarded as the more “civilized” and “civilizable” among Asians by American racists and eugenicists who later inspired the Nazis and their own race laws.

Teddy Roosevelt, a vile racist and eugenicist inspired by the same occultist sources (Blavatsky et al) as the later Nazis, was the first American and American president to get the Nobel Prize in 1906 supposedly for his “mediation” in the 1905 Russo-Japanese War when at the same time, he was cutting a secret deal with Japan to carve up Asia into U.S. and Japanese “spheres of influence”

US encirclement, destabilization and “regime change” began by the U.S. Government in the 1870s with long-run intentions for “final conquest” of Asia, long before being employed against socialist social formations starting with the Bolshevik revolution in 1917. They were also conducted against independence forces who were U.S. allies during World War II of the U.S. in Europe and Asia, even while the U.S. was still at war against their mutual enemies Germany and Japan[31]. Hard-core Nazis, Japanese fascists and war criminals, and Italian fascists, along with Eastern European fascists and wanted war criminals, were all put on the U.S. Government payroll and placed in very high and influential positions. The U.S. Government looked for weak links to exploit and Tibet was one of them early on:

“After the communist revolution, Washington officials tended to be more equivocal about the matter. But U.S. actions against Tibet had nothing to do with the niceties of international law.”…By the mid-1950s, the CIA began to recruit Tibetan refugees and exiles in neighboring countries such as India and Nepal. Amongst their number were members of the Dalai Lama’s guard often referred to picturesquely as ‘the fearsome Khamba horsemen’, and others who had already engaged in some guerilla activity against Peking rule and/or the profound social changes being instituted by the revolution (Serfdom and Slavery were, literally, still present in Tibet). Those selected were flown to the United States, to an unused military base high in the Colorado Mountains, an altitude approximating that of their mountainous homeland. There, hidden away as much as possible from the locals, they were trained in the fine points of paramilitary warfare.” [32]

The same set of “regime change” tactics, and the rationales to justify them, were employed in so many places for the same reasons and interests served: Taiwan 1946-; Italy, 1948; Korea, 1950; China 1945-; Hungary, 1956; Vietnam 1945-; Chile (their own “9-11”) 1973[33] and so many other places past, present and those openly and covertly targeted for future SSE campaigns.

Now imagine for a moment another—reversed—scenario. Suppose one of the over 200 hundred separatist and secessionist groups that actually exist in the U.S. today[34], were composed of wanted criminals in the mainland (many are) and waged a successful takeover of say the Government of Alaska and declared “The Republic of Alaska” (ROA). Suppose further, that this ROA asserts itself to be the only legitimate “Government” of “all of America”. Suppose further that the Government of China recognizes this ROA, presents it in the UN as the “only and sole legitimate Government of all of America”. Suppose further that the Government of China sells lethal arms to this ROA; signs basing, arms and intelligence-sharing agreements with this ROA; sells state-of-the-art weapons to this ROA; even garrisons Chinese military troops and intelligence bases on Alaskan soil. Imagine that China sends all sorts of Red Missionaries to America: demanding that “freedom of conscience and religion” be respected for communists as well as non-communists; demanding the “right” of Chinese immigrants and visitors to demonstrate, fund dissidents, engage in subversion and espionage. Suppose they form alliances with dissidents and engage in sabotage, kidnappings, poisoning water supplies, burning crops etc. Suppose they occupy, protest publicly against “U.S. [mainland] imperialism and state-sponsored terrorism”; and engage in civil unrest or whatever no matter any U.S. laws. Suppose the Chinese visitors and tourists and visiting officials came to America, claimed that their notion of “human rights” in China is only correct one that they have every right to apply their concepts and meet with whom they wish, while staying in America. Suppose the Chinese leadership ask to visit American Indian political prisoners like Leonard Peltier and to visit Indian reservations and ghettos. Imagine all that, along with all sorts of embargoes, sanctions, threats of nuclear attack, all of which are terrorism, aimed firstly at non-combatants per se.[35] Some concrete examples:

“The communists in China had worked closely with the American military during the war, providing important intelligence about Japanese occupiers, rescuing and caring for downed U.S. airmen.[36]… But no matter. Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek would be Washington’s man. The Office of Strategic Services (OSS, forerunner of the CIA) estimated that the bulk of Chiang’s military effort had been directed against the communists rather than the Japanese. He had also done his best to block the cooperation between the Reds and the Americans. Now his army contained Japanese units and his regime was full of officials who had collaborated with the Japanese and served in their puppet government. … “But no matter. The Generalissimo was as anti-communist as they come. Moreover, he was a born American client. His forces would be properly trained and equipped to do battle with the men of Mao Tse-tung and Chou En-lai.” [37]

Flash forward today, that describes the present situation for China vis-a-vis Taiwan and formerly in Hong Kong and Macao plus what is still going on covertly, and overtly, through NGOs etc, in Xinjiang and Tibet and elsewhere in China. It is called social systems engineering. The idea is to, as Nixon put it with respect to Chile: “Make the economy scream”. The idea is to gather various kinds of scientists and “scholars” from diverse academic disciplines, coupled with military and intelligence expertise, to identify the commanding heights, key levers of power and vulnerabilities of a targeted society[38]. They study and apply pressure to the four basic spheres or dimensions of any location: lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. The four basic dimensions of any social formation are also targeted: economy; politico-legal; socio-cultural; historical-geographic:

As in the case of America and Canada, the new supposed “Republic of China” of Taiwan, was built on terrorism and dispossession of Indigenous peoples along with despotism:

“The Generalissimo, his cohorts and soldiers fled to the offshore island of Taiwan (Formosa). They had prepared their entry two years earlier by terrorizing the islanders into submission—a massacre which took the lives of as many as 28,000 people” [39] … “In 1992 the Taiwan government admitted that its army had killed an estimated 18,000 to 28,000 native-born Taiwanese in the 1947 massacre.” [40]

“Prior to the Nationalists’ escape to the island, the US government entertained no doubts that Taiwan was a part of China. Afterward, uncertainty began to creep into the minds of Washington officials. The crisis was resolved in a remarkably simple manner: the US agreed with Chiang that the proper way to view the situation was not that Taiwan belonged to China, but that Taiwan was China. And so it was called.” [41]

The idea is to put a society under such siege, from so many directions, in so many ways, that the U.S. engineers the “proof” of the supposed inferiority of socialism (and also supposed “despotism”) of the targeted regime that has been driven into emergency measures typical of any society under siege or perceived to be so. The U.S “Patriot Act”, passed without one Congressman reading it, and other such as “emergency measures” to deal with terrorism. This is also used to show supposed superiority of multi-Party “pluralism” over single-party political rule. The idea is to force massive diversions of scarce resources from urgent imperatives and priorities of development, and addressing historical legacies of imperialism, into ongoing and more costly defense expenditures. A “tit-for-tat” dynamic of U.S. aggression and covert/overt operations against China or other targeted systems that then trigger both back-channel protests and overt responses from China or a targeted social formation. The responses by the target regimes are caricatured and misrepresented, used to publicly marginalize, demonize, isolate and make possible further SSE campaigns and built alliances against the target. Of course the covert provocations against the targeted regime are denied, while the over responses of the targeted regimes are caricatured and portrayed as the paranoid rants, deception, etc of those targeted and under siege.

The Social Systems Engineering (SSE) Process looks something like this:

Imperial Social Systems Engineering Campaigns [“To make the economy scream”. Nixon]

When China and other targeted nations protest and try to argue for respect for international law no matter by whom or against whom, they are labeled “an existential threat” and targeted even more for “regime change”. When the regime reacts, as will any under siege and slated for regime change (e.g. emergency measures, national security acts etc), this is taken as “evidence” of the supposed “despotism” of not only the regime, but of the whole social system being targeted.

In March 1966, Secretary of State Dean Rusk spoke before a congressional committee about American policy toward China. Mr. Rusk it seems was perplexed that:

“‘At times the Communist Chinese leaders seem to be obsessed with the notion that they are being threatened and encircled’. He spoke of China’s ‘imaginary, almost pathological notion that the United States and other countries around its borders are seeking an opportunity to invade mainland China and destroy the Peiping [Peking] regime’. The Secretary then added: ‘How much Peiping’s fear of the United States is genuine and how much of it is artificially induced for domestic political purposes only the Chinese Communist leaders themselves know. I am convinced, however, that their desire to expel our …influence and activity from the western Pacific and Southeast Asia is not motivated by fears that we are threatening them.” [42]

This is but a small example of so many SSE campaigns that included repeated threats of nuclear annihilation causing costly diversions of scarce resources into civil defense away from development:

“The Chinats [KMT in Taiwan] in Burma kept up their harassment of the Chicoms until 1961 and the CIA continued to supply them militarily, but at some point the Agency began to phase itself out of a more direct involvement. When the CIA, in response to repeated protests by the Burmese Government to the United States and the United Nations, put pressure on the Chinats to leave Burma, Chiang responded by threatening to expose the Agency’s covert support of his troops there. At an earlier stage, the CIA had entertained the hope that the Chinese could be provoked into attacking Burma, thereby forcing the strictly neutral Burmese to seek salvation in the Western camp. [New York Times, 25 April 1966, p. 20] In January 1961, the Chinese did just that, but as part of a combined force with the Burmese to overwhelm the Nationalists’ main base and mark ‘finis’ to their Burmese adventure. Burma subsequently renounced American aid and moved closer to Peking. [43]

The other front of attack in social systems engineering (SSE) is frontal and covert “soft power” attacks on culture, values, language, education, institutions, economy, alliances and the like. Here the real target is the young and those individuals and institutions that will teach and shape them from which future leaders will come. The older generations they mainly wait for them to pass on and in the meantime put them under siege or schmooze them if possible, to put their own ideas and life experiences, as well as leadership under siege. What is interesting in that as they push political pluralism abroad, the U.S. Government does its most to preserve the traditional two-party duopoly that has run America since its foundation even as there is no requirement for only two parties is anywhere in the U.S. Constitution. Why is that?

Political “Pluralism” and Concentrated Power

Do the math. In the U.S. and in many places, only about 70% of the potential electorate is even registered to vote, of whom maybe 48% of those registered show up to vote on the major elections. Say now, you have only two political parties (we ignore the reality for the moment of no real difference between them) and the candidate of one of them takes and election with 51% of the vote. That person’s “mandate” is .70 x .48 x .51 or about 17% of the potential electorate. This potential electorate is also made smaller through various tactics such as voter and voter registration suppression and intimidation, denial of convicted felon’s right to vote for life in some states, police harassment at the polls, etc. Add to this multiple political parties, and you have a recipe for what America is: a bloated, decaying plutocracy; what City Group called in a leaked classified memo to their largest speculators: a “plutonomy”. It works the same with stock dispersion and concentration of voting power where it takes less than 10% of voting stocks for effective control of a large corporation as dispersions of stocks widely, mean that small groups can hold control with relatively small concentrated percentages of the total dispersed votes. Thus “pluralism” and dispersions of votes actually can and do lead not to dispersed or “democratic” structures of popular control, but even more concentrated power with the illusions of “democratic dispersion” and “pluralism” of power and control.

And of course masses of people are saying this all over the world. Even in the U.S., the percentage of the electorate (which is smaller than those who can register or actually vote) that calls itself “non-partisan” is higher than the respective percentages of the electorate calling themselves Democrats or Republicans. The unfavorable ratings for the U.S. Congress and both political parties are in the high 70s to 80s (favorable around 12%) in polls expressed as percentages of the total electorate. But the U.S. still insists that political party pluralism, and elections are the essence of “democracy”. The intention however, is to use such “freedoms” elections, freedom speech, religion, assembly, association etc, with a focus on the young who do not know about this secret history we are discussing, to build the kind of society in which these very “freedoms” will be abolished for the many used by and under the rule of the few.

China Bashing Today

The reality of globalization and China’s rising role in it, coupled with the mounting and unprecedented fiscal and other crises in the West, means that the old U.S. Cold War machinations have limited utility or are even disastrous for the U.S. and the world. But the threats remain. In 2002 portions of the U.S. Nuclear Posture Review was leaked with a “Doctrine” (I love how that word, with a capital D, is used to dress up naked terrorism, bullying and naked violations of international law) that announced a policy of developing new generations of “tactical nuclear weapons”, possible preemptive strikes of nuclear weapons even against non-nuclear nations, and, under certain conditions, against a pre-specified target list” of 7 nations:

“A leaked version of the Bush administration’s classified nuclear posture review lists seven countries against which the United States should be prepared to use nuclear weapons and outlines a broad range of circumstances under which it could do so. The document also calls for a large-scale revitalization of the nation’s nuclear weapons infrastructure and discusses the development of new or modified nuclear weapons…The review states that “greater flexibility” in nuclear forces and planning is needed to maintain a “credible deterrent” against adversaries “whose values and calculations of risk and of gain and loss may be very different from and more difficult to discern than those of past adversaries.”

Discussing “requirements for nuclear strike capabilities,” the report lists Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, and Syria as “among the countries that could be involved in immediate, potential, or unexpected contingencies…The Bush review also indicates that the United States should be prepared to use nuclear weapons against China, citing “the combination of China’s still developing strategic objectives and its ongoing modernization of its nuclear and non-nuclear forces.”

Finally, although the review repeats Bush administration assertions that Russia is no longer an enemy, it says the United States must be prepared for nuclear contingencies with Russia and notes that, if “U.S relations with Russia significantly worsen in the future, the U.S. may need to revise its nuclear force levels and posture.” Ultimately, the review concludes that nuclear conflict with Russia is “plausible” but “not expected.” [44]

Just that leaked document alone, protested by the Chinese Government for good cause, causes terror and more diversions of scarce and precious resources from development, and, taking millions of people out of poverty, eradicating the legacies of isolation, imperial plunder and past and present SSE campaigns into defense. This is especially in the context of the real history of U.S. imperial campaigns against China only a very small part of which has been documented so far in this essay[45]. The idea of SSE campaigns all along is to covertly provoke and engineer, instability and crises on all levels, in targeted socialist and other targeted social formations. These are intended as crises that will hopefully, from the U.S. imperial perspective, form a critical mass for “regime-systems change”. And as in the past SSE campaigns and U.S.-inspired uprisings (e.g. Bush administration and the uprisings of Shiites and Kurds in southern Iraq in 1991; Mujahideen in Afghanistan 1979; Hungary 1956) we find all sorts of present-day examples of the U.S. covertly instigating, giving covert aid, cheer-leading and giving green lights for revolts and uprisings of groups that their U.S. patrons then later dumped and left to face their opponents. This was done, and is still being done in China (Tibet, Xinjiang, Yunnan,) in the 1950s to the present situations in Egypt, Tunisia, Syria, Libya, Yemen, Afghanistan, Iraq and elsewhere.

And the Blowbacks[46] continue to this day with severe shocks to a global ecology, populations, societies and the global economy, causing suffering for may innocents, due to two illegal wars founded on cherry picked intelligence and lies fueled by massive and unprecedented levels of U.S. and European debt.

We see today in America, ad after ad, politician after politician, decrying the U.S national debt and that part of it is owed to “China”. We hear over and over about “being in debt to “the Chinese”; never any concern about debt to Germans, British, Canadians, or even Japanese. We hear about supposed trade-deficits with China; yet the list of embargoed and export-prohibited items to China from the U.S. lengthens[47]. Many of these so-called “dual-use” commodities, while denied China even today, were routinely shipped to all sorts of unstable regimes in crisis (later labeled terrorists). They were shipped even to those under sanctions at the time, including to Iraq and Iran, during the 8-year Iraq-Iran War that cost over one million casualties. We know now, for example, that while China still remained isolated and embargoed in many ways in the global community, the U.S. Government, through Israel as a cut-out, was secretly arming Iraq and Iran during the 1980s war between them (instigated by the U.S. giving another green light to Saddam Hussein to attack Iran as the U.S. Ambassador April Glaspie did in 1990 to attack Kuwait[48]) while demanding international isolation and sanctions against Iran, and, over and over, calling the Government of Iran liars for asserting they have no intention of developing nuclear weapons and consider them un and even anti-Islamic. We know now that Saddam Hussein, as in Indonesia and so many other places, was given by the U.S. Government in 1983, lists of some 43,000 suspected “communist” radicals against him (later all executed summarily) and given intelligence on Iranian forces that they did not even pass to the Israelis. In fact, among the nations recently targeted for “regime change”, Libya and Syria were destinations for the CIA extraordinary rendition program for torture unlawful in the U.S. (subcontractors in torture).

Of the nuclear nations, only China has an announced policy of no-first-use of nuclear weapons. And today with China, as with Iran, we have proved liars in the U.S. Government, who lied the U.S. into illegal and aggressive wars in Afghanistan, Iraq and elsewhere, calling the Chinese and Iranian governments liars with respect to their intentions and policies on a wide range of issues. These are the ones who have acted as real threats keep calling everyone else some kind of “existential threat.” And what does that term even mean? Most who use it have no idea about Existentialism as a philosophy. They simply mean that someone or some system’s, mere existence, because it is different at the root, must be taken—and summarily eliminated–as a threat (simply because only we have the truth and virtue on our side) without having to show any kind of actual plans, intentions or actions that are threatening and imminent. It says my way or we destroy you and your system. It says the U.S. Government cannot and will not tolerate any values or systems different than that of the U.S., or in the way of asserted U.S. “national interests” as only the U.S. Government can and will define them.

Even as China is the largest foreign creditor of the U.S., as well as holder of U.S. dollars, the U.S. Government have learned only to tread more carefully even as the intentions against China remain the same as those announced against the Bolshevik revolution in 1917 by Winston Churchill discussing the invasion force of some 13,000 troops from the U.S., Canada, Britain sent to strangle the Bolshevik Revolution:

“Were they [the Allies] at war with Soviet Russia? Certainly not; but they shot Soviet Russians on sight. They stood as invaders on Russian soil. They armed the enemies of the Soviet Government. They blockaded its ports, and sunk its battleships. They earnestly desired and schemed its downfall. But war shocking interference—shame. It was, they repeated, a matter of indifference to them how Russians settled their own internal affairs. They were impartial—bang.” [49]

But SSE campaigns against China and other targets will never eliminate or diminish the widening and deepening contradictions within the social formation of America—Imperialism—nor diminish the widening and deepening contradictions between it and other social formations in an increasingly interdependent and thus more dangerous world. It only makes it all-the whole global system—worse.

As the American Revolutionary (and known “terrorist” of his time along with Samuel Adams) Tom Paine put it in a different context [of fellow conspirators against the British Crown]: “We must all hang [live] together or surely we shall all hang [die] separately.” Indeed the Government of China in 1949, despite their own horrible experiences and differences in ideologies and systems with U.S. Imperialism, despite suffering some of the crimes that I have documented here from the U.S. Government’s own internal documents, the Government of China, from 1949 on, tried repeatedly, to forge relations with the U.S. on the basis of principles of international relations since the so-called “Treaties and Peace of Westphalia” in the 1600s. These principles, seldom respected over the centuries and still evolving, include: mutual equality; mutual respect; mutual non-interference in internal affairs; mutual benefit; mutual accountability to international law; mutual pledges to non-use of war to settle inter-nation disputes that have global spillover effects on many innocents and non-parties to national conflicts; mutual respect for national sovereignty; mutual right to self-determination and independence; mutual right to development of national and indigenous economic political systems to fit national needs and institutions; etc. As but one of many examples:

“Yet short of an all-out invasion of the country by large numbers of American troops, it is difficult to see what more the US government could have done to prevent Chiang’s downfall. Even after Chiang fled to Taiwan, the United States pursued a campaign of relentless assaults against the communist government, despite a request from Chou En-lai for aid and friendship. The Red leader saw no practical or ideological bar to this.” [50]

Where would China and indeed the world be today if the U.S. had simply, in 1949 or earlier, respected the basic international law it demanded for itself and done the following?: 1) respected the same international law applied to China as it demands and asserts for itself; 2) formed alliances really on the basis of professed American values and institutions (democracy, respect for diversity of thought and opinion and systems); 3) looked long-run, to credibility as a strategic asset, and refused to cut the ugly and hidden Faustian deals with evil (evil many times the creation of U.S. Imperialism itself as in terrorist groups now against the U.S. that were once creations and instruments of it) under the banners of all sorts of “noble causes”; 4) competed ideologically, systemically and peacefully with results, not braggadocio, showing the positive contributions and real achievements of capitalism, supposed to benefit many; 5) show what their system, capitalism (also an integral part of the broader socialist social formation of China historically and at this stage) and ideology can do for the many in need; 6) cease trying to slander, destabilize, isolate and demean a supposed enemy that never acted like one, in order to engineer perceptions of a supposed “existential threat” by China, to make socialism look unable to solve basic human problems, and thus inferior in comparison, to a mythical version of capitalism in the textbooks, that has never existed in human history.

Terrorism and “Existential” Threats

If the definition of terrorism is accepted as simply a set of tactics, without regard to by whom or against whom, and if terrorism is defined as violence in whatever form (physical, psychological, cultural etc) directed against non-combatants, or directed with indifference to violence suffered by non-combatants, then the U.S. Government is, without doubt, the primary, largest and most deadly source of state-sponsored terrorism in the world today—and has been such for many decades. The reasons for laws of nations, international law and indeed law itself on any level, are not only to protect the parts from the whole (the minority from the majority) but also to protect the whole (majority) from its competing, antagonistic and sometimes warring parts. Further, in multi-party systems, with only a fraction of the potential electorate voting, it is very easy for fascists and the like, to use the trappings of faux “democracy”, and rights such as “freedom of speech”, “freedom of assembly”, supposed “free elections”, along with some increasingly sophisticated technologies of mind control and persuasion, plus big money sponsors in backrooms, to gain political and other forms of power and abolish for all people, even their own kind, the very same “democratic “rights” that were invoked to take power. These tactics have been used by fascists since the term “Fascism” was coined by Mussolini. As Hitler once put it:

“Only one thing could have broken our movement: if the adversary had understood its principle and from the first day had smashed with extreme brutality the nucleus of our new movement.”[51]

And:

“Hitler had gone to the meeting with his mind made up on two objectives which his mind which he intended henceforth to pursue. One was to concentrate all power in his hands. The other was to re-establish the Nazi Party as a political organization which would seek power exclusively through constitutional means. He had explained the new tactics to one of his henchman Karl Ludeke while still in prison: ‘When I resume active work it will be necessary to pursue a new policy. Instead of working to achieve power by armed coup, we shall have to hold our noses and enter the Reichstag against the Catholic and Marxist deputies .If outvoting takes longer than out-shooting them, then at least the result will be guaranteed by their own constitution. Any lawful process is slow…Sooner or later we shall have the majority—and after that Germany.’ On his release from Landsberg [prison] he had assured the Bavarian Premier that the Nazi Party would henceforth act within the framework of the constitution… [On February 27, 1932, after labeling Marxists and Jews as ‘the enemy’]: ‘To this struggle of ours, there are only two possible issues: either the enemy passes over our bodies or we pass over theirs.’ [52]

The So-called “Peace and Treaties of Westphalia” in the early 1600s, came out of decades of the newly-formed nation-states, (and the new legal construct of nation) going to war against each other, committing the most barbaric crimes on mass levels, and not only nearly destroying each other, but leaving a trail of carnage on the innocents. They all knew and used the bag of tricks of empire builders.

The warring nation-states had all come up with lies and pretexts to justify going to war against each other. They had all used pretexts to interfere in their internal affairs of and destabilize each other. They had all claimed to have some kind of God or form of “Manifest Destiny” on their side and being “destined” to rule the world. They had all asserted rights for themselves that they denied other nation-states. They had all claimed imminent danger and the imperative for preemption for survival. They had all used fear, division, ideology, religion, Xenophobia, mysticism and other common tools of divide-and-rule along with “managed consent.”

In today’s world, as we see it shaking all over at unprecedented levels, with the local wars having wider and deeper impacts on a global level, and with WMD that can take out the whole planet, we need now, more than ever, institutions, relations and principles that recognize the global reality of increasing global interdependence and widespread spillover effects on other nations and the whole global economy as we are seeing more and more every day. A superpower or imperial-dominated world is a doomed world for so many reasons including that where there is oppression, there will be resistance; but not all forms of resistance lead to where those resisting want to go or think they want to go; and the same applies to those who trigger and then try to suppress legitimate resistance.

Yes it is true that genocide within one’s borders is not a matter of national sovereignty; not only as a matter of international law, but as a matter that internal genocide creates global spillover effects on other nations (e.g. Middle East in the present). But concern about genocide elsewhere, when really going on in one’s own country as in the U.S. and Canada, is also often used as a pretext for war, SSE campaigns and interference in internal affairs of a nation. But when you have nations like the U.S. committing genocide against indigenous peoples inside the U.S today, as is the case also in Canada by the Canadian Government (the legal status and conditions of Indigenous nations in the West, never integral members of a wider nation, are not comparable to that of national minorities in China who have been integral, and at times ruling elements of a larger historical China for many hundreds of years) while they dare to lecture anyone about human rights is priceless. The Nazis, before their attacks on Czechoslovakia, Poland and other nations, put out propaganda a films showing supposed forms of genocide against Germans in areas of those nations and portrayed their invasions as “liberation”.

Further, it should be noted that the nations on the past and present lists for “regime change”, presently under siege and on the edge of civil war such as Syria and Libya, with the US Government cheering on for uprisings, some of these nations and regimes targeted for “regime change” were among the regimes to which CIA sent alleged al Qaeda and Taliban prisoners involved in CIA “extraordinary rendition flights” for forms of “special handling” in interrogations they could not by law do in the U.S. They included: Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bosnia, Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gambia, Israel, Jordan, Kenya, Kosovo, Libya, Lithuania, Mauritania, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Qatar, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Somalia, South Africa, Thailand, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, Yemen, and Zambia.

But I fear that the call for U.S. Imperialism to be sensible and stop its reckless hegemonism, hubris and notions or “Doctrines” (of Triumphalism; Exclusivism; Preemptionism; Unilateralism; Hegemonism; “City on the Hill”; “Beacon of Decency and Progress”; “Leader of the ‘free’ World”) even if only in its own interest, as it is also required the survival of the planet, is a call that is simply utopian. The word utopia is based on the Greek words: “eu-topos” or a good place and “ou-topos” or a place that cannot be.

Once, in the 1980s at the University of Washington, I had the pleasure of a lunch with Mr. Kim Dae Jung of Korea, the former president, previously interned and tortured, almost murdered, by the U.S. puppet dictatorship of Park Chung Hee in “South” Korea. He spoke of the day coming when U.S. forces could be peacefully urged to leave. I asked him if a lion could ever lie down with a lamb without the lion first becoming a vegetarian. He smiled and got the point that it is the fundamental nature and instincts of the beast at issue first.

Just as the Imperialists cannot be saved from themselves and the mounting weight of their own folly and contradictions, so it is that no people can be liberated by “outside forces”, nor by terrorism, nor by “geniuses” or “messiahs”, nor by “technology”, nor by “liberating nations”—in lieu of doing the hard and protracted mass work on local levels that needs to be done for any kind of real liberation. Attempts to do so, over the decades, have only brought Blowbacks; not only on those being supposedly “liberated” by outside forces only to see them become occupiers and cause even misery (Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya, Syria), but blowbacks on the occupiers as well. This is one of the several reasons for the Government of China respecting the sovereignty of nation-states and non-interference in their internal affairs, and is partly why China seeks the rule of international law and multilateral institutions applicable to all nations without fear or favor. Indeed U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, just recently, noted that the U.S. recognizes an unelected Council of Syrians in exile as the “legitimate interim Government” of Syria”, but does not want to respond to their calls for being armed by the Western powers because the U.S. does not really know what forces and their ideologies make up the Syrian opposition (both Hamas and Al Qaeda have denounced the Assad regime in Syria and thus would be allies of the U.S. and its western European allies she noted). She made no mention of the fact that “regime change”, under whatever pretexts, is a violation of international law especially when under pretexts (false reasons).

Terrorism and Counter–Terrorism are two sides of the same coin called impotence. They both represent supposed relatively easy, low-cost (in one’s own blood and treasure but costly on the enemy) and instantly-gratifying solutions under conditions of asymmetrical power. They are substituted for both Counter-insurgency (COIN) and Insurgency, as both COIN campaigns and Insurgencies, require protracted mass work, influencing hearts and minds, political, social, economic and cultural changes—no easy solutions or quick fixes or instant gratification.[53] But insurgencies at distances from imperial centers, even in today’s world of cheaper transport and communications, need only survive and endure to win. Meanwhile the more reckless the U.S. Imperium, the more it gets cornered under the mounting weight of its own internal contradictions coupled with the increasing costs and impotence of its global power projections. The more its own recklessness in global diplomacy (or lack of it), in militarism and military adventures, the more it is simply creating more insurgents, insurgencies, terrorists, terrorism, fiscal crises for itself, and ultimately, more destabilization of the macro system of which it is an integral part.

Finally, in terms of “existential threats”, real Marxists are quite sophisticated on the issue of the historical nature, virtues, as well as defects, and the dynamic and transformative nature of capitalism as a system. They recognize that no ideas may be grasped on a mass level, to become a material force for change, until certain material conditions and contradictions have ripened and formed a material basis for ideas. They recognize that capitalism is not the end of history but a part, product and one of the driving forces of world history. In China, there is recognition not only that capitalism will play a significant role in the social formation of China for a long time to come, but that at this stage of history, under present conditions, capitalist forces may be best poised to contribute, as capitalists, to the building of the material conditions, relationships, and productive forces on which socialist construction and its defense depend. In many ways Marx and Marxists were and are far more sophisticated about the conditions under which the positive aspects of capitalism have the best chance of being unleashed and controlled than the meme merchants and polemicists for capitalism whose theories and prophesies have proved bankrupt.

As the fourth small star of the flag of China represents the “patriotic national bourgeoisie”, this shows Marxists do not see capitalism per se as a strategic or “existential” threat. They also understand that capitalism will fall, when it does, under the weight of: its own internal contradictions; the growing gaps between promises and reality—between rich and poor. Indeed capitalism may be used to promote or sabotage socialism; just as socialism, depending upon if it is for real or not, may be used to ultimately reduce and eliminate capitalism in accordance with material conditions—or to restore it. It is only the U.S. Government and its allies, that cannot and will not debate their own positions with law and evidence, and that so theatrically and summarily declare any systems other than their version of capitalism (a reality very different than in the textbooks they push all over the world) are, merely by virtue of their differences, deemed by them and their “pundits”, to be a “strategic threat” merely by existing—without any actual plans or threats of harm to the U.S.

The Marxists recognize that the fundamental basis of change in all things, including social systems, is the internal—contradictions etc; external forces can at most be one of several conditions of change. They recognize that capitalism, as a historically generated and utilized mode of production, survives, along with remnants of other modes of production and embryonic forms of the future ones, within the broader social formations of all societies—even socialist ones. They recognize that capitalism and relations with capitalist social formations of the global economy, along with global peace and stability among heterogeneous nation-states and forces, are all critical to building and defending the material conditions and forces of socialist construction and protecting stability of the whole global economy which is fundamental to the survival of all who live under it.

The global system will be a system of nations and nation-states for some time to come. We just have to learn to live together and learn from each other, including how to live together with, and peacefully debate or accept, our differences; or surely we shall all perish together as the risks and dangers to the whole planet itself are unprecedented and very real in our present epoch of history. No outside forces, no “messiahs”, no “New World Order” run by an for a few imperial superpowers can possibly save us from ourselves and those we allow to rule and commit horrible crimes in our name. With the power of nuclear weapons for example, any nation claiming the right or imperative to build and hold Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) sanctions and legitimates the same right, and argument for any other nation to do the same, simply because there is no law, structure, or order and stability without application and accountability of law to all without fear or favor. No nation-state has ever had nor ever will have, any kind of “Manifest Destiny”, “Divine Preordination” or “Accident of Geography and History”, to rule and terrorize targeted nation-states, all while arrogating exemptions from the same laws and morality it purports to hold others to. Why is that not obvious to the citizens of the U.S., Canada and elsewhere?

FRANK CAPRA’S WHY WE FIGHT SERIES FROM WW II: NO. 6 THE BATTLE OF CHINA

PLEASE VIEW THIS FILM FOR MORE EVIDENCE OF THE ASSERTIONS IN THIS ESSAY ON HISTORICAL CHINA FROM THE PRISM OF WWII

FOOTNOTES TO ESSAY ON U.S. CHINA RELATIONS, SECRET HISTORY AND MY FATHER’S MEMORIES

[1] Blum, William Killing Hope: U.S. Military and C.I.A. Interventions Since World War II, Updated Edition, Common Courage Press, Monroe Maine, 2004 as one example. See Bibliography of other books not commonly known or read on this subject>

[2] David Barrett, “Dixie Mission: The U.S. Army Observer Group in Yenan, 1944; Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, Berkeley, 1970; passim: R. Harris Smith, “OSS: The Secret History of America’s First CIA, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1972, pp. 262-3; New York Times, 19 December, 1945, p. 24

[3] New York Times, 6 November 1945, p.1; 9 December 1945, p. 2] To what extent these attacks were carried out by US airmen is not known. “ [p. 40]

[4] New York Times, 9 December 1945, p.24; 26 December 1945, p.5

[5] “Hearings held in executive session before the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee during 1949-50: Economic Assistance to China and Korea, 1949-50”, testimony of Dean Acheson, p. 23; made public January 1974 as part of the Historical series”.

[6] Tuchman, Barbara Stilwell and the American Experience in China 1911-45, Bantam, N.Y. 197, p. 676

[7] Harry S. Truman, Memoires, Vol. II, “Years of Trial and Hope” 1946-53, Great Britain, p. 66 cited in Blum, William, op. cit. p. 26

[8] New York Times, 26 December 1945, p. 5

[9] Nies, Judith, Native American History: A Chronology of a Culture’s Vast Achievements and Their Links to World Events Ballantine Books, New York, 1996, pp. 190-92;195

[10] “The people of the unit [in Nanking] called their steel barred cells ‘rooms that do not open’. The cells were patrolled by armed guards at all times. At the 731st, they called these subjects ‘maruta’ (logs); but here, they were called ‘zaimoku’ (lumber).” Harris, Sheldon Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare 1932-45 and the American Cover-up, Routledge, NY 1994 p. 101

[11] The clusters of elites that make up the “Masters of the Universe” (global ruling elite) have not changed much: government, industry, finance, media, ideas (artists, academics, media, literature) religion etc; Some of their descendants are in the present ranks of the global elite or ‘Superclass’; See Rothkopf, David, Superclass: The Global Power Elite and the World They are Making , Farrar-Strauss-Giroux Publishers, N.Y., 2009

[12] “Many of the men who served Ishii in Manchuria and China later became deans of medical schools, senior science professors, university presidents, and key technicians in those industries that created the country’s economic miracle in the postwar era. He also created an infrastructure within the death factory in Harbin’s suburb that held together throughout the period of Japanese BW activity” (Harris, op. cit p. 54)

[13] Black, Edwin; War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America’s Campaign to Create a Master Race , Four Walls Eight Windows Press, N.Y. 2003

[14] “People’s China”, English-language magazine, Peking, Foreign Languages Press, 17 September 1952, p. 28; cited in Blum, op. cit, p. 26

[15] Note here this author is incorrect as the Japanese experiments on human beings were conducted from 1931 to 1945 continuously in many locations in Japan, China, Indochina under several units other than the infamous Unit 731; see “Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932-45, and the American Cover-up by Sheldon H. Harris, Routledge, N.Y. 1994

[16] “People’s China”, English-language, Peking, Foreign Languages Press, 17 September 1952, p. 28

[17] “New York Times”, 9 August 1970, IV p. 3; cited in Blum, op.cit, p. 27

[18] Edwin V. Hill, Basic Sciences, Camp Dietrick to General Alden C. Waitt, Chief, Chemical Corps, 12 December 1947, The National Archives, quoted in Sheldon Harris op cit. p. 19.

[19] statement of Congressman Pat Williams, Democrat, Montana, before the Subcommittee on Compensation, Pension, and Insurance of the Committee on Veteran’s Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, 17 September 1986, Serial No. 99-61, p. 3; quoted in Harris, p. 113

[20] “Washington Post”, 17 December 1979, p. A 18, “Whooping cough cases recorded in Florida jumped from 339 and one death in 17-7-1954 to 1,080 and 12 deaths in 1955

[21] “San Francisco Chronicle”, 4 December 1979, p. 12; For a detailed account of [numerous] U.S. Government experiments with biological agents within the United States including on large civilian populations without their awareness or consent see Leonard A. Cole, “Clouds of Secrecy: The Army’s Germ Warfare Tests Over Populated Areas”, Maryland 1990; Blum, op cit, p. 395

[22] Higham, Charles, Trading With the Enemy: The Nazi-American Money Plot 1933-1949 Barnes & Noble, N.Y. 1983; Sampson, Anthony The Sovereign State: The Secret History of ITT. London: 1973, Hodder and Stoughton

[23] Calvacoressi, Peter, Wint Guy, and Pritchard, John, “Total War: The Causes and Courses of the Second World War, revised second edition, N.Y. Pantheon Books, 1989, pp. 1201-06; quoted in Harris, p. 173

[24] statement of Congressman Pat Williams, Democrat, Montana, before the Subcommittee on Compensation, Pension, and Insurance of the Committee on Veteran’s Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, 17 September 1986, Serial No. 99-61, p. 3; quoted in Harris, p. 113

[25] Black, Edwin War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America’s Campaign to Create a Master Race, Four Walls Eight Windows Press, N.Y. 2003; Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America’s Most Powerful Corporation, Three Rivers Press, N.Y. 2003

[26] Toland, John, “Adolf Hitler”, Vol II, p. 802, Doubleday and Co. N.Y. 1976; Marina Jimenez National Post “Alberta Sterilization Victims Also Used as Guinea Pigs Revelation Comes as 40 victims win $4M settlement” 10/28/98

[27] Department of Indian Affairs, Canada, Superintendent D.C. Scott to B.C. Indian Agent Maj. MacKay, DIA Archives, RG-10 series, April 12, 1910.

[28] Limerick, Patricia Nelson, “The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of American West” WW. Norton and Co. N.Y. 1987 p. 338; in the U.S. and Canada “blood-quantum” requirements of 25% for ongoing statistical and physical extermination of Indigenous nations and their remnants.

[29] See Hales, Christopher Himmler’s Crusade: The Nazi Expedition to Find the Origins of the Aryan Race Castle Books, N.Y. 2003; see also National Geographic Special “The 1938 Nazi Expedition to Tibet”.

[30] “Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II –Updated Edition, by William Blum, Common Courage Press, 2004, Monroe Maine, p.25; from “Foreign Relations of the United States, 1943, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1957, p. 630

[31] Simpson Christopher, The Splendid Blonde Beast: Money, Law and Genocide in the Twentieth Century , Common Courage Press, Maine, 1995; and Blowback: America’s Recruitment of Nazis and Its Disastrous Effect on Our Domestic and Foreign Policy , Collier-Macmillan, N.Y. 1988 ; Black, Edwin Nazi Nexus: America’s Corporate Connections to Hitler’s Holocaust, Dialog Press, Washington, D.C. 2009

[32] Blum, op cit. p. 26

[33] For example: “I don’ t see why we need to stand by and watch a country go communist due to the irresponsibility of its own people. The issues are much too important for the Chilean voters to be left to decide for themselves.” (Henry Kissinger); “Not a nut or bolt shall reach Chile under Allende. Once Allende comes to power we shall do all within our power to condemn Chile and all Chileans to utmost deprivation and poverty.” (Edward M. Korry, U.S. Ambassador to Chile, upon hearing of Dr. Allende’s election) ”Make the economy scream [in Chile to] prevent Allende from coming to power or to unseat him”(Richard Nixon, orders to CIA director Richard Helms on September 15, 1970) “It is firm and continuing policy that Allende be overthrown by a coup. It would be much preferable to have this transpire prior to 24 October but efforts in this regard will continue vigorously beyond this date. We are to continue to generate maximum pressure toward this end, utilizing every appropriate resource. It is imperative that these actions be implemented clandestinely and securely so that the USG and American hand be well hidden…” (A communiqué to the CIA base in Chile, Issued on October 16, 1970.) Also quoted in :Neoclassical Economics and Neo-liberalism as Neo-Imperialism” by James Craven/Omahkohkiaaiipooyii, Lecture to Academy of Marxism of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, August 11, 2009, Beijing, China

[34] List of active separatist movements in North America; Wikipedia listed and names of groups global and in the U.S. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_active_separatist_movements_in_North_America

[35] CBS “60 Minutes” Lesley Stahl on U.S. sanctions against Iraq: “We have heard that a half million children have died. I mean that is more children than died in Hiroshima. And you know, is this price worth it. U.S. Secretary of State Madeline Albright: “I think that this is a very hard choice, but the price—we think the price is worth it.” CBS “60 Minutes”, 5-12-1996

[36] David Barrett, “Dixie Mission: The U.S. Army Observer Group in Yenan, 1944; Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, Berkeley, 1970; passim: R. Harris Smith, “OSS: The Secret History of America’s First CIA, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1972, pp. 262-3; New York Times, 19 December, 1945, p. 24

[37] Smith, op. cit, p. 259-82; New York Times, 19 December 1945, p. 2

[38] Klare, Michael War Without End: American Planning for the Next Vietnams , Vintage Books, N.Y. 1972

[39] .” [see Scott Anderson and Jon Lee Anderson, Inside the League, N.Y. 1986, pp 47-9 citing prominent American Generals and State Dept. officials in Taiwan at the time. See also D.F. Fleming, p. 578-9;

[40] “Los Angeles Times”, February 24, 1992, p.1

[41] Blum, op cit. “Killing Hope…p.9

[42] Department of State Bulletin, 2 May 1966; Blum, op cit. p. 27

[43] David Wise and Thomas Ross, “The Invisible Government”, N.Y. 1965 pb edition, pp. 138-44; Joseph B. Smith “Portrait of a Cold Warrior”, N.Y. 1976, pp. 77-8; “New York Times”, 28, July 1951; 28 December, 1951; 22 February 1952; 8 April 1952; 30 December 1952, p. 3; opium in Robbins, op cit. pp. 84-7; Blum, op cit pp. 394]. For many of the Chinats, unemployment was short-lived. They soon signed up with the CIA again; this time to fight with the Agency’s grand army in Laos.” [Blum, op cit. p. 24]

[44] Bleek, Philip “Nuclear Posture Leaks; Outlines Targets and Contingencies, Latest ASA Resources; The review remains classified but was obtained by The Los Angeles Times, which first reported on it March 9, and The New another 9-11 ; 9-11-1973, the CIA-directed overthrow of freely-elected Salvador Allende and installation of the fascist dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet resulted in an estimated 30,000 people or more disappeared, tortured and murdered. All sectors of the Chilean economy were put under siege to foment rightist riots and destabilizations leading to the coup on 9-11-1973.

[45] According to the World Bank Reports (hardly pro-China) between 1981 and 2005, as China came out of imperial-imposed isolation, the standard “poverty rate” used for all economies, in China fell from 84% to 16% , an almost two-thirds drop of the population (rate now same as U.S. at present) with some 600 million Chinese lifted out of poverty. Cassidy, John, How Markets Fail: The Logic of Economic Calamities , Picador Books, N.Y. 2020, p. 29

[46] Blowback is a term first used in a CIA “After-Action Report” in 1953 after a CIA overthrow of the freely-elected government of Mossadegh in Iran. It refers to a covert operation coming back with effects opposite of intended.

[47] GAO, U.S. Government, “Report to the Chairman, Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, Export Controls: Improvements to Commerce’s Dual-Use System Needed To Ensure Protection of U.S. Interests in the Post-9-11 Environment”

[48] “New York Times International” Sunday, September 23, 1990 “Excerpts From Iraqi Document on Meeting With U.S. Envoy:

[49] Churchill, Winston The World Crisis: The Aftermath, London, 1929, p,235; quoted in Blum, William The CIA: a Forgotten History , Zed Books, London, 1986, p. 1

[50] “Foreign Relations of the United States, 1949, Vol. VIII, “The Far East: China”, US Government Printing Office, Washington, 1978, passim between pp. 357 and 399; 768, 779-80; publication of this volume of the US State Dept. series was held up precisely because it contained the reports about Chou En-lai’s request (“San Francisco Chronicle”, 27 September, 1978, p. F-1)] Instead the United States evidently conspired to assassinate Chou on several occasions.” [ “The Guardian, London, 24 August 1985; op. cit Blum, “Killing Hope…”, p. 394]

[51] Adolf Hitler, Speech to Nuremberg Congress, Sept. 3,1933

[52] Shirer, William The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, 30th Anniversary Edition, Fawcett-Cress Publishers, N.Y. 1992, pp. 169-70

[53] A rather prophetic note [very relevant today also in Iraq, Afghanistan, etc.] from U.S. COIN experts in 1966 and published in the book “War Without End” by Michael Klare (op. cit) published in 1972 while the Vietnam War was still raging: “The essential core of insurgent warfare is political”…”Technology is no substitute for politics; the more the attention of security forces is absorbed with technology, the closer that force is to political bankruptcy and possible military defeat.” Conley, Michael, Center for Research in Social Systems, “Behavioral Sciences and the National Security” p. 20; quoted in Klare, op cit, pp 89, 397

ADDENDUM OF RESEARCH NOTES AND SUPPORTING MATERIALS AND SOURCES

Hidden History Alive Within the Present

Quotations from “Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II (updated edition), by William Blum, Common Courage Press, Monroe, Maine, 2004 and other primary and secondary sources

1.”But that war was over. The Americans were now to have their day in every corner of the world. The ink on the Japanese surrender treaty was hardly dry when the United States began to use the Japanese soldiers still in China alongside American troops in a joint effort against the Chinese communists. (In the Philippines and in Greece, as we shall see, the U.S. did not even wait for the war to end before subordinating the struggle against Japan and Germany to the anti-communist crusade.)

2.The communists in China had worked closely with the American military during the war, providing important intelligence about Japanese occupiers, rescuing and caring for downed U.S. airmen. [David Barrett, “Dixie Mission: The U.S. Army Observer Group in Yenan, 1944; Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, Berkeley, 1970; passim: R. Harris Smith, “OSS: The Secret History of America’s First CIA, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1972, pp. 262-3; New York Times, 19 December, 1945, p. 24] But no matter. Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek would be Washington’s man. The Office of Strategic Services (OSS, forerunner of the CIA) estimated that the bulk of Chiang’s military effort had been directed against the communists rather than the Japanese. He had also done his best to block the cooperation between the Reds and the Americans. Now his army contained Japanese units and his regime was full of officials who had collaborated with the Japanese and served in their puppet government. [Smith, op. cit, p. 259-82; New York Times, 19 December 1945, p. 2] But no matter. The Generalissimo was as anti-communist as they come. Moreover, he was a born American client. His forces would be properly trained and equipped to do battle with the men of Mao Tse-tung and Chou En-lai.”

3.President Truman was up front about what he described as “using the Japanese to hold off the communists”:

“It was perfectly clear to us that if we told the Japanese to lay down their arms immediately and march to the seaboard, the entire country would be taken over by the communists. We therefore had to take the unusual step of using the enemy as a garrison until we could airlift Chinese National [Chiang’s] troops to South China and send Marines to guard the seaports.” (William Blum p. 21 cited [Harry S. Truman, Memoires, Vol. II, “Years of Trial and Hope” 1946-53, Great Britain, p. 66])

4.“The deployment of American Marines had swift and dramatic results. Two weeks after the end of the war, Peking was surrounded by communist forces. Only the arrival of the Marines in the city prevented the Reds from taking it over. And while Mao’s forces were pushing into Shanghai’s suburbs, US transport planes dropped Chiang’s troops in to seize the city.” [D.F. Flemming, “The Cold War and its Origins, 1917-1960, New York, 1961, p. 570, passim Blum, p. 39]

5.“In a scramble to get to key centers and ports before the communists, the U.S. transported between 400,000 and 500,000 Nationalist troops by ship and plane all over the vastness of China and Manchuria, places they could have never reached otherwise.

6.As the civil war heated up, the 50,000 Marines sent by Truman were used to guard railway lines, coal mines, ports, bridges and other strategic sites. Inevitably, they became involved in the fighting, sustaining dozens, if not hundreds in the casualties. U.S. troops, the communists charged, attacked areas controlled by the Reds, directly opened fire on them, arrested military officers, and disarmed soldiers. [New York Times, September-December, 1945, passim Barbara W. Tuchman, “Stillwell and the American Experience in China 1911-45, New York, 1972, pp 666-77] The Americans found themselves blasting a small Chinese village ‘unmercifully’, wrote a Marine to his congressman, not knowing how many innocent people were slaughtered.” [Congressional Record, Appendix, Vol. 92, part 9, 24 January 1946, letter to Congressman Hugh de Lacy of Washington State]

7.“United States planes regularly made reconnaissance flights over communist territory to scout the position of their forces. The communists claimed that American planes frequently strafed and bombed their troops and in one instance machine-gunned a communist-held town.” [New York Times, 6 November 1945, p.1; 9 December 1945, p. 2] To what extent these attacks were carried out by US airmen is not known. “ [p. 40]

8.“There were, however, American survivors in some of the many crashes of the United States aircraft. Surprisingly, the Reds continued to rescue them, tend to their wounds, and return them to US bases. It may be difficult to appreciate now, but at this time the mystique and the myth of ‘America’ still gripped the imagination of people all over the world, and the Reds helped to rescue scores of American flyers and had transported them through Japanese lines to safety. ‘The Communists’ wrote the New York Times ‘did not lose one airman under their protection. They made a point of never accepting rewards for saving American airmen.’ “ [New York Times, 9 December 1945, p.24; 26 December 1945, p.5]

9.“When 1946 arrived, about 100,000 American military personnel were still in China still supporting Chiang. The official United States explanation for the presence of its military was that they were there to disarm and repatriate the Japanese. Though this task was carried out eventually, it was secondary to the military’s political function, as Truman’s statement cited above makes abundantly clear.”

10.“The American soldiers in China began to protest about not being sent home, a complaint echoed around the world by other GIs kept overseas for political (usually anti-communist) purposes. ‘They ask me too, why they’re here’, said a Marine lieutenant in China at Christmas time, 1945. ‘As an officer, I am supposed to tell them, but you can’t tell a man he’s here to disarm the Japanese when he’s guarding the same railway with [armed] Japanese’. “ [New York Times, 26 December 1945, p. 5]

11.Strangely enough, the United States attempted to mediate in the civil war; this, while being an active, powerful participant on one side. In January 1946, President Truman, apparently recognizing that it was either compromise with the communists or see all of China fall under their sway, sent General George Marshall to try to arrange a cease-fire and some kind of unspecified coalition government. While some temporary success was achieved in an on-and-off truce, the idea of a coalition government was doomed to failure as unlikely as a marriage between the Czar and the Bolsheviks. As the historian D.F. Fleming has pointed out, ‘One cannot unite a dying oligarchy with a rising revolution’.” [Fleming op cit p. 587]

12.Not until early 1947 did the United States begin to withdraw some of its military forces, although aid and support to the Chiang government continued in one form or another long afterward. At about this time, the Flying Tigers began to operate. The legendary American air squadron under the leadership of General Claire Chennault had fought for the Chinese against the Japanese before and during the world war. Now Chennault, Chiang’s former air force advisor, had reactivated the squadron (under the name CAT) and its pilots-of-fortune soon found themselves in the thick of the fray, flying endless supply missions to Nationalist cities under siege, dodging communist shell bursts to airlift food, ammunition, and supplies of all kinds, or to rescue the wounded. [Christopher Robbins, “Air America” (U.S., 1979, pp. 46-57); Victor Marchetti and John Marks “The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence”, N.Y. 1975, p 149] Technically, CAT was a private airline hired by the Chiang government, but before the civil war came to an end, the airline had formally interlocked with the CIA to become the first unit in the Agency’s sprawling empire-to-be, best known for the Air America line.”

13.By 1949, United States aid to the Nationalists since the war amounted to almost $2 billion in cash and $1 billion worth of military hardware; 39 Nationalist army divisions had been trained and equipped. [“Hearings held in executive session before the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee during 1949-50: Economic Assistance to China and Korea, 1949-50”, testimony of Dean Acheson, p. 23;made public January 1974 as part of the Historical series] Yet the Chiang dynasty was collapsing all around in bits and pieces. It has not only been the onslaught of Chiang’s communist foes, but the hostility of the Chinese people at large to his tyranny, his wanton cruelty, and the extraordinary corruption and decadence of his entire bureaucratic and social system. By contrast, the large areas under communist administration were models of honesty, progress, and fairness; entire divisions of the Generalissimo’s forces defected to the communists. American political and military leaders had no illusions about the nature and quality of Chiang’s rule. The Nationalist forces, said General David Barr, head of the U.S. Military Mission in China, were under ‘the world’s worst leadership’. “ [Tuchman, op cit. p. 676]

14.“The Generalissimo, his cohorts and soldiers fled to the offshore island of Taiwan (Formosa). They had prepared their entry two years earlier by terrorizing the islanders into submission—a massacre which took the lives of as many as 28,000 people [see Scott Anderson and Jon Lee Anderson, “Inside the League”, N.Y. 1986, pp 47-9 citing prominent American Generals and State Dept. officials in Taiwan at the time. See also D.F. Fleming, p. 578-9; In 1992 the Taiwan government admitted that its army had killed an estimated 18,000 to 28,000 native-born Taiwanese in the 1947 massacre (“Los Angeles Times”, February 24, 1992)] Prior to the Nationalists’ escape to the island, the US government entertained no doubts that Taiwan was a part of China. Afterward, uncertainty began to creep into the minds of Washington officials. The crisis was resolved in a remarkably simple manner: the US agreed with Chiang that the proper way to view the situation was not that Taiwan belonged to China, but that Taiwan was China. And so it was called.” [Blum p. 23]

15.“Yet short of an all-out invasion of the country by large numbers of American troops, it is difficult to see what more the US government could have done to prevent Chiang’s downfall. Even after Chiang fled to Taiwan, the United States pursued a campaign of relentless assaults against the communist government, despite a request from Chou En-lai for aid and friendship. The Red leader saw no practical or ideological bar to this. [“Foreign Relations of the United States, 1949, Vol. VIII, “The Far East: China”, US Government Printing Office, Washington, 1978, passim between pp. 357 and 399; 768, 779-80; publication of this volume of the US State Dept. series was held up precisely because it contained the reports about Chou En-lai’s request (“San Francisco Chronicle”, 27 September, 1978, p. F-1)] Instead the United States evidently conspired to assassinate Chou on several occasions.” [ “The Guardian, London, 24 August 1985; Blum p. 394]

16.“Many Nationalist soldiers had taken refuge in northern Burma in the great exodus of 1949, much to the displeasure of the Burmese Government. There, the CIA began to regroup this stateless army into a fighting force, and during the early 1950s a number of large-and-small-scale incursions into China were carried out. In one instance, in April 1951, a few thousand troops, accompanied by CIA advisors and supplied from air drops by American C-46s and C-47s, crossed the border into China’s Yunnan province, but they were driven back by the communists in less than a week. The casualties were high and included several CIA advisors who lost their lives. Another raid that summer took the invaders 65 miles into China where they reportedly held a 100-mile-long strip of territory.” [Blum pp. 23-24]

17.“While the attacks continued intermittently, the CIA proceeded to build up the force’s capabilities: American engineers arrived to help construct and expand airstrips in Burma, fresh troops were flown in from Taiwan, other troops were recruited from among the Burmese hill tribes, CIA air squadrons were brought in for logistical services, and enormous quantities of American heavy arms were ferried in. Much of the supply of men and equipment came in via nearby Thailand.” [Blum p. 24]

18.“The army soon stood at more than 10,000 men. By the end of 1952, Taiwan claimed that 41,000 communist troops had been killed and more than 3,000 wounded. The figures were most likely exaggerated, but even if not, it was clear that the raids would not lead to Chiang’s triumphant return to the mainland—although this was not their sole purpose. On the Chinese border two greater battles were raging: in Korea and Vietnam. It was the hope of the United States to force the Chinese to divert troops and military resources away from these areas [note and also away from overall development and socialist construction in general] The infant People’s Republic of China was undergoing a terrible test.” [Blum, p. 24]

19.“In between raids on China, the ‘Chinats’ (as distinguished from the ‘Chicoms’) found time to clash frequently with the Burmese troops, indulge in banditry, and become the opium barons of the Golden Triangle, that slice of land encompassing parts of Burma, Laos and Thailand which was the world’s largest source of opium and heroin. CIA pilots flew the stuff all over, to secure the cooperation of those in Thailand who were important to the military operation, as a favor to their Nationalist clients, perhaps even for the money, and ironically, to serve as cover for their more illicit activities.” [Blum, p 24]

20.“The Chinats in Burma kept up their harassment of the Chicoms until 1961 and the CIA continued to supply them militarily, but at some point the Agency began to phase itself out of a more direct involvement. When the CIA, in response to repeated protests by the Burmese Government to the United States and the United Nations, put pressure on the Chinats to leave Burma, Chiang responded by threatening to expose the Agency’s covert support of his troops there. At an earlier stage, the CIA had entertained the hope that the Chinese could be provoked into attacking Burma, thereby forcing the strictly neutral Burmese to seek salvation in the Western camp. [New York Times, 25 April 1966, p. 20] In January 1961, the Chinese did just that, but as part of a combined force with the Burmese to overwhelm the Nationalists’ main base and mark ‘finis’ to their Burmese adventure. Burma subsequently renounced American aid and moved closer to Peking. [David Wise and Thomas Ross, “The Invisible Government”, N.Y. 1965 pb edition, pp. 138-44; Joseph B. Smith “Portrait of a Cold Warrior”, N.Y. 1976, pp. 77-8; “New York Times”, 28, July 1951; 28 December, 1951; 22 February 1952; 8 April 1952; 30 December 1952, p. 3; opium in Robbins, op cit. pp. 84-7; Blum, op cit pp. 394]. For5 many of the Chinats, unemployment was short-lived. They soon signed up with the CIA again; this time to fight with the Agency’s grand army in Laos.” [Blum, op cit. p. 24]

21.“Burma was not the only jumping-off site for CIA organized raids into China. Several islands within about five miles of the Chinese coast, particularly Quemoy and Matsu, were used as bases for hit-and-run attacks, often in battalion strength, for occasional bombing forays and to blockade mainland ports. Chiang was ‘brutally pressured’ by the US to build his troops on the islands beginning around 1953 as a demonstration of Washington’s new policy of ‘unleashing’ him.” [Blum, op cit. p. 24; see also “Washington Post”, 20 August 1958, Joseph Alsop, a columnist, former staff officer under Chennault, and CIA asset, along with brother Stewart Alsop, covertly in media, was well connected with the Taiwan regime; see Carl Bernstein, “The CIA and the Media”, in “Rolling Stone” magazine, 20 October 1977]

22.“The Chinese retaliated several times with heavy artillery attacks on Quemoy, on one occasion killing two American military officers. The prospect of an escalated war led the US later to have second thoughts and to ask Chiang to abandon the islands, but then he refused. The suggestion has often been put forward that Chiang’s design was to embroil the United States in just such a war as one means of returning to the mainland.” [Blum, op cit p. 25; Quemoy and Matsu, Stewart Alsop; “The Story Behind Quemoy: How We Drifted Close to War”, “Saturday Evening Post”, 13 December 1958, p.26; Andrew Tully, “CIA: The Inside Story”, N.Y. 1962, pp. 162-5; D.F. Fleming, op cit, pp 930-1; Wise and Ross, op. cit pp. 116; “New York Times”, 27, April 1966, p. 28]

23.“Many incursions into China were made by smaller, commando-type teams air-dropped in for intelligence and sabotage purposes. In November 1952, two CIA officers, John Downy and Richard Fecteau, who had been engaged in flying these teams in and dropping supplies to them, were shot down and captured by the communists. Two years passed before Perking announced the capture and sentencing of the two men. The State Department broke its own two-year silence with indignation, claiming that the two men had been civilian employees of the US Department of the Army in Japan who were presumed lost on a flight from Korea to Japan. ‘How they came into the hands of the Chinese Communists is unknown to the United States…the continued wrongful detention of these American citizens furnishes further proof of the Chinese Communist regime’s disregard for accepted practices of international conduct.’ “[Blum, op cit p. 25; Wise and Ross, op cit. p. 116] … “Fecteau was released in December 1971, shortly before President Nixon’s trip to China; Downey was not freed until March 1973, soon after Nixon publicly acknowledged him to be a CIA officer.” [Blum, op cit. p. 25]

24.“The Peking announcement in 1954 also revealed that eleven American airmen had been shot down over China in January 1953 while on a mission that had as its purpose the ‘airdrop of special agents into China and the Soviet Union.’ These men were luckier, being freed after only 2 ½ years. All told, said the Chinese, they had killed 106 American and Taiwanese agents who had parachuted into China between 1951 and 1954 and had captured 124 others. Although the CIA had little, if anything, to show for its commando actions, it reportedly maintained the program at least until 1960.” [Blum, op cit. p. 25; Wise and Rose, op cit, p. 112-15; Thomas Powers, “The Man Who Kept the Secrets”, New York, 1979, pp. 43-4; “Newsweek”, 26 March 1973]

25.“There were many CIA flights over China for purely espionage purposes, carried out by high-altitude U-2 planes, pilotless ‘drones’, and other aircraft. These over flights began around the late 1950s and were not discontinued until 1971, to coincide with Henry Kissinger’s first visit to Peking. The operation was not without incident. Several U-2 planes were shot down and even more of the drones, 19 of the latter by Chinese count between 1965 and 1969. China registered hundreds of ‘serious warnings’ about violations of its airspace, and on at least on occasion American aircraft crossed the Chinese border and shot down a Mig-17” [ Marchetti and Marks, op cit, pp. 150, 287; “Washington Post”, 27 May 1966; “New York Times”, 28 March 1969, p. 40]

26.“It would seem that no degree of failure or paucity of result was enough to deter the CIA from seeking new ways to torment the Chinese in the decade following their revolution. Tibet was another case in point. The Peking government claimed Tibet as part of China, as had previous Chinese governments for more than two centuries…The United States made its position clear during the war: “The Government of the United States has borne in mind the fact that the Chinese Government has long claimed suzerainty over Tibet and that the Chinese constitution lists Tibet among areas constituting the territory of the Republic of China. This Government has at no time raised a question regarding either of these claims.” (“Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II –Updated Edition, by William Blum, Common Courage Press, 2004, Monroe Maine, p.25; from “Foreign Relations of the United States, 1943, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1957, p. 630)

27.“After the communist revolution, Washington officials tended to be more equivocal about the matter. But U.S. actions against Tibet had nothing to do with the niceties of international law.”…By the mid-1950s, the CIA began to recruit Tibetan refugees and exiles in neighboring countries such as India and Nepal. Amongst their number were members of the Dalai Lama’s guard often referred to picturesquely as ‘the fearsome Khamba horsemen’, and others who had already engaged in some guerilla activity against Peking rule and/or the profound social changes being instituted by the revolution (Serfdom and Slavery were, literally, still present in Tibet). Those selected were flown to the United States, to an unused military base high in the Colorado Mountains, an altitude approximating that of their mountainous homeland. There, hidden away as much as possible from the locals, they were trained in the fine points of paramilitary warfare.” [Blum, op cit. p. 26]

28.“After completing training, each group of Tibetans was flown to Taiwan or some other friendly Asian country, thence to be infiltrated back into Tibet, or elsewhere in China, where they occupied themselves in activities such as sabotage, mining roads, cutting communications lines and ambushing small communist forces. Their actions were supported by CIA aircraft and on occasion led by Agency contract mercenaries. Extensive support facilities were constructed in northeast India.” [Blum, op cit. p. 26]

29.“The operation in Colorado was maintained until sometime in the 1960s. How many Tibetans passed through the course of instruction will probably never be known. Even after the formal training program came to an end, the CIA continued to finance and supply their exotic clients and nurture their hopeless dream of reconquering their homeland.” …In 1961, when the “New York Times” got wind of the Colorado operation, it acceded to a Pentagon request to probe no further. [ David Wise, “The Politics of Lying”, N.Y. 1973, paperback edition, pp. 239-54; Robbins op cit. pp 94-101; Marchetti and Marx op cit. pp 128-31, p. 97 1983 edition.] The matter was particularly sensitive because the CIA’s 1947 Charter and Congress’s interpretation of it had traditionally limited the Agency’s domestic operations to information collection.” [Blume, op cit. p. 26]

30.”Above and beyond the bedevilment of China on its own merits, there was the spillover from the Korean War into Chinese territory—numerous bombings and strafing by American planes which, the Chinese frequently reported took civilian lives and destroyed homes. And there was the matter of germ warfare….The Chinese devoted a great deal of effort to publicizing their claim that the United States, particularly during January to March 1952, had dropped quantities of bacteria and bacteria-laden insects over Korea and northeast China. It presented testimony of about 38 captured American airmen who had purposefully flown the planes with the deadly cargo. Many of the men went into voluminous detail about the entire operation; the kinds of bombs and other containers dropped the types of insects, the diseases they carried, etc. At the same time, photographs of the alleged germ bombs and insects were published. Then, in August, an ‘International Scientific Committee’ was appointed, composed of scientists from Sweden, France, Great Britain, Italy, Brazil and the Soviet Union. After an investigation in China of more than two months, the committee produced a report of some 600 pages, many photos and the conclusion that: ‘The peoples of Korea and China have been the objectives of bacteriological weapons. These have been employed by units of the U.S.A. armed forces, using a great variety of different methods for the purpose, some of which seem to be the developments of those applied by the Japanese during the second world war.’ [Blum, op cit p. 26; “People’s China”, English-language magazine, Peking, Foreign Languages Press, 17 September 1952, p. 28]

31.“The last reference has to do with the bacteriological warfare warfare experiments the Japanese had carried out against China between 1940 and 1942 [Note here this author is incorrect as the Japanese experiments on human beings were conducted from 1931 to 1945 continuously in many locations in China under several units other than the infamous Unit 731 see “Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932-45, and the American Cover-up by Sheldon H. Harris, Routledge, N.Y. 1994] The Japanese scientists responsible for this program were captured by the United States in 1945 and given immunity from prosecution in return for proving technical information about the experiments to American scientists from the Army biological research center at Fort Dietrick, Maryland. The Chinese were aware of this at the time of the International Scientific Committee’s investigation. [Callum A. MacDonald, “Korea: The War Before Vietnam”, N.Y. 1986, pp. 161-2] …In 1970… the “New York Times” reported that during the Korean War, when US forces were overwhelmed by ‘human waves’ of Chinese, the Army dug into captured Nazi chemical warfare documents describing Sarin, a nerve gas so lethal that a few pounds could kill thousands of people in minutes…By the mid nineteen-fifties, the Army was manufacturing thousands of gallons of Sarin.” [Blum, op cit p. 27; “New York Times”, 9 August 1970, IV p. 3]

32.And during the 1950s and 1960s, the Army and the CIA conducted numerous experiments with biological agents within the United States. To cite just two examples: In 1955, there is compelling evidence that the CIA released whooping-cough bacteria into the open air in Florida, followed by an extremely sharp increase in the incidence of the disease in the state that year. [“Washington Post”, 17 December 1979, p. A 18, “Whooping cough cases recorded in Florida jumped from 339 and one death in 1954 to 1,080 and 12 deaths in 1955; The CIA received the bacteria from the Army’s bacteriological research center at Fort Dietrick, Maryland.] The following year another toxic substance was disseminated in the streets and tunnels of New York City. [ “San Francisco Chronicle”, 4 December 1979, p. 12; For a detailed account of [numerous] U.S. Government experiments with biological agents within the United States including on large civilian populations without their awareness or consent see Leonard A. Cole, “Clouds of Secrecy: The Army’s Germ Warfare Tests Over Populated Areas”, Maryland 1990; Blum, op cit, p. 395;

33.In March 1966, Secretary of State Dean Rusk spoke before a congressional committee about American policy toward China. Mr. Rusk it seems was perplexed that ‘At times the Communist Chinese leaders seem to be obsessed with the notion that they are being threatened and encircled’. He spoke of China’s ‘imaginary, almost pathological notion that the United States and other countries around its borders are seeking an opportunity to invade mainland China and destroy the Peiping [Peking] regime’. The Secretary then added: ‘How much Peiping’s fear of the United States is genuine and how much of it is artificially induced for domestic political purposes only the Chinese Communist leaders themselves know. I am convinced, however, that their desire to expel our influence and activity from the western Pacific and Southeast Asia is not motivated by fears that we are threatening them.” [“Department of State Bulletin”, 2 May 1966; Blum, op cit. p. 27]

34.“The Japanese are using a BW [Biological Warfare] weapon that is more deadly, far vaster that that which killed the sleeping Americans on December 7, 1941. This attack would not only strike at outposts of empire but even at the life blood in the very veins of the nation. Its effects would be visited on generations. A crude type of this secret weapon speeded the fall of Bataan.” [Newman Barclar Moon, “Japan’s Secret Weapon”, New York Current Publishing, 1944 p. 2 [note year 1944 during the war] quoted in Sheldon Harris, op. cit p. 160 [Note also that prisoners from the Baatan death march were used by Japanese in experiments in Manchuria according to Sheldon Harris “Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare 1932-45 and the American Cover-up, Routledge, NY 1994]

35.“Evidence gathered in this investigation has greatly supplemented and amplified previous aspects of this field. It represents data which we have obtained by Japanese scientists at the expenditure of many millions of dollars and years of work. Information has accrued with respect to human susceptibility to those diseases as indicated by specific infectious doses of bacteria. Such information could not be obtained in our own laboratories because of scruples attached to human experimentation. These data were secured with a total outlay of Yen 250,000 to date, a mere pittance by comparison with the actual cost of the studies.” [Edwin V. Hill, Basic Sciences, Camp Dietrick to General Alden C. Waitt, Chief, Chemical Corps, 12 December 1947, The National Archives, quoted in Sheldon Harris op cit. p. 190;

36.“As far as I know, it was true that a deal was made. But it was the US side which approached my father, not the other way around…What I would like to emphatically say…is ‘Isn’t it important that not a single man under my father’s command was ever tried as a war criminal?’ I am really sorry for those who had to live in seclusion to evade possible prosecution but were it not for my father’s courage in making a deal with the occupation authorities…you know what I mean’. “ [Ishii Harumi in “The Japan Times”, 29 August 1982, p. 12 quoted in Harris, p. 190]

37.“Many of the men who served Ishii in Manchuria and China later became deans of medical schools, senior science professors, university presidents, and key technicians in those industries that created the country’s economic miracle in the postwar era. He also created an infrastructure within the death factory in Harbin’s suburb that held together throughout the period of Japanese BW research. He was able, also, to inspire his men with fanatical loyalty to him personally, and to extraordinary dedication to the tasks assigned to them. [Harris, p. 54;

38.“Under a cloak of possible immunity from prosecution, the ‘open secret’ became detailed fact in 1946 and 1947. By that time, Unit 731 scientists did not have to resort to deceptive animal terms in describing their work to American scientists eager to gain precious information concerning human BW experiments. Perhaps they were not totally candid with the Americans but, but they did provide them with specific details of some of their previous work in the course of lengthy interviews and in written reports to investigators. The data were allegedly constructed from memory, since all records in Manchuria were supposedly destroyed during the Japanese retreat in 1945. However the documents themselves suggest strongly that many of 731’s records survived” [ Harris, p. 64; Thompson Report, pp. 11-12]

39.“The people of the unit [in Nanking] called their steel barred cells ‘rooms that do not open’. The cells were patrolled by armed guards at all times. At the 731st, they called these subjects ‘maruta’ (logs); but here, they were called ‘zaimoku’ (lumber).” (Harris, op cit. p. 101)

40.“Some veterans today—veterans captured and imprisoned in World War II’s Pacific Theater—have a story to tell and an agonizing chapter of their lives to resolve. These veterans…have not received justice…These men are victims of a terrible secret, born 44 years ago deep in Manchuria in Japanese POW camps. Theirs perhaps has been the longest and best kept secret of World War II, long denied by Japan and long concealed by the U.S. Government…. Bit by bit and year by year, despite our government’s public statements of ignorance, the truth has been leaking out. We know now that Mukden was more than just another Japanese POW camp for Allied soldiers….Operated by Japanese scientists from Unit 731, Mukden was a site for deadly chemical and biological experiments, for injections, body dissections, blood and feces tests, freezing of body parts, infection of wounds with anthrax, the applications of plague bacillus, cholera, dysentery, and typhoid….That.. Was what was waiting for many of the American fighting men who survived the Bataan Death March. Along with our soldiers at those terrible camps were also men from China, Great Britain, Australia, and the Soviet Union. We don’t know how many survived, but we do know that the U.S. government knew of the experiments at the war’s end.” [statement of Congressman Pat Williams, Democrat, Montana, before the Subcommittee on Compensation, Pension, and Insurance of the Committee on Veteran’s Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, 17 September 1986, Serial No. 99-61, p. 3; quoted in Harris, p. 113]

41.“I have refused to bow before circumstances and keep truth before closed doors. General Douglas A. MacArthur left his men in 1942 and sealed their fate in May of 1946 by promising the war criminal General Ishii immunity from prosecution if he would surrender the records of Unit 731. This collaboration between MacArthur and Ishii is unsavory to say the least. The lives of the American FEPOWs [Far East Prisoners of War] experiment on by Unit 731 at Mukden were forfeited in the name of national security.” [Ibid p. 18; Harris, p. 118]

42.“I understand that our Government consistently has denied any firm knowledge that any Americans were experimented upon. But today you will hear from a POW who was experimented upon. To deny that truth is to deny the existence of that POW. [Committee on Veteran’s Affairs, Ibid. p. 5]…

43.“We were required, when we came to the depot at Manila, on the way back from the prisoner of war camps, we signed a statement by the Army stating we would not tell before our experiences or conditions, what happened to us in the prison camps, before any audiences or the newspapers, under threat of court martial.” [Harris, p. 120]

44.“The Emperor’s youngest brother, Prince Mikasa, evidently visited Ping Fan and toured much of the facility. Unit 731’s official photographer remembered the visit vividly, because he had produced an unclear photograph taken of Mikasa during his stop. Ishii had upbraided the photographer, saying in effect, that with all the scientific expertise available at Ping Fan, surely something could be done to make the photograph more attractive. Mikasa in his memoirs remembered seeing ‘films where large numbers of Chinese prisoners of war brought by cargo trains and lorries were made to march on the Manchurian plain for poison gas experiments on live subjects.’ He also recalled: ‘A high ranking military doctor [Ishii?] who took part in these experiments was telling me prior to this, at the time when Lord Lytton with his group was dispatched by the League of Nations [1932, at the time Ishii began his BW work in Manchuria] in order to investigate the Manchurian incident, they attempted to give this group some fruit infected with cholera, but did not succeed.’ ” [“Mikasa-no-miya, Takahito, “Ancient Orient and I”, Tokyo, Gakusei Sha Publishers, 1984, pp. 16-17]

45.“Herewith extracts of telecom held by G-2 Personnel with the Chief of Chemical Corps…These extracts indicate the extreme value of the intelligence information obtained and the danger of publicity on this subject…It is the intention of Mil Int representative on SWNCC Sub Committee to recommend that information re B.W. given to us with not be divulged or used in war crimes trials…I [General Alden Waitt] consider it vital that we get the information and the secrecy [which would be impossible if war crimes trials were held] be maintained…The information so far indicates that the investigation is producing most important data. It merits all necessary support, financial and otherwise.” [Intelligence Information on Bacteriological Warfare, 9 June 1947, Record Group [ 331, Box 1434, 13, National Archives; Harris, op cit, p. 204]…”Experiments on human beings similar to those conducted by the Ishii BW group have been condemned as war crimes by the International Military Tribunal for the trial of major Nazi war criminals in its decision handed down at Nuremberg on 30 September 1946; Harris, p. 218; note also some selected Nazi “scientists” were also given immunity from prosecution, put on CIA payroll (Operations ARTICHOKE and PAPERCLIP) in return for turning over similar “research” findings from experiments in Nazi concentration camps and institutes for the disabled.; SWNCC or Ste-War-Navy Coordinating Committee Report]

46.“The Associate Press reported today that ‘A Spokesman for General Douglas MacArthur’s headquarters said today that the chemical section of his headquarters, in a ‘complete’ search of its files, however, did not find anything relative to Japanese use of bacteriological warfare.’ The statement was technically true but disingenuous. The Chemical Section was not involved with war crimes investigations, and had little or nothing to do with Ishii and BW. A search of the intelligence files, however, would have disclosed considerable American knowledge of Japanese BW preparations. Several days later, a MacArthur spokesman denied that any American POWs were subjected to BW experiments, as charged at Khabarosk. He conceded that Japan had done research with animals, ‘but that there was no evidence they ever had used human beings’, and that ‘no Americans held prisoner by the Japanese at Mukden ever accused their captors of having used them as human guinea pigs.’. Prosecutor Joseph Keenan chipped in with a denial that his investigators had found any evidence.” [“New York Times”, 27 December 1949, p. 16]

47.“There is proof of the experiments at Mukden. Dr. Sanders told me that he was aware of the experiments at Mukden, but not until after he cut the deal. He said he would have never cut the deal to grant Ishii immunity from prosecution if he had known Americans were experimented on. But he said that an American officer of high rank, ‘whom I pledged never to reveal his name’, had told him that Americans at Mukden were guinea pigs.” [ Harris, p. 121]

48.“The story of Japanese bacteriological warfare implicates more than half the persons tried by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and moiré than 5,000 others who worked on the BW program in some capacity. It involved a genuine conspiracy of silence…Allied prosecutors from half a dozen countries affected by the issue remained silent at the Tokyo War Crimes Trial about what they knew…The Chinese[Nationalists]…must have lived in hope of gaining some kind of quid pro quo for their silence….The Russian authorities who sought to raise the matter…allowed themselves to be silenced…What seems quite incredible is that the cover-up conspiracy—for it is by no means a demonological exaggeration to speak of it as a conspiracy—was maintained throughout the three years which elapsed between the Japanese defeat and the conclusion of the Tokyo trial…and that…the conspiracy was sustained for so long afterwards.” [Calvacoressi, Peter, Wint Guy, and Pritchard, John, “Total War: The Causes and Courses of the Second World War, revised second edition, N.Y. Pantheon Books, 1989, pp. 1201-06; quoted in Harris, p. 173]

FROM CIA DATABASE NED OPERATIONS AGAINST CHINA:
Listed below are traces from CIABASE on NED operations in China.

Info from CIABASE re NED Activities in China are:

China, 91 Ned, columbia university, for conference on relationship
Between nationalism and democracy in asia. $16,683. National endowment for
Democracy annual reports 91 36

China, 60-92 Considering cia’s massive recruiting efforts in china during
And after cultural revolution, events of june should have been no surprise.
Perry, m. (1992). Eclipse: the last days of the cia 240

China, 89-90 Xu lin, 3rd sec chinese embassy defected april/may 90. He is
14th envoy from chinese diplomatic posts in u.s. To defect since military
Crackdown in tiananmen square. Washington post 5/5/90 a9

China, 89-94 Chinese release 3 men connected with pro-democracy
Demonstrations in 89. Xiao bin arrested after he told u.s. Tv reporters
Chinese army killed thousands of people in 89 around tiananmen
Demonstrations. Chinese also released liao yiwu, a poet, and ding junze, a
Professor. Washington post 2/5/94 a13

China, 79-93 Wei jingsheng, china’s most prominent political prisoner to
Be freed. Wei, an electrician and editor of an underground political
Journal, was sentenced in 79 for calling for democratic reform. Wang juntao
Is serving 13-year term for his leading role in democracy demonstrations in
Tiananmen square in 89. Washington post 9/16 a26 9/21/93 a13

China, 93 A chinese journalist preparing for a fellowship at columbia u.
Detained by chinese secret police. Gao yu was second journalist detained in
2 weeks by state security. Her husband is zhao yuankang. On 9/27, xi yang,
A hong kong journalist was seized for stealing state secrets. Washington
Times 10/6/93 a16

China, 94 Chinese dissident qin yongmin sentenced to 2 years for
Advocating progress toward democracy. He arrested in 11/93 after he and 8
Others released a peace charter. Washington times 1/26/94 a15

China, 94 Protest by hong kong and others over china claiming xi yang, a
Journalist with ming pao, had really been spying. His accomplice, tian ye,
Was a clerk at people’s bank of china. Washington times 4/7/94 a13

China, 84-90 Ned, china perspective, inc. To continue publication of “the
Chinese intellectual” (tci) and support for chinese students in west.
Launched in 84 with ned support, tci is a chinese language quarterly
Promoting open discussion of democratic values, institutions and issues
Important to china. Originally targeted at mainland students studying in
West, journal moved its offices from new york to beijing in 88 and began
Distribution in china. Center in beijing hosted discussions on democracy in
China. In wake of june 3-4, 89 events in tiananmen square, editorial
Offices moved back to new york and china perspective has begun providing
Support for chinese students in west who cannot, for political reasons,
Return to china. National endowment for democracy annual reports 89 16, 90
20

China, 89-90 Op yellow bird – unofficial name for clandestine rescue from
China of most important pro-democracy leaders. For 6 months after june
Crackdown, cia’s most valued agents in china, hong kong, and macao provided
A safe haven and means of escape. Wuer kaixi and li lu disappeared, later
Other leading dissidents wan runnan and yan jiaqi, made it to west. During
Last week in may, u.s. Ambassador lilley handed out more than 200 visas to
Intellectuals, scientists, and students and on several occasions lent money
To escapees. In absence of credible cia leadership in china, lilley was
Once again cia’s beijing cos. Chinese astrophysicist, feng lizhi, went to
Embassy for safe haven. It evident pro-democracy leaders could not have
Made their way to west without tacit assistance of chinese security
Officials. A number of western intel agencies helped – such as french,
British. Perry, m. (1992). Eclipse: the last days of the cia 247-8

China, 90-94 Discussion of dissent in china. Zhang lin, 31; wang
Zhonhqiu, 27; dissenting through league for protection of working people of
Prc, a labor movement organized along lines of poland’s solidarity. China
Recently rounded up scores of well-known chinese dissidents. Two released
Are wang jung-tao – who left immediately for the u.s.; and, chen ziming.
Authorities also arrested wei jingsheng – father of china’s democracy
Movement and key members of the shanghai human rights association.
Dissidents use sophisticated pagers. Liu qing, is chairman of ny-based
Human rights of china (hric). Liu, who spent a decade in prison for his
Role in 78-79 democracy wall movement, regularly calls activists. A
Toll-free number established for dissidents to call at&t operator who will
Place a collect call for them. Fax machines, computers and copiers used by
Dissidents. U.s. News & world report 5/30/94 43-4

China, 92 Arrest of shen chen, ross terrill by chinese gvt. Time 9/14/92
16

China, 92 China released student activist shen tong. He first prominent
Leader of 89 democracy movement to return to china. He a 24-year old
Graduate student from boston u. Who went to china to announce opening of
His pro-democracy org. Shen “confessed his illegal activities involving
Establishment of anti-gvt orgs in china at instigation and support of
Certain foreign forces.” u.s. Had demanded his release. Shen traveled
Extensively through china, meeting with dissidents, scholars and gvt
Officials. He arrested on 9/1/92 hours before he to announce establishment
Of a branch office of his massachusetts-based democracy for china fund. Qi
Dafeng, another activist and qian liyun, wife of a student leader who
Recently escaped to u.s., were detained with shen. American scholar, ross
Terrill, an associate of shen’s, was expelled. Washington post 10/25/92 a35

China, 92 International confederation of free trade unions (icftu)
Published a report re establishment of free trade union of china, a “new
Underground movement formally launched in may 1992.” a pamphlet dated
1/16/92, circulated in china by preparatory committee of the beijing free
Trade union was translated into english by the hong kong federation of
Trade unions. Journal of democracy (national endowment for democracy) 7/92
161-2

China, 93-94 11/14/93 9 chinese prodemocracy activists announced
Formation of a group around “peace charter,” which calls for peaceful
Transition to democracy. Yang zhou and qin yongmin arrested. Journal of
Democracy (national endowment for democracy) 1/94 154

China, 93 Liang heng is on the editorial board of the journal of
Democracy. National endowment for democracy annual reports 9/93 14

China, 93 Ned and/or cipe supporting in china: chinese economists
Society, center for modern china, china perspective to support “the chinese
Intellectual”; columbia’s university’s center for study of human rights,
Center for chinese legal studies, and east asian institute for publications
And course development; democratic china magazine; ftui to enable asian
American free labor institute (aafli) to help activists in china and unions
In hong kong and funding hong kong confederation of free trade unions; ftui
To enable aafli support chinese activists in exile; future of china society
To support conference at princeton university’s woodrow wilson school;
Legal education and assistance project; iri to promote legislation; laogai
Research foundation; press freedom guardian; tibet fund; and, the today
Magazine. National endowment for democracy annual reports 9/93 39-40

China, 93 Ned/ftui/aafli grant to support chinese worker activists in
Exile and in china to strengthen hong kong confederation of trade unions;
And to continue publication of china note, which informs central role
Workers and unions play in struggle to create democratic societies.
National endowment for democracy newsletter 7/93 10

China, 93 Ned/ftui/aafli to support chinese worker activists in
Publicizing internationally standards for worker rights, to provide
Subsistence funds to activists in china and to support workers living in
Exile in the west. National endowment for democracy newsletter 3/93 6

China, 93 Ned, human rights in china given grant for legal project that
Gives legal advice and support for prisoners and disseminates materials in
China. <end 7/93 10

China, 94 Article, "the china syndrome," discusses the battle over trade
And human rights. Names chinese dissidents. U.s. News & world report
3/21/94 39-42

China, 94 Asia watch report notes wang wanxing, a political dissident,
Was arrested after staging a one-man demonstration in tiananmen square in
92. He is one of 1,700 named in report by asia watch, ny-based human rights
Monitoring org. Report states 93 was worst period for political arrests
Since mid-1990. 80% of arrests occurred in tibet where buddhist monks have
Demonstrated for independence from china. Washington post 2/21/94 a26

China, 94 China's dissidents emerging after 5 years – issuing bold public
Appeals for freedom of speech and right to represent workers and peasants.
Chinese gvt detained at least a dozen activists. Robin munro, hong kong
Director of human rights watch. Zhang kangshang. League for the protection
Of the rights of working people of the people's republic of china named.
Its emergence means chinese pro-democracy mve is getting organized. League
Said it has 120 members two of three principal sponsors detained, third,
Liu nianchun, disappeared. Dissident wei detained by police after meeting
With john shattuck, asst secretary state for human rights. About 2 hours
After being detained wei called his secretary, tong yi, who called news
Organizations. Within hours, president clinton was reacting to the
Detention. Washington post 3/13/94 a1,27

China, 94 Chinese dissidents ren wanding and wei jingsheng granted rfk
Human rights award. Both in jail in china so liu qing, who currently head
Ny-based human rights in china, accepted award. Ren wanding, founder of
China human rights league, was a leading figure in 78-79 Democracy wall
Movement. Journal of democracy (national endowment for democracy) 1/95 188

China, 94 Human rights groups expressed outrage re china's sentencing of
9 chinese dissidents – per human rights watch-asia – whose executive
Director is sidney jones. Hu shigen, rcvd 20 years; kang yuchun, a doctor,
17 years; liu jingsheng, 15 years; wang guowi, jailed for leading a
Counterrevolutionary group. Lu zhigang, chen wei, zhang chunzu, and wang
Tiancheng all received 5 year sentences for spreading propaganda and
Actively taking part in a counterrevolutionary group. Defendants arrested
In mid-92 for allegedly forming or joining 3 underground dissident groups.
Rui chaohuai was jailed for 3 years and li quanli placed under supervision
For 2 years. Washington times 12/18/94 a8

China, 94 Shanghai police detained 4 members of local "association for
Human rights," including ling muchen as he prepared to fly to u.s. For
Academic study. Others detained include dai xuezhong, liu guotao, chairman
Of the rights association and wang fuchen. Washington post 5/10/94 a13

China, 94 Zhang lin and his fellows formed league for the protection of
Working people that used safe houses and pledges of secrecy. Meetings with
Foreign journalists. Coded signals. Zhang had been arrested in beijing
Prior to 6/4/94 anniversary of 89 tiananmen square. U.s. News & world
Report 6/20/94 22

China, 95 Chinese premier li peng has ordered ministries of state
Security and public security to increase antidissident ops. According to
South china morning post, peng and state council secretary general luo gan
Have concluded that covert ops from a western gvt have been financing and
Lending support to dissident groups. Kyodo 5/30/95

China, tibet, 92 Chinese authorities arrested at least 69 persons for
Pro-tibetan pro-independence. London-based tibetan information network said
Arrests made in villages and remote tibetan monasteries. Washington times
6/20/92 a2

China, tibet, 93 International campaign for tibet, a non-gvt organization
(Ngo), pushing human rights in tibet at a press conference said china
Trying to change its image over rights violations in tibet. Lodi gyaltsen
Gyari, is president of the organization and once was part of the dalai
Lama's gvt. Reed brody was another participant at the press conference. He
Is director of the international human rights law groups. Tibet, a part of
China under last dynasty, was pried loose by england in 1911 when dynasty
Collapsed. Washington times 11/16/93 a12

In 90-91 Traditionalists upset at peace corps. Coverdell's efforts make
Corps a "vibrant, vital part of u.s. Policy" have upset traditionalists who
Say he is distorting agency's image as a largely non-political,
Person-to-person effort to help third world. Ig's report said it cutting
Back on aid to third world and diverting those resources chiefly to eastern
Europe. In east europe agency expected to have more than 400 volunteers,
Nearly three fourths of them teaching english. Poland alone to get 213
Volunteers. Volunteers to go to laos and mongolia, first marxist ruled
Nations to accept peace corps. Talks under way with china, mozambique, and
Yugoslavia. Also negotiating to renew philippines program. Wp 1/2/91 a1,5.
Paul d. Coverdell urging american cities use more than 120,000 vets his
Agency to teach disadvantaged youth. He said 300 withdrawn from middle
East. Another 3,000 return to u.s. Each year after overseas assignments.
Washington post 1/28/91 a9

Tibet, 94 Tibetans still flee chinese masters. 35 years after an uprising
Failed and the dalai lama fled to india, his people continue to follow him
Into exile. President clinton set as one condition on china for renewing
Mfn status, protecting tibet distinctive heritage. On 5/26 he dropped any
Further linkage between human rights and mfn trade status. Washington times
6/4/94 a9

Tibet, china, 94 Dalai lama, tibet's exiled leader, has dropped plans to
Move his hqs from dharamsala, india. Washington times 6/4/94 a8

China, 95 China expelled joseph wei chan, usaf liaison officer, and
Dwayne howard florenzie, assistant usaf liaison officer. Both were based at
The us consulate in hong kong. China said the two officers sneaked into a
Number of restricted military zones in china's southeast coastal areas and
Illegally acquired military intel by photographing and videotaping.
Officers were given 24 hrs. To leave the country. U.s. Has not protested
The expulsions. Mercury news wire services 8/2/95; cnn headline news 8/2/95

China, 95 China ordered expulsion of two u.s. Air force officers it has
Been holding for four days. They were caught spying in restricted military
Zones along the south-eastern coast. The two hong kong-based military
Attaches "sneaked" into restricted areas and illegally acquired military
Intel by photographing and videotaping. White house said the two were on
Authorized travel but did not deny spying charges. Detained americans were
Col. Joseph wei chan and capt dwayne howard florenzie, both air force
Liaison officers at u.s. Embassy in hong kong. Pentagon officials said both
Were defense liaison officers. Florenzie is an intel officer in acquisition
Management. Chan is ops commander and political-military affairs officer.
Attaches at every u.s. Embassy. Their job to monitor activities of military
Forces of host country and to carry out security-related tasks at the
Embassy. They usually work closely with intel officers. Bio on chan and
Florenzie. Washington post 8/3/95 a1,27

China, 94 Chinese journalist, gao yu, sentenced to 6 years in prison.
William orme, exo of committee to protect journalists, complains. Diasy li
Yuet-wah of the hong kong journalists association protests. Human rights in
China, organization, based in new york involved. Washington times 11/13/94
A11

93-95 U.s. Taking a crack at commercial democracy. From time it took
Office clinton adm made clear future of cia lay in turning its resources to
Detailed, focused gathering of economic intel. For years cia has helped
U.s. Trade negotiators, providing day-to-day assessments about strategies
Of countries across the table. Commerce dept's garten worked closely with
Cia to focus its attentions on big emerging markets (bems) [such as china,
Brazil, indonesia]. Last spring raytheon corp battled with thomson csf, a
Giant french electronics firm for right to lead a $1.4 billion project in
The amazon. Winner to set up complex surveillance system, using radar,
Satellite imagery and computers to measure health of rainforest, catch
Illegal mining ops and detect drug trafficking. Competition between french
And u.s. Corporations at fever pitch. Cia reported french offering bribes.
U.s. Complained and matched french's financing terms. New york times
2/19/95 business 1,6

94-95 Fbi moving abroad. Fbi director louis freeh whirlwind tour of
Eastern europe last year demonstrated fbi's intent to spread its influence
Abroad. According to specialists, the bureau now has agents in 21 countries
And continues to replace the cia as the agency reduces its foreign
Presence. Apparently the fbi considers it has eastern europe "under its
Belt" with international police training and liaison programs, and is
Moving on to new challenges, which include china and asia which freeh wants
To visit in the coming months. Intelligence – a computerized intelligence
Newsletter published in france 1/30/95 256/37

94 Fbi is expanding its international police training and liaison
Programs with russia and eastern europe and may spread them within asia
During coming months. Fbi director freeh planning to visit china in early
95 and could lead to similar programs in that part of world. Its growth
Overseas – agents in 21 countries, comes at a time when cia is cutting back
Its foreign posts which once numbered 100. Fbi says their role limited to
Law enforcement issues – drugs, money laundering and does not involve intel
Activities. To open regional police academy in budapest. Fbi in past has
Trained about 27,000 foreign police officials, including chiefs and
Maintains contact with many of them and frequently has them back for
Refresher courses. Washington post 12/14/94 a28

China, 90-93 Bin wu, 29, on trial for illegally exporting night vision
Equipment to china. He supposedly forced by chinese to choose between
Prison and spying. He accepted to go to u.s. As a spy. He turned by fbi and
Paid $21,000 over 18 months and arrested in october. Intelligence
Newsletter 6/17/93 5

China, 92 The fbi raising the specter of an intel threat from china.
Article lists china's spy net: ministry state security, international
Liaison dept, united front dept, military intel dept, new china news agency
And various research institutes. Washington times 1/18/92 a3

China, 95 China expelled joseph wei chan, usaf liaison officer, and
Dwayne howard florenzie, assistant usaf liaison officer. Both were based at
The us consulate in hong kong. China said the two officers sneaked into a
Number of restricted military zones in china's southeast coastal areas and
Illegally acquired military intel by photographing and videotaping.
Officers were given 24 hrs. To leave country. U.s. Has not protested the
Expulsions. Mercury news wire services 8/2/95; cnn headline news 8/2/95

China, 95 Harry wu arrested for stealing state secrets from china. He is
Research fellow at hoover institution and director of his own research
Foundation. He arrested in wuhan and accused of spying, buying secret info,
Stealing secret docs, and giving info to foreign organizations and
Institutions. Wu's passport name is peter h. Wu. Wu had carried a secret
Camera in 91 for a sixty minutes program. In 94 he videotaped alleged sales
Of human organs from executed prisoners. Washington times 7/6/95 a1,10 and
Washington post 7/9/95 a1,23

China, 85-95 China released a video of harry wu confessing to fabricating
Allegations about chinese prison labor and sale of organs. Jeff fiedler is
A union official who sits on board of wu's laogai foundation, which
Promotes wu's work. Washington post 7/28/95 a1,30

China, 90-91 Ned, foundation for human rights and democracy in china, to
Sponsor a conference to coordinate fund-raising and program activities for
U.s.-based chinese pro-democracy groups. 1990 $45,858, 1991 $218,439.
National endowment for democracy annual reports 90 20,91 36

China, 92 China expels ross terrill, a harvard research associate and a
China expert, who was an adviser to shen tong who was arrested for
Political activism. Qi dafeng and qian liyun were arrested with shen tong.
They were members of u.s.-based democracy for china fund. Washington times
9/3/92 a7

China, 92 Chinese authorities after arresting prominent dissident shen
Tong followed up by preventing his associate, u.s. Sinologist ross terrill,
From meeting with foreign reporters to distribute info about their
U.s.-based movement to promote democracy. Terrill,is a research associate
At harvard. Two french journalists seized along with shen were expelled to
Hong kong. Shen also representing an american consulting firm looking for
Potential investments. Shen heads massachusetts-based group called
Democracy for china fund and hoped to announce formation of a beijing
Office. Terrill is a member of its advisory board. His 2 associates, quian
Liyun – whose husband is a student leader now in the u.s. – and qi dafeng
Had been hired to work in beijing branch, according to marshall strauss,
The funds director. Washington post 9/2/92 a23,25

China, 93 China seeks apology in search of ship yin he. Washington post
9/5/93 a43

China, 93 Chinese ship searched for war chemicals – none found. State,
Pentagon and intel agencies fingerpointing over yin he incident. U.s.,
Based on highly reliable intel tips, accused china of using the ship to
Transport chemicals to iran. Washington times 9/8/93 a1,10

China, 93 U.s. Intel reported a chinese ship, bound for iran, was
Carrying chemical weapon ingredients. China protested when navy prevented
Ship from docking. China invited u.s. Authorities to inspect ship and open
Any of the 24 cargo boxes – on condition results be publicized. U.s. News &
World report 8/23/93

China, iraq, ussr, 81-92 Di analysis has fallen short in its primary
Tasks: to predict, warn and inform policymakers how events will affect u.s.
Interests. First word senior officials received about tiananmen square
Massacre, iraq invasion of kuwait, and attempted kgb/armed forces coup
Against gorbachev came from cnn, not cia. Ott, m. (1994). Article in
Foreign policy winter 93-94, "shaking up the cia" 141

China, 90 China's economy is in a deep recession that shows no signs of
Abating and is threatening the country's social stability, cia said beijing
"Is grappling with the fallout from over restrictive austerity policies"
That have "caused china's worst slump in a decade." washington post
6/29/90, a31

China, 91 Chinese economy in midst of strong recovery per cia report.
Washington times 8/9/91 c3

China, 93-94 Classified studies said the chinese leadership because of
Internal problems would be unlikely to support any liberalization and were
Not taking seriously u.s. Threats of higher trade tariffs. Washington post
5/31/94 a18

China, 89-93 China expelled labor activist han dongfang who tried to
Return home from u.s. He said he was beaten before being deported to hong
Kong. Han had attended human rights conferences and told president clinton
To consider labor conditions when renewing china's preferential trade
Status. Han, 30, founder of china's free trade union, was imprisoned two
Years following democracy demonstrations in china in 89. He released in 91.
Washington post 8/16/93 a18

China, 89-93 Han dongfan, organizer of china's first free trade union
During pro-democracy protests who was jailed, was thrown out of china upon
His return. Washington post 8/22/93 a25, washington times 8/22/93 a9

China, 91-92 With ned funding, the asian american free labor institute
(Aafli) publishes "china labor notes." national endowment for democracy
Annual reports 1992 19

China, 92 International confederation of free trade unions (icftu)
Published a report re establishment of free trade union of china, a "new
Underground movement formally launched in may 1992." a pamphlet dated
1/16/92, circulated in china by preparatory committee of the beijing free
Trade union was translated into english by the hong kong federation of
Trade unions. Journal of democracy (national endowment for democracy) 7/92
161-2

China, 94-95 Aafli funding leading labor activists inside china and in
Exile, to support trade unions in hong kong, and to produce monthly
Chinese-language china labor bulletin. National endowment for democracy
Newsletter summer 94-95

China, 92-93 China weekly charged foreign journalists stealing state
Secrets – article in outlook weekly 2/22/93 prominently featured two
Western reporters – lena sun of washington post and andrew higgins of a
London-based newspaper, the independent – who have been accused of stealing
Secret documents. Washington post 2/25/93 a19

China, 93 Letters to editor re voice of america. Sid davis program
Director's letter states voa reports in 46 languages. Tens of millions of
Chinese listened to voa during tiananmen crisis. Hundreds of local radio
Stations in e. Europe and ussr, africa and latin america have become voa
Affiliates, carrying voa programs. Salaries of employees at voa, radio free
Europe and radio liberty are paid by u.s. Gvt. Washington post 10/25/93 a18

82-93 Ned established as private, non-profit org in 83 to aid development
Democracy thru private-sector initiatives. Ned receives an annual grant,
Funded thru usia. Ned makes grants to orgs in u.s. And abroad that carry
Out democracy-building activities in priority countries. Grantees include
Free trade union institute of afl-cio, center for international private
Enterprise of u.s. Chamber of commerce, national democratic institute, and
International republican institute. Grants made for activities in labor,
Business and political, party development, civic education, independent
Media, and human rights. In china, $130,000 allocated to continue
Publication of a chinese language quarterly that promotes evolution of
China toward an open democratic society. Gao/nsiad-94-83 1/94 22

83-94 Ned's discretionary grants aimed at nondemocratic countries such as
Burma, china, cuba, and iraq. Grants small, and go to expatiate orgs to
Publish books, newspapers, train journalists, carry out civic education, or
Monitor human rights. Ned's discretionary grants reflect anti-communism –
Particularly in asia where burma, china and vietnam get major attention.
Ned projects cold war notion of democracy promotion as a crusade, a stark
Struggle between good and evil. Ned's acts generally consistent with other
U.s. Foreign policy and former senior gvt officials and other establishment
Insiders with conventional view of america's world role. Foreign policy mag
Summer (7) 94 129

91-92 Articles in the journal of democracy jan 92 include: "burma's quest
For democracy," by aung san suu kyi; "old paradigms & new openings in latin
America," b krauze; "russia's emerging political parties," by michael
Mcfaul; "haiti's shattered hopes," by pamela constable; indian democracy,"
By atul kohli; "eastern europe's `terrible twos,'" by muravchik; "role of
Interim gvts," by anyang' nyong'o; "the new germany," by szabo; and,
"Societal takeover in china and the ussr," by minxin pei. Journal of
Democracy (national endowment for democracy) 1/92

92-93 Activists named for 93 democracy award by chairman of ned, john
Brademas, include han dongfang; gitobu imanyara, kenyan journalist; and
Vesna pesic, serbian academic. Brademas' predecessor was winston lord, asst
Secretary of state for east asia and pacific affairs. Annual report for 93
Shows an expanded involvement in middle east, china, cuba and vietnam.
Resources used to support transition process in south africa and
Development throughout former ussr of free trade unions, independent media,
Human rights organizations, and groups advocating privatization and market
Economies. Grants given to cultural and civic groups in balkans and
Transcaucasus, indigenous human rights organizations in more than 12
African countries; chinese, burmese and vietnamese groups, groups in
Mexico, nicaragua, haiti, peru, argentina, and east west development
Foundation. Groups cooperating with ned include international center for
Human rights and democratic development in canada, westminster foundation
For democracy in great britain, japan institute for international affairs
And conrad adenauer foundation. National endowment for democracy annual
Reports 9/93 5-8

93 Ned holds 4th world conference in 4/93, dalai lama of tibet made
Opening remarks. Speakers in one panel were liu binyan of china, jose
Zalaquett of chile, kanan makiya of iraq, and lithuania's former president,
Vytautas. President clinton spoke at the reception. Journal of democracy
(National endowment for democracy) 7/93 140-1

93 Op-ed by james phillips, senior analyst at heritage foundation,
"Short-sighted ned-slayers." bemoans house action to eliminate funding for
Ned. Says ned has played vital role in former ussr, eastern europe, china,
Cuba, iran, iraq, nicaragua, vietnam and elsewhere. Ned-affiliated advisers
Help formulate election laws, train poll workers, monitor elections, and
Teach activists how to build political parties. Clinton adm request $20
Million increase in ned funding. Need to continue ned because it furthers
U.s. Interests; ned is cost-effective; and ned more entrepreneurial than
Other aid programs. Washington times 7/13/93 f3

China, 90 Ned, foundation for human rights and democracy in china, to
Bring together representatives of democratic movements in china and eastern
Europe at conference in berlin. $45,000. National endowment for democracy
Annual reports 90 20

China, 91-92 Chinese democracy activists and others participated in an
Ned-funded conference in wash d.c. Co-sponsored by the tibet forum and
Center for modern china. National endowment for democracy annual reports
1992 19

China, 91-92 Ned funded human rights in china (hric) and individuals with
Legal problems such as guo luoji, beijing historian yuan hongbing; legal
Scholar yu haocheng and former people's daily deputy editor wang ruoshui.
National endowment for democracy annual reports 1992 19

China, 92 Loss of central political control has allowed ned to expand its
In-country activity which had been focused on supporting projects outside
Of china. Concentrated on civil society development: promoting
Environmental awareness and activism; supporting democratic developments in
Regions of china with large tibetan population; legal education; and
Providing legal assistance for victims of political persecution. Ned grants
Supported ten publications in china that focused on labor, market
Economics, democratization movements inside and outside china, democratic
Process and development of pluralistic and civil societies. National
Endowment for democracy annual reports 1992 42

China, 93-95 On 6/19/95 chinese authorities detained ned grantee harry
Wu. He was charged with spying and found guilty and sentenced to 15 years
In prison and expulsion. He left 8/24/95, wu is executive director of the
Laogai research foundation, funded by ned. He testified before congress on
4/3/95 – testimony given. National endowment for democracy newsletter
Summer 95 4-5

China, 95 At a ceremony on 5/2/95, ned presented 95 democracy award
"Goddess of democracy" to monique mujawamariya of rwanda, elena bonner and
Sergei kovalev of russia, and sergio aguayo of mexico. National endowment
For democracy newsletter summer 95 1

China, africa, 94 In 10/94 ned's forum for democratic studies, sponsored
A day-long conference for political change in china. Memting attended by 35
Leading scholars, gvt officials, foundation executives, and chinese
Emigres. 12/7/94 forum held conference on nigeria. It brought together 35
Scholars, gvt officials, and human rights advocates, and representatives of
Nigeria's democracy movement. Journal of democracy (national endowment for
Democracy) 1/95

China, tibet, 94-95 The tibet fund for democracy programs in tibet.
National endowment for democracy newsletter summer 94-95

Worldwide, china, 93 Participants from 60 countries attended ned's 4th
World conference 4/26-7 in d.c. President clinton gave democracy awards to
Han dongfang, vesna pesic and gitobu imanyara. Award statues are replicas
Of "goddess of democracy" erected by chinese students in tiananmen square
In 89. National endowment for democracy newsletter 7/93 8 pages

China, australia, 90-95 Australia bugged chinese embassy for u.s.
Australian spies laid a net of fiber-optic listening devices throughout
Chinese embassy during its construction in late 80s. Bugging controlled by
Nsa. Info relayed directly from embassy to neighboring british high
Commission before beaming directly to u.s. Chinese embassy opened in 88.
U.s. Filtered info before relaying it back to australia. Washington times
5/29/95 a13

Asia, 92 Asian organizations supported by national endowment for
Democracy in 1992 include: american friends of afghanistan, cultural
Council of afghan resistance and quarterly journal, "afghan jehad;"
American friends of democracy in burma, democratic alliance of burma,
Associates to develop democratic burma to publish "burma alert;" cambodian
Documentation commission, khmer conscience; center for modern china, china
Perspective, inc., "the chinese intellectual," chinese alliance for
Democracy, "china spring" magazine, chinese democratic overseas center to
Support "times herald," democracy for china fund, democratic china, green
China, human rights in china, independent federation of chinese students
And scholars, international fund for the development of tibet, laogai
Research foundation, princeton china initiative; james f. Byrnes
International center of university of south carolina to enable leslie
Sawhny programme of bombay; indonesian legal aid foundation; indochina
Resource action center; u.s.-mongolia business council; nepal trade union
Congress; press foundation of asia and philippines chamber of commerce and
Industry and its "free the market, free the enterprise," paper, commission
Of elections; institute for democracy in vietnam, free market economic
Studies center at the university of economy, "que me," and democratic
Forum. National endowment for democracy annual reports 1992 42-49

China, 92 Senator biden sent top secret letter to gates accusing him of
[slanting intel] for political purposes. Newsweek 4/6/92 6

China, 90 James lilly ambassador to china and periodically proposed by
Hard-line d.c. Lobby and by u.s. News and world report to replace william
Webster as dci, probably saw chances of job disappear. On 12/3/90 with
Chinese ambassador to u.s., zhu qizhen, he lost his temper in public with
Human rights demonstrators. Intelligence newsletter 12/19/90 2

China, 92 James lilly once cia station chief in china who was ambassador
At the time of tiananmen square massacre, now is assistant secretary of
Defense for international security affairs. Washington times 9/17/92 a6

Dci webster rumored to be leaving. Cia's performance in crisis re china,
Panama, afghanistan, lebanon and eastern europe. Re iraq cia failed warn
Bush soon enough and forcefully enough in july 90 That iraq intended to
Overrun kuwait. Cia failed have high level human intel assets in bagdad.
Cia did not adequately analyze info it did receive from real strength of
Iraqi army to number of mobile scud missiles; from bomb damage assessments,
To info on deployment of chemical weapons. (Cia's ops directorate had less
Than handful of arabic-speaking officers at time of invasion.) ddo stolz's
Retirement from ddo job further weakened dci. Congressional democrats who
Supported economic sanctions angered when dci flip-flopped on issue. Gates
And james lilly named as possible replacements. Extensive bio of lilly. Na
4/15/91 cover, 484-488

91-93 The role of usia – it responsible for gvt's overseas info and
Cultural programs, including voice of america. It conducts activities such
As academic and cultural exchanges to press, radio, tv, film, seminar,
Libraries to strengthen greater support of u.s. Policies. 1/3 of its acts
Support democratic development. Usia conducts most programs thru direct
Interaction with overseas groups committed to democratization. Programs
Include academic exchanges, broadcasting to cuba, east/west center,
International visitors, north/south center, voice of america,
"Professionals in residence;" and, grant to national committee on
U.s.-china relations brought a delegation of chinese mayors to learn about
American political processes. Fulbright academic program gives grants to
U.s. Students, teachers, and scholars to study, teach, lecture and conduct
Research overseas and to foreign nationals to engage in similar acts in
U.s. Gao/nsiad-94-83 1/94 24-5

94 China assails u.s. Human rights policies. China notes its human rights
Policy is better than the u.s.'s "the incidence of crimes, murders,
Robberies, rapes, drug abuse and violence and racial discrimination in the
U.s. Comes first…u.s. Had a higher proportion of imprisoned people than
China. Washington post 2/28/94 a18

China, 78-94 Wei jingsheng one of most eloquent activists of 78-79
Democracy wall move arrested for one day and released prior to sos
Christopher's trip. Student leader wang dan also held for 24 hours. 3 other
Activists were arrested during earlier visit of john shattuck, assistant
Secretary of state for human rights. 5 reporters taken on tour of prison
Where tiananmen square activist, liu gang, held – but were not allowed to
Speak to him. Home of yang zhou surrounded by police when he to see
Shattuck. Washington post 3/6/94 a25

China, 94 China accused u.s.of playing power politics under guise of
Human rights. China said u.s. Distorting human rights accord for political
Gain. U.s. Has a high crime rate, racial discrimination, etc. It said u.s.
Prison population 4 times that of china – it has 150,000 homeless compared
With 2-3 million in the u.s. Washington times 2/28/94 a11

China, 94 Christopher will press china heavily on rights. Washington
Times 3/4/94 a13

China, 94 Following visit of sos christopher, an editorial in official
Guanming daily criticized some people abroad who put forward lists of names
Of allegedly persecuted peoples of various kinds and ask, in disregard of
Laws of china, for earlier release of prisoners on lists. Washington post
3/23/94 a27

China, 94 House of representatives backs president clinton's decision
Keeping china's most favored nation (mfn) trade status. Washington times
8/10/94 b12

China, 94 In dispute over human rights, beijing tells washington to mind
Its own business. Article discusses wang dan, wei jingsheng, liu nianchun,
A labor activist; yuan hongbing. Time 3/21/94 47

China, 94 Op-ed by warren christopher, "my trip to beijing was
Necessary." u.s. Policy for open societies as well as open markets.
Presidential order re progress in human rights for renewal of mfn status
For china. China, inter alia, gave info on 235 prisoners u.s. Had
Identified and promise to provide info on 106 imprisoned tibetans.
Washington post 3/22/94 a17

China, 94 Zhai weimin, who served 3 1/2-year sentence for his
Pro-democracy acts at tiananmen square mve – one of 9 dissidents rounded up
Recently and casts a pall on sos christopher's planned visit. Wei
Jingsheng's house surrounded by police. Wei has continued to press for
Democracy after more than 14 years in prison. His essays have been
Published abroad and he spoke to john shattuck. Qian yumin a signatory of a
"Peace charter" asking for moves toward democracy. Washington times 3/7/94
A1,15

China, 95 China claims u.s. Is trying to keep china permanently poor and
Backward. Washington post 8/24/95 a29

Indochina, 73-92 Documents show existence of pows after nixon said all
Had come home. List of 67 includes many whose remains have since been
Returned. Washington post 9/25/92 a22

China, 78-94 Pro-democracy activist zhang lin says democracy movement is
At a crossroads now. Zhang proselytizes 20 days of each month and claims
100 underground members. He estimates there are several hundred core cadres
Involved in pro-democracy in anhui province. "Our strength is much better
Now than at peak of 89 movement." zhang is a nuclear physics graduate. In
88, he tried to set up a guerrilla base in southwest yunnan province. In 79
When he at qinghua univ he got caught up in democracy movement. In 89,
During tiananmen square incident, zhang headed students autonomous union in
Bengbu and led local demonstrations and hunger strikes. He sentenced to 2
Years and released in march 91. Washington post 4/10/94 a1,27

China, 88-94 Prior to tiananmen square incident, ned had two offices in
China that gave regular seminars on democracy. Ned sponsored various
Chinese writers and publications. Probably ned or cia recruited numerous
Chinese students studying in u.s. When tiananmen square erupted, ned or cia
Probably sent or helped fax thousands letters to recipients in china,
Inflamed opinion via voice of america and sheltered a leading dissident in
U.s. Embassy – which also arranged for many dissidents to flee. Ned
Continues to support chinese dissidents and awards tiananmen's "goddess of
Democracy," to noted dissidents of all nations. In early 94, u.s. Tried to
Force china to ease political controls in exchange for continuation of most
Favored nation (mfn) trade status and called china a violator of human
Rights. In 5/94, chinese police detained 4 members of local association for
Human rights as one boarded flight to u.s.. Clinton, bowing to pressure
From business interests, separated human rights from china's mfn status.
July 1992 issue of ned's journal of democracy announces formation of new
Underground movement in china – free trade union of china. The announcement
Made by international confederation of free trade unions, a long-time cia
Labor front org. Mcgehee, r., ciabase update report 7/94

China, 91-93 Minxin pei, who has a ph.d. From harvard. As a student at
Harvard, he was active in the chinese overseas democracy movement. His
Article, "societal takeover in china and the ussr." journal of democracy
(National endowment for democracy) 1/92 108-18

China, 93-94 Wang juntao comments at ned on 8/25/94. Juntao is a central
Figure in the chinese democracy movement with his colleague chen jiming.
Juntao played a key role in organizing the spring 89 democracy movement.
National endowment for democracy newsletter winter 94

China, 89-94 Voice of america (voa) long a factor in parts of china. Voa
Broadcasts during 89 tiananmen square demonstrations impressive. During
Demonstrations voa telling chinese of the massacre in tianamen. Students,
Peasants and workers gathered to listen to voa. Each broadcast was
Transcribed and posted on walls. Voa so effective that chinese officials
Tried to discredit voa broadcasts as propaganda. They have been trying to
Jam voa since 5/21/89. Voa uses anti-jamming tactics and equipment. Jospeh
Duffey, usia director, is dubious about what radio free asia could offer
That wouldn't overlap voa. Senator biden aide says they hoping for
Democracy in china. Jack anderson washington post 1/10/94 c13

China, 90 Ned/ftui, to fund 12 issues of "china labor notes" newsletter
Produced by asian-american free labor institute (aafli). $20,892. National
Endowment for democracy annual reports 90 20

China, 91 Ned, china perspective, inc., for continued support of "the
Chinese intellectual." $130,000. National endowment for democracy annual
Reports 91 36

China, 92 Ned grants supported ten publications in china that focused on
Labor, market economics, democratization movements inside and outside
China, democratic process and development of pluralistic and civil
Societies. National endowment for democracy annual reports 1992 42

China, 94 Three chinese-language publications – democratic china
Magazine, today, and tendency quarterly funded by ned. National endowment
For democracy newsletter 94

95 State human rights annual report caused anger in china that told u.s.
Rights experts to mind their own business. Report said abuses in china
Worsened this year. John shattuck said there was a significant crackdown on
Dissent. Washington times 2/3/95 a18

China, 90-91 Ned, center for modern china, to initiate a program of
Research by scholars and experts on contemporary issues related to china.
1990 $50,000, 1991 $47,240. National endowment for democracy annual reports
90 20,91 36

China, 90 Ned, foundation for human rights and democracy in china, for
Its constituent organizations to implement multi-faceted program designed
To develop and disseminate information concerning human rights abuses.
$63,500. National endowment for democracy annual reports 90 20

Below is a brochure for CIABASE:

CIABASE is a computer data base on the Central Intelligence
Agency that provides a vital, easy-to-use, historical resource for
policy makers, academicians, journalists, activists, and students.

CIABASE consists of ten plus megabytes of data, divided into 100+
categories containing over 33,000 annotated and sourced entries,
for hard disk IBM compatible and MACINTOSH personal computers.

CIABASE provides data on the CIA and other individual or
organizational entities, from information gleaned from 850+
sources of various political ideologies — congressional
reports, newspapers, and magazines, including more than 500
books.

CIABASE provides rapid access to specific data, scanning in
seconds the entire collection for word, or word-combinations, plus
date requests; e.g."Covert Action" "China" "94-95," or, "Domestic
Operations," "96." Results can be displayed, printed, or sent to
user-named files for editing or transmitting.

Users comments:

Professor of intelligence at American University, and formerly
Commandant of the the Defense Intelligence College, John Macartney,
said "CIABASE remains a one-of-a-kind, extraordinary resource for
serious scholars, journalists, and researchers, regardless of their
political leanings and research interests…there are no alternates
out there. If there were, they would undoubtedly sell for thousands
of dollars….I am in awe of the massive effort….in short I have
found CIABASE invaluable, indeed indispensable…"
Dr. John Macartney, American University.

"An outstanding job." Seymour Hersh, Publitzer-prize-winning
journalist.

"A tremendously useful tool for any reporter or researcher."
The Nation.

"A powerful tool that includes obscure sources and a
comprehensive cross-index." The Progressive.

"An encyclopedia of CIA actions." San Francisco Chronicle.

"An amazing addition to the information world….
it is absolutely indispensable." Louis Wolf, editor
Covert Action Quarterly.

"Former CIA officer Ralph McGehee has recently updated his
excellent CIABASE system adding information from a number of new
on-line or printed publications…" "Intelligence" an on-line
magazine on worldwide developments in intelligence, 9/11/95.

The CIA called Ralph McGehee, who compiled CIABASE, an
analyst with few peers. McGehee served 25 years in the CIA,
14 years overseas as an operations officer and 11 years at its
headquarters. Upon leaving the CIA, McGehee wrote the book
"Deadly Deceits" and began the multi-year process of compiling
CIABASE. McGehee is a recognized authority on the CIA and has
testified many times both in Congress and in the courts and has
appeared numerous times on radio and TV.

Some CIABASE subject categories are:

Academia
Agent (types, handling)
Air Op and Airline
Ambassador (relations with)
Approvals
Assassinations
Assets
Bases
Biological War
Black Market
Book and Book Review
Bribery
Budget
Chemical War
Communist Threat
Computers
Conflict, LI
Consequences
Contragate
Coordination
Corporate Interests
Counterinsurgency
Counterintel
Cover
Covert Action
Cultural
Death Squads
Deaths (of CIA personnel)
Deception
Defense Dept
Domestic Op
Drugs
Economic Intel/War
Executive Order
Election
FBI
Flap
Forgery
Foundation
Front Org
Funding
Harassment
History
Intel Community
Intel F(ailure)
Intel Op
Intel S(success)
Intel-Policy
International Orgs
Investigation of
KGB
Labor
Law
Leaks
Liaison
Maritime Op
Media
Mercenaries
Military
Mind Control
Minorities
NED (National Endowment for Democracy)
NSAG (Nat Security Agency)
NSC (Nat Security Council)
Operation (by cryptonym)
Org, Ops (Adm, Intel, etc.)
Oversight
Overthrow
Paramilitary
Personnel (policies)
Police
Procedures
Propaganda
Proprietary
Psywar
Publication
Purpose of
Quote
Reconnaissance (tech ops)
Religion
Requirements
Sex
Special Forces
Stations
Students
Tech, Audio (Photo, SW, etc.)
Terrorism
Think Tank
Torture
Training
Veterans
Watch List
Weaponry
White Paper
Youth

———————————-
CIABASE ORDER FORM – IBM/MACINTOSH
———————————-

CIABASE works with any monitor. A hard disk is essential due to
the over 10MB of information with the 48K search program software.

IBM compatible: [ ] 3.5-inch, 720K disks. [ ] 3.5-inch, 1.4MB disks

MACINTOSH – check one [ ] 800K disks. [ ] 1.4MB disks

Please enclose a check or money order for $199.00 (no checks
drawn on foreign banks).

CIABASE provides original purchasers updates @ $99.00. CIABASE
holds most all source material and will photocopy for a fee.

CIABASE POB 5022 Herndon, VA, 20172-1961 Phone (703) 437-8487
Fax (703) 437-8487 rmcgehee@igc.apc.org

For a one-level trial search of CIABASE's four-field
search structure, see the prize-winning web site at —
http://www.webcom.com/%7Epinknoiz/covert/ciabase.html

Advertisements

About jimcraven10

About jimcraven10 1. Citizenship: Blackfoot, U.S. and Canadian; 2. Position: tenured Professor of Economics and Geography; Dept. Head, Economics; 3. Teaching, Consulting and Research experience: approx 40 + years all levels high school to post-doctoral U.S. Canada, Europe, China, India, Puerto Rico and parts of E. Asia; 4. Work past and present: U.S. Army 1963-66; Member: Veterans for Peace; former VVAW; Veterans for 9-11 Truth; Scholars for 9-11 Truth; Pilots for 9-11 Truth; World Association for Political Economy; Editorial Board International Critical Thought; 4.. U.S. Commercial-Instrument Pilot ; FAA Licensed Ground Instructor (Basic, Advanced, Instrument and Simulators); 5. Research Areas and Publications: International law (on genocide, rights of nations, war and war crimes); Imperialism (nature, history, logic, trajectories, mechanisms and effects); Economic Geography (time and space modeling in political economy; globalization--logic and effects; Political Economy and Geography of Imperialism); Indigenous versus non-Indigenous Law; Political Economy of Socialism and Socialist Construction; 6. Member, Editorial Board, "International Critical Thought" published by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences; International Advisory Board and Columnist 4th Media Group, http://www.4thMedia.org (Beijing); 7. Other Websites publications at http://www.aradicalblackfoot.blogspot.com; wwwthesixthestate.blogspot.com;https://jimcraven10.wordpress.com; 8.Biography available in: Marquis Who’s Who: in the World (16th-18th; 20th; 22nd -31st (2014) Editions); Who’s Who in America (51st-61st;63rd-68th(2014) Editions); Who’s Who in the West (24th- 27th Editions);Who’s Who in Science and Engineering (3rd to 6th, 8th, 11th (2011-2012) Editions); Who’s Who in Finance and Industry (29th to 37th Editions); Who’s Who in American Education (6th Edition). ------------------- There are times when you have to obey a call which is the highest of all, i.e. the voice of conscience even though such obedience may cost many a bitter tear, and even more, separation from friends, from family, from the state, to which you may belong, from all that you have held as dear as life itself. For this obedience is the law of our being. ~ Mahatma Gandhi
This entry was posted in 4th Media, Academia and Academics, Capitalism and Psycho-Sociopathy, China-U.S. Relations, Economic Development, Epistemology, Genocide in and From America, Indigenous Issues, Mainstream Media (MSM) Shills, New World Order, Nuremberg Precedents, Political Economy, Psychopaths in Management, Science and Method, Social Systems Engineering Campaigns, Sustainability, U.S. Terrorism, Veterans issues and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

3 Responses to Updated Essay on U.S. China Relations, Secret History and My Father’s Memories

  1. Pingback: UPDATED ESSAY: U.S. CHINA RELATIONS, SOME SECRET HISTORY AND MY FATHER’S MEMORIES |

  2. Rebecca says:

    Interesting Read

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s