U.S. Imperialism and the Sisyphean Quest for Full-Spectra Dominance and Power

U.S. Imperialism and the Sisyphean Quest for Full-Spectra Dominance and Power

Published at 4th Media (Beijing) By James M. Craven/Omahkohkiaaiipooyii

emperor's new clothes

FULL SPECTRA—NOT SPECTRUM—DOMINANCE

The U.S. Imperium and its Neocon, Neoliberal and bi-partisan theoretician-apologists like to use the term “full-spectrum dominance”. Actually, for what they really mean, they should really refer to “full-spectra dominance” because what they are really referring to and intend is the quest for dominance over all the different types of spectra or ranges of dominance requisite for the continuance and expanded reproduction of U.S. Imperialism globally. They seek dominance—not parity or security—over differing types of dynamic (shifting) spectra or ranges (plural) as suggested by their research funding and deployments of:

• The spectra of strategic and tactical geo-historically-sensitive regions, staging areas, bases and locales;

• The spectrum of potential realms of conflict and warfare (land, sea, air, space and cyberspace);

• The spectra of types of social formations and/at various levels of development (poor, intermediate, “developed”, “monopoly”, competitive, capitalist, socialist, semi-feudal, fascist and imperialist);

• The spectra of offensive weapons systems, and defenses against them (nuclear, conventional, WMDs, chemical, biological, psychological, propaganda, race-ethnic-specific, geo-spatial, weather, intelligence, electro-magnetic, economic, diplomatic and overall social systems engineering);

• The spectra of alliances and alliance structures (military, economic, political, diplomatic, socio-cultural, religious and ideological, ethnic);

• The spectra of offensive and defensive response doctrines and capabilities (pace, flexibility, force size, specialization, general and context-specific capabilities, adaptability, lethality, precision, contingency, collateral damage risks, logistics);

• The spectra of personnel quality, training regimes and support structures for U.S. forces and allies;

• The spectra of centers for R & D, new invention and innovation;

• The spectrum of forms of warfare (conventional, guerrilla, psychological, terrorism, economic, diplomatic, covert and clandestine, nuclear, tactical-nuclear, counter-Insurgency, counter-terrorism, sanctions regimes);

• The spectra of forms and instruments of strategic control of resources, staging areas, transportation-communications systems and routes;

• The spectrum of strategic global institutions (UN, OECD, World Bank, IMF, NATO, etc.);

• The spectra of investment outlets, critical markets and centers of finance;

• The spectra of global centers of learning, R & D and sources of highly-skilled labor power;

• The spectra of global centers and instruments of culture, news media, entertainment, publishing, tourism and recreation;

• The spectra of global centers, institutions, instruments of religious and ideological influence;

• The spectra of centers of emerging power-players, and sources and forms of global influence and concern;

• The spectra of institutions, instruments and methods of mind control, indoctrination of the young and “manufactured consent”.

• The spectra of forms, sources, resources and instruments of power (soft, hard and “smart”; economic, politico-legal, diplomatic, technological, socio-cultural, geo-historical,);

• The spectra of strategic trade routes, sea lanes, air corridors and railway infrastructure;

THE MEMES AND VOCABULARY OF DOMINANCE AND POWER

promises have been kept

The language the theoreticians of the U.S. Imperium use is always the language of authority and dominance. It is the language of grandiosity and hubris embodied in notions of some kind of “Manifest Destiny” as their self-and-summarily-asserted “authority” for forms of hegemony they are determined not to allow any other nation or force to even attempt parity let alone achieve dominance. The first of the immigrants and genocidal maniacs into North America, the Pilgrims, were Calvinists and proto-fascists who spoke of creating a “City-on-the-Hill” example for all other societies to emulate.

They and many of their modern-day descendants still in positions of power due to their lineages, spoke of and employed Calvinistic constructs such as “Predestination” and “Preordination” (to be in God’s grace and to rule those not deemed to be in God’s grace) as sources of justification and legitimization of their genocidal rule and theocratic intentions. Indeed many of the secret societies today, along with some of the global institutions of transnational elite networking and rule, such as Bilderberg, Bohemian Grove, Skull and Bones, Scroll and Key, the Council on Foreign Relations, Trilateral Commission, etc., brag about and specifically recruit, those in their ranks from “Pilgrim Stock”. They are all about a term they claim is to ephemeral and “squishy” to be measured and thus to be even listed in the indexes of “mainstream” texts in Economics—power.

The power players of the U.S. Imperium used to avoid the term “power” altogether. In addition to arguing that “power” is a construct too difficult to define let alone quantify , they spoke of “cooperation”, “mutual assistance and advantage”, “partnerships”, comparative-mutual advantage, specialization and the like. And if and when they used the term “influence” if at all, it was always framed not as a source or instrument or even form of power, but rather as: “We are simply helping, actually at sacrifice to ourselves, your nation to achieve not what necessarily we want you to achieve, in our interest, or in our interest only, but what we know that you want to achieve and that indeed all or most “free” people want—or “should want”—to achieve. But power is like the proverbial elephant that is difficult for several blinded persons to describe in the abstract or to agree upon after each touches only a particular part of the whole animal.

Various resources, instruments or arenas of power and power projection are often seen as forms of power themselves. But we know that power, and even the resources and instruments used to gather, apply and project power, are ephemeral, context dependent, transitory, and often illusive. If power is defined as some objective capacity, capability or force to actually realize (not just attempt) intended and preferred outcomes and agenda, then it is outcomes, not intentions or levels of development of the instruments and resources of power that ultimately define and measure power. We have all sorts of examples in history and in the present of those with ample resources and weapons, and high levels of development of the resources and instruments of power—hard, soft and “smart” —the gathering, holding and projection of it, failing to use them effectively and thus not able to actually realize intended and preferred outcomes and agenda against those holding fewer and less sophisticated resources and implements of potential power.

HARD, SOFT AND SMART POWER

weapons of mass instruction

We have many examples going back to before the Roman Empire where some forms of hard power undermined and contradicted forms of soft and alleged “smart” power and vice-versa. So the resources and instruments of power and power projection are at best indices of power potential. They are not identical to power and the objective capacities and capabilities, force if you will, of actual achieved and actualized power potential as measured in actual realized outcomes in terms of intended and preferred outcomes and agenda. Thus what appears to be surrender or loss of power, with the surrender or loss of control of or access to instruments and resources of power, may well actually add to real power as manifested and measured in the objective ability to realize intended preferences and agenda. The writings of the Chinese classics such as Sun Tze and Kong Ze are full of examples of appearances, contrived or otherwise, of loss of some control of traditional resources, sources and instruments of power actually adding to and not detracting from, realized power as measured (tautologically to be sure in some cases) in actual capabilities to pursue, impose, attain, co-opt or seduce others in the realization of intended and preferred outcomes and agenda .

With the clear losses by the U.S. Imperium in power projections and “LICs” (Low-intensity Conflicts) Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Iraq and Afghanistan, and with various CIA operations past and present all resulting in “Blowbacks” The U.S. has more not less enemies abroad as well as at home. The CIA has more not less critics and has gone through several Directors who did not last long nor improve the image of CIA. There are more not less local insurgencies on the horizon. The U.S. has less not more allies willing to commit forces in Counter-insurgency (COIN) or Counter-terrorism (CT) campaigns. The U.S. and the world economy face more and more severe fiscal crises constraining hard, soft and smart power projections not less. Insurgents have more not less examples of how the forces of the U.S. Imperium and its allies can be tied-up and ultimately drained through asymmetric warfare. The U.S. population as shown in polls is less not more willing to support future wars like those in Iraq and Afghanistan and are more not less cynical about how exactly and with what authority and what were the real reasons for U.S. campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan . The U.S. has had to summarily dump not protect, more and more dysfunctional and increasingly impotent dictators overthrown by popular uprisings thus sending signals to past and present allies that the U.S. can no longer protect their client regimes from the wrath of their victims. There is more and more talk inside and outside of the U.S. of the fall of the American Empire and even using terms like American Imperium and Empire not typically used before .

“SHOCK AND AWE”—AMERICAN FOR THE NAZI CONSTRUCT OF BLITZKRIEG

In both the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, the U.S. started out with simple “Shock and Awe” military actions designed as originally intended to bully, threaten and signal that any resistance would be futile, bloody and costly. The notion of “Shock and Awe” and the potential power embodied in such campaigns, meant that there was no need for operational definitions or metrics of “victory” or “success” (it was seen as “guaranteed” whatever it was and however measured); no criteria or metrics for when and how to exit; no criteria for when and how to declare victory; and no plans or resources for the post-war rebuilding of the societies targeted for invasion. As both American and allied as well as insurgent losses mounted, and hearts and minds were not being won or even sought, there then came a period of supposed “reassessment” and of “learning” or “relearning” the lessons of Vietnam (that were well known already).

New COIN and CT manuals were created after almost 30 years of no change in COIN doctrine since Vietnam , followed by new commitments to once again going beyond mere “kenetics” [violence] and military actions to COIN or full-blown counter-insurgency campaigns. These would be “holistic” (military, politico-legal, socio-cultural, geo-historical, economic and technological) designed not only to win hearts and minds, but to rebuild whole new nations and institutions of nations in the process. COIN became defined as militarized nation building even by those like Bush who once professed that the U.S. should never be involved in nation building.

But gradually with mounting losses and fiscal crises from wars funded on credit to be paid for by future generations, with the true costs in terms of blood, treasure and deaths of innocents carefully hidden (by an embedded, compliant, protected and beholden mainstream media) but increasingly difficult to hide, the U.S. Imperium has once again shifted from very costly COIN to less costly, more tailored, more military, more focused and more high-tech CT rather than expanded COIN. The U.S. Government, again, as in Vietnam, Lebanon and elsewhere, wanted “surges” of military forces to provide enough lull in the fighting or diminished military action to be able to get out but without the naked loss-of-face like the exit from Vietnam and leaving with their tails between their legs–while leaving former allies and collaborators to the mercy of the victorious insurgents.

No one asked the key questions: “How do you have a “successful” surge or any military actions in an aggressive, unilateral and illegal war founded on lies and cherry picked intelligence and doctrines of the kind that Nazis were hanged for at Nuremberg? How do you win over hearts and minds when on the wrong side of history, inflicting “collateral damages” and direct intended damages from weapons systems not anywhere near as accurate as portrayed, and all while murdering and torturing the very people, and their families, whose hearts and minds you claim to be trying to win over?

THE LABOR OF SISYPHUS

The U.S. Imperium is caught in several contradictions and cognitive dissonance traps of its own making. It is like the character Sisyphus in Greek mythology doomed to roll a rock uphill never to reach the top of the hill. Not only are the fiscal and other constraints, forms of impotence, lack of willingness or power to stand with despotic allies about to be overthrown and other forms of compromise and hypocrisy more and more evident to enemies and allies alike, but future crises on the horizon are partly being shaped by the impotence and lack of doctrine by the U.S. in the present. New crises, contradictions and paradoxes expose present and past impotence, lack of appropriate force structures, lack of correct doctrines and lack of will to support allies under siege for their own despotism.

They also signal and encourage new insurgencies in the future and while also signaling allies who are also competitors in the global economy to be careful of what alliances with the U.S. they form and hold on to. The old joke was that “The Cold War is over—and Japan won” because the Cold War military and other expenditures by the U.S. while Japan remained under the alliance protection of the U.S. created vacuums for economic competitors against the U.S. who were also U.S. allies to exploit and carve out expanded shares of global markets, strategic resources and investment outlets. Now we see some nations urging the U.S. to go where they dare not go and prepared to capture windfalls while they urge U.S. forces and resources onward.

Just as terrorism by insurgents is attempted insurgency on the cheap (in terms of blood and treasure) an admission of impotence as well as impatience, the same applies with respect to counter-terrorism U.S.-style (CT) in lieu of full-blown counterinsurgency (COIN). Terrorism is based on the bogus notion of “politics of the deed” as if asymmetric and alienating forms of terrorism in particular events and actions, somehow signal power and attract new supporters the more theatrical the deed. This is an anarchist notion and of course anarchists have never produced a sustained and sustainable revolution anywhere. Terrorism is infantilism and worse; it alienates those whose hearts and minds it seeks to recruit far more than recruiting them; and the same applies to U.S.-style CT. Whereas terrorism is indifferent to “collateral damage” so is CT American-style. Terrorism does not educate or persuade but coerces, threatens and intimidates as does U.S.-style CT. Terrorism does not act openly, with transparency and accountability but hides its effects, sources, methods and intentions as does U.S.-style CT.

With more military and diplomatic loses since Vietnam, with fiscal crises mounting, the search for high-tech solutions to modern warfare and problems of gaining and sustaining popular support for wars (at home as well as among the populations under the insurgents) has steadily increased. America’s grand strategy of “Full Spectrum Dominance” was first revealed in the 1998 US Space Command document – Vision for 2020. This document, later released in 2000 as DOD Joint Vision 2020, called for “full spectrum dominance” over all land, surface and sub-surface sea, air, space, electromagnetic spectrum and information systems with enough overwhelming power to fight and decisively win in global wars against any adversary, including with nuclear weapons preemptively. Other spectra of weapons, arenas of combat and institutions were suggested as well including propaganda, NGOs and popular uprisings for regime change, along with expanding NATO eastward into the former USSR, and “a vast array of psychological and economic warfare techniques” as part of a “Revolution in Military Affairs” were proposed.

propaganda jstauber-l

According to Joseph Nye, the global system of power structures, networks, patterns (over time and space) and relations may be seen as a form of “Vulcan Chess” or three-dimensional chess with a central chessboard for forward and backward (first dimension) as well as lateral left and right moves (second dimension), and, a third dimension (up an ddown) with an upper chessboard for moves to positions upward or above the positions on the central chessboard; and a lower chessboard for moves to positions below those on the central chessboard. Nye sees the global networks, structures, patterns and relations of power as involving very complex interactions within and between entities along the three dimensions of power.

The upper chessboard is seen as a dimension of global military networks, structures and relations with the U.S. seen as the predominant even unrivalled unipolar military forces globally for some time to come. The central chessboard is seen as the dimension of economic power structures, patterns (over time and space) and relations that is multi-polar with significant new economic rivals and power players emerging. The lower chessboard is seen as the dimension of non-state actors, power structures patterns (over time and space) and relations; this dimension includes not only non-state terrorist groups and private militias, but NGOs, non-state nations that are parts of multi-nation nation-states, foundations, charities, think tanks and the likes of elite gatherings at Davos, Bilderberg, Bohemian Grove et al.

chessboard

The notion that on the military plane or dimension of global power networks, structures and relations the U.S. has no rivals and will likely be dominant for some time to come, makes the same error that Nye points out and warns against: mistaking potential resources and capabilities for power projections as “fait accompli” or as actual and realized outcomes that, in fact, may or may not result from given potentialities and resources of power projection. It is often a wide gap between power resources, tools and potentialities on the one hand versus results in actual and actually realized preferred outcomes and agenda on the other hand.

The fact that the U.S. came out with the stalemate in the Korean conflict given the gross disparities in capabilities between the DPRK and the U.S., speaks to the real ineffectiveness of military forces even when fully equipped with the most sophisticated weapons systems yet on the wrong side of history, with incorrect Doctrine guiding them, with incompetents directing them, and without enduring popular support that will endure no matter how protracted the wars and their costs in blood and treasure. In this full context, the U.S. lost the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Iraq War, and the Afghanistan War, along with several covert and clandestine operations

“EVERYBODY WANTS TO GO TO HEAVEN BUT NOBODY WANTS TO DIE”

The U.S. now seeks wars without large body-counts (American and allied) coming home to undermine any popular support from a population raised in a culture of instant gratification. They seek allies and proxy wars to front more of the costs of blood and treasure of these wars even as they undercut these allies in economic competition and protectionism and even summarily and openly dump former allies like Mubarak of Egypt no longer seen as useful. They seek weapons systems like drones that can not only be operated covertly and clandestinely without transparency or accountability, and thus without open and naked civilian deaths and war crimes attributed to the U.S., but that are weapons that are capital-intensive, high-tech and supposedly “smart” to reduce “collateral damage”, deaths of U.S. forces and associated the losses of popular support at home and abroad that go with them.

The U.S. Imperium seeks an all-volunteer military and no draft in order to recruit and retain a corps of troops ideologically on the same page of the regimes that control and profit from imperialism. They seek quick “Blitzkrieg” or “Shock-and-Awe”-like wars that are over quickly before the forms and levels of impatience of the populace sets in and turn into non-support or even outright resistance. They seek methods of interrogation, international law and treaties against torture be damned, that produce “instant results” and what they call “actionable” and “real time” intelligence; with “justification” solely on the basis of expedience. They seek to bully other nations and without the usual responses from those who are bullied into submission or into approval of the intentions and agenda of others. They seek “manufactured consent” of the home and foreign populaces with respect to costly and illegal wars undertaken in their name. They seek “smart weapons” that are precise, flexible, adaptable, lethal, mobile, small and relatively cheap to operate and maintain; weapons that hide the true costs and carnage of war. They seek dominance in international institutions like the UN where they can get multilateral approvals, coalitions and covers for illegal and aggressive wars of the kind the Nazis were hanged for at Nuremberg. They seek Total Information Awareness” (TIA) on all systems and persons of interest without the “paralysis of analysis” and data-information overload .

TIA

brainwashing America

The U.S. Imperium understands on an intellectual level that “Shock and Awe” is about coercion and intimidation and inconsistent with winning hearts and minds. They understand the aphorism of Goethe that “None are so hopelessly enslaved as those who falsely believe they are free.” They seek sources and methods of mind control, agenda influence, persuasion and attraction. They are funding brain research and research into memetics, hypnosis, thought identification and reading, subliminal advertising and influence and into new frontiers in pedagogy and social systems engineering. The idea is to find mechanisms and instruments through which the masses can energetically participate in their own enslavement and brainwashing along with welcoming agenda, preferred outcomes and interests not their own but adopted and internalized as their own.

Be a good American

The U.S. Imperium understands that the most effective forms of power are those more covert and subliminal. They understand that if whole populations can be taught and brought into notions that the agenda, preferred outcomes and values of the U.S. Imperium are their own, and that they will benefit more than being harmed, then this is to be preferred over naked terrorism and forms of repression designed to force and coerce, rather than seduce, mass acceptance if not overt support for the policies and machinations of the U.S. Imperium.

They want it all and they want it now.

FOOTNOTES:

Power is one of those constructs and forces difficult to define and measure in the abstract but is clearer when assessed in terms of outcomes actually realized rather than in the potential resources and instruments of power that may or may not be effectively employed to realize actual preferred outcomes and agenda. Power is: contextual; ephemeral; relative and relational; transitory; scope-depth-domain dependent; overt and covert;

2. See Nye, Joseph The Future of Power, Public Affairs Books, N.Y. 2011, pp. 3-18; Nye defines power in terms of outcomes rather than potentialities as the capability or force to realize preferred outcomes and agenda—not necessarily over or against the preferred outcomes and agenda of others. Often the resources and instruments of potential power (which may or may not be used most effectively and may or may not translate into realization of preferred outcomes and agenda; cooptation and manufactured “consent” are also instruments of power) are confused with power (as measured in behavioral outcomes realized) itself. Mainstream textbooks in Economics, that speak of imperfect competition and market power nonetheless do not have the word or construct power anywhere in their indexes.

3. Joseph Nye got in early and cornered the academic market niche dealing with the defining and measurement of various forms of power. “Hard power” refers to military and other forms of direct and potentially violent and “kenetic”-based capacities to realize intended and preferred outcomes and agenda; “soft power” refers to capacities to realize intended outcomes based on persuasion and attraction; “smart power” is supposed to be capacities to realize preferred outcomes and agenda based on tailored recipes or algorithms of hard and soft power.

4. Classical Aikido and Jujitsu are all about using the force and potential power of the opponent against him to create a chasm between the level of power potential and its actual diminished realization. The most effective power is that which is disguised and even portrayed as diffused power when it is not. For example the notion that increasing shares of stocks among the general population diffuses and democratizes power over those corporations is a myth because of dispersion of stock among parties who will never meet or act collectively allows a tight-knit group to maintain effective control and power with fewer and fewer shares of total voting stock. The same principle applies with respect to supposed free elections as a measure of “democracy”. With fewer and fewer shares of the potential electorate voting due to mass cynicism, and with more and more parties and candidates running for office, a given candidate can wind up elected with smaller and smaller shares of the potential electorate voting for him. Thus the appearance of diffusion of power actually aids in the concentration and centralization of power.

5. Blowback is a term first used in a CIA after-action report on the 1953 U.S. British and CIA overthrow of freely elected Mossadegh in Iran to mean the possibility, which came to pass, of covert operations resulting in exactly the opposite outcomes intended by the covert operations and even worsening of the situations they were intended to deal with. Virtually all of the studies, or most of them of CIA and other U.S. intelligence agencies, including those written by insiders who remained pro-CIA document virtually all of the past CIA covert and clandestine operations resulting in worsening the situations they were designed and intended to ameliorate and in worsening the reputation and influence of CIA and other U.S. institutions. See for example: Weiner, Tim Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA, Anchor Books, N.Y. 2008 references and notes. Tim Weiner does the same with FBI documenting a long history of “Blowbacks” where power potential was undermined and not realized rather outcomes and agenda opposite of those intended and preferred resulted over and over: Weiner, Tim; Enemies: The History of the FBI, Random House Books, N.Y. 2012 Examples of very pro-CIA memoires that wind up documenting serial Blowbacks and U.S. intelligence/warfare failures since 1945 include Holm Richard, The Craft We Chose: My Life in the CIA, Mountain Lake Press, 2011 and the extremely pro-CIA memoire of Henry A. Crumpton The Art of Intelligence: Lesson’s From a Life in the CIA’s Clandestine Service, Penguin Press, N.Y. 2012 documents both failures and Blowbacks in Afghanistan and Iraq while attempting to sanitize the history of CIA including while he was in it. We can also add the memoires of Robert Bayer to the list of former insider memoires revealing at times a bungling CIA and at other times an outright criminal enterprise.

6. Former 4-star general David Petraeus is but one of several former CIA directors who wound up exposing the CIA as anything but the omniscient, omnipotent or omnipresent—or even minimally competent—entity that some of its supporters would have us believe. He was caught in an affair with a woman who was his self-described “biographer” using common email systems that would have and likely did compromise Petraeus’ security even in just in terms of his itineraries which were classified. In any case, having an official biographer using public resources is not on the list of allowed perks for generals or CIA directors and this whole affair showed how sloppy his vetting was along with how poor was his tradecraft and that of his mistress Paula Broadwell both with high-level security clearances.

7. Recent polls show some 70%+ of the population willing to support drone strikes and assassinations if they mean that real terrorists are being hit and if it means that fewer American body bags will be coming home. But there are still the mounting and prohibitive costs of U.S. wars and power projections, largely unfunded out of present budgets that are key in current fiscal crises. Indeed the whole focus on restructuring the U.S. military is on a more mobile, lethal, accurate, flexible, adaptable, customized and high-tech force structure run by highly-trained forces able to project power from U.S. soil or from carrier groups deployed thus reducing the costly and alienating military bases abroad and the numbers of body bags coming home to Dover Air Force base in Delaware that also cost public support for U.S. wars and covert/clandestine operations.

8. Even historians specializing in the Rise and Fall of Empires like Carroll Quigley in his opus Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time , GSG & Assoc., San Pedro, CA. 1966 referred to an “American Empire (?)” posing the question if the word “empire” or the word “imperialism” does now or ever did apply to America whereas Joseph A. Tainter referred to The Collapse of Complex Societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. 1988 . In bookstores like Barnes and Nobel there are whole sections about the rise and fall of empires like Rome and the possible parallels with the U.S as an empire or Imperium like Rome; there are books, magazines, DVDs on Mayan and other supposed Biblical prophecies of the Apocalypse, get-rich-quick schemes; the occult and cults, power networks, arresting aging, hitting the Lotto, pandemics, lessons of Vietnam, the rise of China and other potential superpower rivals, and general themes of approaching “End times”.

9. Shock and Awe was a supposed “Doctrine” [that word is used to denote something somber, thought out, strategic and high level policy] defined by its authors Harlan K. Ullman and James P. Wade of the National Defense University as “Rapid Dominance” designed “to affect the will, perception, and understanding of the adversary to fight or respond to our strategic policy ends through imposing a regime of Shock and Awe.” And “impose this overwhelming level of Shock and Awe against an adversary on an immediate or sufficiently timely basis to paralyze its will to carry on . . . [to] seize control of the environment and paralyze or so overload an adversary’s perceptions and understanding of events that the enemy would be incapable of resistance at the tactical and strategic levels.” (Harlan K. Ullman and James P. Wade, Shock And Awe: Achieving Rapid Dominance (National Defense University, 1996), XXIV.

10. U.S. Army (No. 3-24) and U.S. Marine Corps (No. 3-33.5) Joint Counterinsurgency (COIN) Field Manual, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2007 and U.S. Army Stability Operations Field Manual No 3-07, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 2009 In the Forward to the COIN Manual John Nagl writes: “…the sad fact is that when an insurgency began in Iraq in the late summer of 2003, the Army was unprepared to fight it. The American Army of 2003 was organized, designed, trained, and equipped to defeat another army; indeed it had no peer in that arena….The story of how the Army found itself less than ready to fight an insurgency goes back to the Army’s unwillingness to internalize and build upon the lessons of Vietnam.” (P. xiii) and “Former Vice-Chief of Staff of the Army General Jack Keane concurs, recently noting that in Iraq: ‘We put an Army on the battlefield that I had been a part of for 37 years. It doesn’t have any doctrine, nor was it educated and trained to deal with insurgency…After the Vietnam War, we purged ourselves of everything that had to do with irregular warfare or insurgency because it had to do with how we lost that war. In hindsight that was a bad decision.’ (General Jack Kean on “The Jim Lehrer News Hour”, 18 April, 2006 quoted by Nagl, Ibid, p. xiv)…When the Iraqi insurgency emerged, the Army had not published a field manual on the subject of counterinsurgency for more than twenty years, since the wake of the El Salvador campaign.” (Nagl, Ibid, p. xiv)

11. Cognitive dissonance refers to dissonance or disharmony that is physiologically and psychologically disturbing caused by contradictions between: facts versus beliefs; facts versus emotions; beliefs versus emotions. The attempts to portray and create a mass belief in an Imperium not in decline and able to project various forms of power globally with impunity are contradicted by the inability of the U.S. forces to handle relatively poor, unarmed and untrained insurgents practicing asymmetric warfare and able to strike deep within U.S. controlled areas at will. The notion that the U.S. has come to liberate and promote “democracy” is contradicted by the wide array of despots and dictatorships supported by the U.S. for no other reason than they profess anti-Communism and promise to remain reliable client states. Not only are supporters from the masses deterred but potential despotic regimes that are allies of the U.S. are also deterred as they see they will be dumped like Mubarak of Egypt, Assad of Syria (once an ally of the U.S. in 1991 against Saddam Hussein and a sub-contractor in torture for U.S. extraordinary renditions), Saddam Hussein (once a CIA asset and ally against Iran), Kaddafi (once also an ally of the U.S. and destination for extraordinary renditions).

12. Lendman, Stephen, “Full Spectrum Dominance: Totalitarian Democracy in the New World Order; Review of F. William Engdahl’s Book”; Global Research, http://www.globalresearch.ca/full-spectrum-dominance-totalitarian-democracy-in-the-new-world-order/14046

13. This refers to the character Spock in the TV series “Star Trek” who, as a Vulcan, was super intelligent but devoid of sentiment or emotion and who played three-dimensional chess where pieces moved not only forward and backward, sideways left and right, but also into positions on separate chessboards to above-positions and below the main chessboard (where moves were the usual two dimensional forward and backward or left or right laterally) to below-positions on the lower chessboard.

14. Covert operations are designed to be secret but if discovered not denied whereas clandestine operations are designed not only not to be discovered, but if discovered, to provide “plausible deniability” as to who ordered and carried them out.

15. See Craven, James “Just War: The Interrelated Predicates and Precedents of Nuremberg” at http://jimcraven10.wordpress.com/2012/07/06/just-war-and-the-interrelated-predicates-and-precedents-of-nuremberg/

16. See Bamford, James on the NSA and TIA versus information overload and the “paralysis of analysis” in The Puzzle Palace: A Report on America’s Most Secret Agency, Houghton-Mifflin, N.Y. 1982; The Puzzle Palace: Inside the National Security Agency America’s Most Secret Intelligence Organization, Viking Press, N.Y. 2001; Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency Anchor Books, N.Y. 2002; The Shadow Factory: The Ultra-Secret NSA From 9/11 to the Eavesdropping on America, Doubleday Books, N.Y. 2008; A Pretext for War: 9/11, Iraq and the Abuse of America’s Intelligence Agencies, Anchor Books, N.Y. 2005 These books and others like them document hundreds of thousands hours of intercepts of phone and other electronic messages and millions of documents prior to and after 9/11 that remain un-translated due to lack of translators and information overload.

17. See Craven, James “I Want it all and I want it Now: The Real National Anthem of the United States” http://jimcraven10.wordpress.com/2012/09/05/i-want-it-all-and-i-want-it-now-the-real-national-anthem-of-america-and-capitalism/ and http://www.4thmedia.org/2012/09/10/i-want-it-all-and-i-want-it-now-the-real-national-anthem-of-america-and-capitalism/

Posted in Capitalism and Psycho-Sociopathy, Decline of the American Imperium, International Law and Nuremberg Precedents, Logic of Capitalism and Imperialism, NED and other Fronts of Imperialism, New World Order, Nuremberg Precedents, Social Systems Engineering Campaigns, U.S. IMPERIAL DECLINE, U.S. Terrorism | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

RULE OF LAW–OR OF THE RUTHLESS: WHY LAW–INTERNATIONAL OR OTHERWISE?

WRITTEN FOR 4TH MEDIA BEIJING

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Rule of Law—or of the Ruthless: Why Law—International or Otherwise?
By Jim Craven/Omahkohkiaaiipooyii

“The privilege of opening the first trial in history for crimes against the peace of the world imposes a grave responsibility. The wrongs which we seek to condemn and punish have been so calculated, so malignant, and so devastating that civilization cannot tolerate their being ignored because it cannot survive their being repeated.. We must never forget that the record on which we judge these defendants today is the record on which history will judge us tomorrow. To pass these defendants a poisoned chalice is to put it to our own lips as well. We must summon such detachment and intellectual integrity to our task that this trial will commend itself to posterity as fulfilling humanity…” (Opening address at the first Nuremberg Trial by Justice Robert H. Jackson, Representative and Chief of Counsel for the United States of America)

“Allow the President to invade a neighboring nation whenever he shall deem it necessary to repel an invasion… and you allow him to make war at pleasure… If today he should choose to say he thinks it necessary to invade Canada to prevent the British from invading us, how could you stop him? You may say to him,–’I see no probability of the British invading us’; but he will say to you, ‘Be silent: I see it, if you don’t.’ “(Abraham Lincoln Letter 1848, see Abraham Lincoln: a Documentary Portrait Through His Speeches and Writings. Don E. Farenbacher, editor. 1996. Stanford University Press, Stanford.)

“Preventive war was an invention of Hitler. Frankly, I would not even listen to anyone seriously that came and talked about such a thing.” (President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Presidential news conference, 11 August 1954)

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WHY INTERNATIONAL—OR ANY—LAW?

In a sense, the answer to the question “Why International Law” is partly another question: “Why any kind of law? The answer is both simple and not so simple. Law has always existed of course as an instrument of class rule . It also exists to protect the whole from its parts as well as to protect its parts from the whole and/or the more powerful elements of that whole.

Law exists to protect the individual from a collective majority that may be wrong, tyrannical and even in violation even of its own supposed core principles and interests. Law also exists to protect the collective from narcissists and tyrannical criminals intent on the destruction of the collective.

This applies to individual persons as well as individual social formations, nation-states or organizations. History shows, and this is the basis for the evolution of the content and scopes of Law, that in the real world of competing and often ruthless, predatory, covert and evil forces with no respect for any Law, that either it is the rule of Law or the rule of the most Ruthless that will occur and prevail; there is no in-between.

Any system, of any form, that is made up of contradictory, often hostile and competitive parts or elements, with contradictory and competing interests driving them, is potentially threatened by the forms and effects of competition and contradictory interests prevailing among its parts, processes and players. And in the context of increasing globalization and interdependence, the same applies with respect to competing and antagonistic national social formations potentially threatening the global community and other interdependent national social formations that make it up.

Wars, genocide and various kinds of “WMDs” (Weapons of Mass Destruction, Distraction, Deception) by their nature, and by virtue of their increasing lethality and sophistication, threaten nations not even directly part of any conflicts between nation-states with spillover effects that ripple and amplify throughout the global community and its parts. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, of the kind Nazis were hanged for at Nuremberg, illustrate that point. And as the WMDs get more sophisticated, lethal, versatile, mobile, adaptive (while not nearly as “precise” and “accurate” as asserted by those who use them) their spillover effects become more not less pervasive and threatening to the whole global collective.

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The rule of Law only works when the majority of a group voluntarily obey it; seeing it in their interest to obey the very Law they invoke for their own personal security, without threats of sanctions and costly monitoring for compliance and impositions of sanctions. This occurs only when—and because—the majority subject to Law see that they gain far more from obeying the rule of Law than trying to circumvent it or game the Law, with word and other games. This leaves critical and scarce resources of law enforcement free to focus on the few who consciously and calculatingly break the Law; often the same Law they hold others to and selectively invoke for their own protection.

But the majority typically obeys Law only when there is transparency and accountability in all phases of Law so they can come to believe that it applies to all without fear or favor. That is why a core requirement of any body of Law to be accepted and obeyed by the majority are some kinds of constitutional clauses for “equal protection, application of and accountability under Law” that are actually enforced and are perceived to be being enforced without fear of or favor to anyone.

In the U.S. Constitution for example, are balancing tests between federal and state powers and authorities. Various forms of competition and antagonistic interests between the states, or perhaps between entities within states, may produce corrosive spillover effects that threaten the whole federal union as well as other individual states in particular—as has happened many times in U.S. history. Basically, under most federal systems, there is a hierarchy of authority and powers: federal law trumps state or provincial law; state or provincial law trumps county law; county law trumps municipal law. And for the same reasons and logic, international law, when accepted and codified in treaties, trumps national law and even the constitutions of nations ratifying treaties under supremacy clauses mandated by the Canons of Treaty Construction and Constitutions.

Why is this so? Why are there “supremacy and equal protection/application” clauses in all valid treaties and constitutions? Because otherwise nations could sign and ratify treaties, and gain consideration from others for having signed and being held to all the terms of them, while only selectively adhering to the parts of the treaties they favor and gain from all while refusing to recognize and adhere to the parts they do not like; typically they do so under the banners or covers of “conflicts” with “national sovereignty”, “nation-state law” (then do not sign the treaty if parts of it are seen as problematic).

A perfect example is the 1948 UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. This treaty came out of the Nuremberg trials at which the U.S. was a prime mover and force (even as some 380 U.S. corporations continued to trade with the Nazis and Japanese and Italian fascists throughout Word War II). The likes of the Prescott Bush, George Herbert Walker, Henry Ford and other leading American financiers and industrialists even were principal financiers of Hitler and the Nazis from 1924 onward; and even part owners, in the case of the Bushes along with Fritz Thyssen, of a plant at Auschwitz using slave labor.

Bush Dynasty of Death and Fascism

Bush Dynasty of Death and Fascism

Yet the U.S. did not sign and “ratify” the 1948 UN Convention on Genocide until 1988, 40 years later; and even today, the U.S. is not considered a signatory to it by its major allies due to the Helms, Lugar and Hatch “Sovereignty Amendment” that says that anything in the UN Convention that contradicts the U.S. Constitution or any laws of the U.S., as interpreted only by the U.S., is thus null and void . This of course directly contradicts Article VI Section 2, the “Supremacy Clause” of the U.S. Constitution itself:

“This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.”

Law is about principles and their evolution and application to the conduct, behavior, interactions and agreements of entities covered by Law whether individuals, organizations, corporations or nation-states. Law is not only about rights and core values; it is also about responsibilities, limits, accountability, redress in the event of breaches of Law and more. The real content, scopes, depths, angles and degrees of equality of application and protection of Law say a lot about the true nature, character and intentions not only of Law, but of the types and natures of the societies, systems and rulers who develop and administer Law.

Because Law is supposed to be about principles not personalities, connections, status or power, Law does not recognize or formally allow for any inequalities between individuals, organizations or nation-states as relevant to the application of or accountability to it. Under the Doctrine of “Rule of Law” there are no derivative or supporting “doctrines” of “Exclusivism”, “Exceptionalism”, “Preordination” [e.g. Calvinism for wealth, to rule, or for special “exception”] or “Superpower Triumphalism” that are consistent with and that do not undermine, the “Rule of Law”.

A quick scan of human history shows that those empires that self-asserted and imposed their own “doctrines” of “Exceptionalism”, “Pre-emption”, etc., often to the very same Law to which they purported to hold others, not only eventually resorted to claims of protection under the very same international law they had serially and unapologetically breached and even helped to evolve through customary usage, but those empires also all went the way of all hegemonic empires imploding under the weight of their internal contradictions, hubris and very costly (in blood, treasure and credibility) imperial overreach.

In International Law, which applies to conduct and interactions of nations and nation-states, not to individuals or groups of individuals within nation states (except in some cases of genocide and “R2P”, as in the case of evolving domestic and international Law of multi-nation nation-states), there is no recognition of or for differences between superpowers versus small nation-states in terms of coverage and application of Law. In International Law there is a presumption of equality of nations and nation-states in terms of applicability and accountability of Law.

This is for the same reasons that domestic Law does not recognize, formally at least, exemptions from coverage of Law due to celebrity, wealth, connections or the like as that would nakedly undermine the general application of and obedience to Law. Inequality in the application, coverage, rights, responsibilities. duties and penalties of Law undermines all of Law even for those who personally and selectively benefit from disparate treatment and coverage of Law as a long list of revolutions in the past can attest: hubris and power of the rich individuals and nation have their limits as well as dates with history awaiting them. All the nation-states that have evolved International Law from the times of the “Peace of Westphalia” recognized that no nation-states, even the most bellicose and unapologetic for their brutality and hubris, went to war openly without pretexts, masks or cover stories for their aggression; they all had some kind of narrative and justifications for the most barbarous of their wars and aggressive intentions.

THE EVOLUTON OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

International law has evolved from the time of the first emergent Spanish and Portuguese nation-states in the 14th and 15th centuries, basically to ratify and legitimate their conquests and property acquisitions. This was the first period of globalization and “primitive accumulation” of capital with the rise of capitalism. Property acquired, and whole nation-states formed through theft, conquest, fraud, genocide, terrorism, slavery, colonialism, as in the case of the United States, needs to be “legitimated” with evolving “property rights” and other rights and power relations and structures, otherwise that acquired through plunder may be taken away by others through the same methods it was originally acquired with as much legitimacy as in the case of the original primitive accumulations.

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Thus, under capitalism, property has to be titled in some way as not to allow or legitimate others taking and holding the property through the same methods it was originally acquired. That is why the French anarchist Proudhon claimed that “All property is theft.” The same applies to international law governing nations and changes in nations, their boundaries and governments. Nation-states, colonies and empires that developed out of conquest, colonialism, imperialism, war and the like risk themselves being changed, overthrown or eliminated through the same means by which they were formed or extended.

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International law, along with the legal constructs of nations and nation-states were developed further during the period of the so-called “Peace of Westphalia” after a long period of new nation-states savaging each other in protracted and brutal wars that sabotaged their rise and prosperity. Groups of people are recognized or not recognized as de-facto nations and nation-states on the basis of facts on the ground and applicable law; not by recognition or non-recognition by any powers, superpowers . Were it not so, small nations or any nations, could be isolated and extinguished, and many have suffered this fate in history, with simple non-recognition of them as nations or nation states.

Thus the fundamental right of nations and nation-states not to be exterminated by foreign aggression and intrigue, along with the necessary derivative rights of self-determination, independence, non-interference in internal affairs and sovereignty necessary to prevent their fundamental right against extermination as nations and nation-states is simply denied by fiat. There was the recognition even before the so-called period of the Peace of Westphalia in the early 1600s, that in the case of any nation or nation-state holding others to the same Law that it routinely violates itself, that rule of the Ruthless, instead of Law, will likely prevail and will, threaten the whole global community in general as well as various nations and nation-states in the particular—-including those serially violating the same Law they hold others to.

International Law evolved with the recognition that no nation-state openly and nakedly conspires to launch and wage wars of aggression, crimes against the peace, war crimes, crimes against humanity, regime change and destabilization campaigns except under pretexts. Not even the Nazis in Europe and elsewhere or the Japanese fascists in China and elsewhere launched aggressive wars without pretexts, lies, cherry picked intelligence and the lot.

This was partly the basis for Nazis charged with Conspiracy at Nuremberg as the creation of pretexts, lies, cherry picked intelligence and other fabrications to try to justify war shows mens rea and intent, as well as consciousness of guilt as there is no need for lies and pretexts to justify an inherently defensive, proportional, last-resort, no-alternative and thus “Just War”. The same applies to the U.S. wars in Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan, Iraq and in the many brush and proxy wars of the U.S. since 1945.

The so-called “Pentagon Papers” leaked by Daniel Ellsberg who had helped to write them and thus knew what was in them, were so dangerous because they showed clearly that the U.S. Government not only consciously and carefully lied to the American People (The Vietnamese knew the truth as they suffered it every day) but they never believed their own lies. When Johnson and prior-presidents were declaring steady progress on the ground in Vietnam, their own internal reports showed steady losses and a war that could not be won. The Pentagon Papers also showed they were well aware they were in violation of the same international law that was invoked to hang Nazis at Nuremberg and Japanese war criminals in Tokyo.

IMPERIAL HUBRIS, TERRORISM AND EXCEPTIONALISM

Today the U.S. stands as not only a superpower or even hyper-power, but as the main example of self-declared and self-asserted constructs such as “Exceptionalism”. The Government of the U.S. openly and brazenly declares itself exempt from its own stated founding and Constitutional principles. American citizens can now be summarily declared “enemy combatants” and summarily executed from the air by drone strikes along with any other family members near them; all with no indictment, no trial, no formal charges, no due process and for no other reason than drone strikes are less costly in blood and treasure, involve less imperial overreach, are less costly and protracted than the counter-insurgency campaigns that result in body bags of American troops coming home and undermining mass support and “manufactured consent” for the wars (only in the short-run not when long-run “Blowback” effects are considered).

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Due process becomes not a right for all Americans and those living in America, or a basic human right, but a “luxury” contingent on and only when it is not being costly to formally respect. The Drone strikes also are done not only covertly but as clandestine operations (covert means secret but not deniable if discovered; clandestine means secret and “plausibly deniable”) and thus no accountability for or record of the real costs, casualties, “collateral damage” etc. of these drone strikes.

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The same applies to the existence, development and testing of nuclear and other weapons. Under international law, which develops out of customary usage and applications becoming precedents, any nation-state that is allowed to hold and develop nuclear or any kind of weapons with impunity, gives sanction, precedent and authority for the same for all other nation-states. There is no notion of supposed “virtuous” nation-states over “non-virtuous” nation-states in terms of supposed “democratic” or “virtuous” nation-states like the U.S., Britain, Israel, Apartheid South Africa, Pakistan, India, being “allowed” to hold, develop and test WMDS while supposed “non-virtuous” nation-states like China, the DPRK, former USSR now Russia or other former republics of the USSR not having the same sovereign rights and reasons for their own WMDs. If WMDs threaten all of humanity collectively due to their lethality and destructive forces, then it does not matter who holds them as they constitute a “Sword of Damocles” hanging over all of humanity. The notion of Israel not only developing and holding nuclear weapons, but with a stated policy of “The Samson Option” , while threatening Iran and the U.S. threatening the DPRK is dangerous hypocrisy and superpower hubris of the first order.

The same principles and logic apply with respect to all forms [what they call “Doctrines”] of Preemption, Unilateralism and Exceptionalism in the conduct of war, breaches of resolutions and sanctions, or any military actions allowed for any nation; they give license—and licence—along with authority and precedent, for other nation-states to undertake the same kinds of actions using the same rationales and pretexts when and if they also acquire the power and status to do so. International law is supposed to apply to all nation-states without fear or favor; and when it does not, then we have a recipe for world wars, proxy wars, regional wars, insurgencies and counter-insurgencies, social systems engineering campaigns, genocide and other ills that have threatened humanity collectively since even before the legal construct or recognition of the nation-state.

Strict and consistent adherence to international law is also in the interest of all nation-states in the long-run. Those nations engaging in naked hypocrisy and selective obedience to and invocations of international law, they admit, in doing so, their own weakness and impotence. Just as insurgent groups admit weakness and impotence when they move from protracted insurgencies to desperate and alienating (of the hearts and minds of the people they seek to recruit) forms of terrorism, so it is the same with counter-insurgency (COIN) campaigns that lapse into high-tech-intensive forms of counter-terrorism such as drone strikes, carpet bombings, special-operations raids and extraordinary renditions. Just as terrorism winds up recruiting more hearts and minds against those engaging in it, so it is that high-tech “counter-terrorism” (CT) campaigns do the same with their inexorable, callous and rationalized “collateral damage”. The same applies with respect to other forms of serial violations of international law such as launching and waging wars of aggression and war crimes under pretexts of COIN or CT.

KARMA TIME FOR IMPERIAL BULLYING AND HYPOCRISY

Literature from many diverse cultures deal with the theme of the ultimate Karma of the bully; whether an individual, a government or a whole system such as imperialism. The bully is a predator but picks his fights carefully never to lose because a bully relies on fear to rule and a notion of omnipotence. Deep down, however, the bully does not have the confidence he projects and that is partly why he is a bully who rules or influences through bullying rather than reason or even cooptation. But the bully inevitably makes more enemies than friends. Even his toadies and sycophants who fear him and stay near him for illusory protection, secretly hate him for exposing their own cowardice, lack of independence and self-respect, and even and their own impotence embodied in their sycophancy. And the bully will eventually meet his match; like some 6 foot 6 inch 270 lb thug running into Jet Li.

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Typically when the bully loses, he tries to regain some face by infantile yet destructive and deadly acts of “payback” to try to regain what has been lost and can never be regained—respect coming out of a created fear that he could never be beaten by picking his fights never to lose. His attempts to give or restore the illusions of omniscience, omnipotence and omnipresence become increasingly futile, inviting more new opposition forces, sources and forms that then trigger even more impotent, infantile and revealing tit-for-tat “positive-feedback” loops. The examples in history are notorious.

Think of the U.S. Government in Lebanon after the losses of 241 Marines to a bombing of their barracks in 1983. They had been sent there with no mission, no objectives, no exit strategy and no support; and the response to the bombing and losses of lives was the immediate withdrawal of remaining U.S. military forces, the shelling of villages from offshore and departing U.S. Navy ships, followed by a pretext-supported invasion of tiny Grenada (also a mess as it unfolded) that itself also revealed more about the impotence rather than any omnipotence, omniscience or omnipresence of U.S. Imperialism. All of these tit-for-tat machinations were and are then justified under summarily asserted “Doctrines” [they love that word it dresses up naked arrogance and summary assertions as some kind of “grand and self-evident “Principle”] of “Clear and Present Danger” [that needs to be seen and defined only by them], “Exceptionalism”, “Leadership Role” or “Exigent Circumstances”.

But the bully is caught in a trap. The more he bullies, the more he increases the odds of running into a Jet Li. And the more likely he runs into and from a Jet Li, the more he increases the odds of running into even more Jet Li types and thus the more his empty posturing and macho bravado is exposed for the impotence and insecurities it really reflects. Just like the tales of the “Old West” in American culture of the “fastest gun in the West” having an appointment with destiny: to run into an even faster gun and/or townspeople that finally get fed up with the bullying.

PSYCHOPATHS AND SOCIOPATHS: AS INDIVIDUALS, GOVERNMENTS AND WHOLE SYSTEMS

Psychopaths and sociopaths have the same basic proclivities and differ only in that psychopaths have no allegiance to any transcendent values whereas sociopaths may have some allegiance to the value systems of a small cult or gang of criminals but not to those of society in general or held by most people in society.

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In a certain sense, systems such as imperialism and capitalism are often run by psychopaths and sociopaths and the values they push and promote, and utilize are typical of psychopathy and sociopathy: malignant narcissism; predation; ultra-individualism; Exceptionalism; grandiosity; situational ethics; megalomania; serial and calculated deception; shallow affect; lack of compassion and empathy; masked ruthlessness.

These types, psychopaths and sociopaths, do not ask questions like “Is this the right thing to do?”; “Is this moral or legal?” They do not even ask if a given action or policy is “efficient” or “inefficient” given their own definitions. They only ask “What do I want and what does it take to get it with minimum costs and risks–to me?” “What is in my way and what does it take to get it out of my way?”

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The basic constructs and features of psychopathy and sociopathy may apply also to whole Governments of whole Systems . What is Obama’s argument for drones and the like? It is not an argument of legality as he has asked for “legal architecture” TO BE DEVELOPED to justify drone strikes, extraordinary renditions, assassinations of American citizens without trial or formal charges, and many other patently illegal acts in American law that are currently going on and have gone on without this mythical “legal architecture” having been developed–YET. His argument is one of expediency and convenience: that the U.S. Government cannot reach alleged terrorists with the present law, so his answer is not to develop new methods and approaches for extraditing and taking to trial accused terrorists within the present laws, but to eliminate any barriers or inconveniences at present by simply–and summarily without legal authority–ignoring or going around them and then cooking up some kind of legal rationale to try to justify it all ex post facto. That is what the psychopath and sociopath argues: “What is in my way needs to get out of my way; law, morality, or even my own stated principles be damned when in the way of my getting my way.”

The real reasons for drone strikes and extraordinary renditions are hidden. They are about waging war without a lot of American body bags coming home to “Dover Counts” of returning U.S. military undermining mass support for wars. They are about waging war without accountability or a basis to count the bodies of innocent civilians characterized as “collateral damage”. They are about hiding the reality of a failed U.S.intelligence system that cannot put its own “boots on the ground” and lacks basic HUMINT on the ground so it resorts to carpet bombing, illusory “surgical strikes” and kidnapping from the air at safe distances. They are about warfare without transparency, accountability, measures of effectiveness or legal redress for innocents. They are the actions of an impotent bully that lacks the basics–including a just cause–for serial warfare without end of constructs of “winning” or strategies for exits.

But then again, what one superpower arrogates for itself will be used by the next superpower and rising empire as law, precedent and principle for itself. And the former superpower, destined to decline and decay as are all imperial empires and hegemons, is laying the foundations for its own fall and plunder by other superpowers and hegemons on the horizon with the same systems, impulses, imperial hubris–and “Doctines” of “Exceptionalism” etc–as the present ones. As the Greek historian Heraclitus put it: “Man’s character is his fate”; and so too this aphorism applies to whole systems.

FOOTNOTES:

1. There is an old saying that “The problem is not that the rich break the laws; rather that they write the laws so they do not need to break and/or cannot be found guilty of breaking, the very laws they hold others to.”

2. Craven, James “‘Just War’ and the Interrelated Predicates and Principles of Nuremberg” The 4th Media (Beijing) http://www.4thmedia.org/2012/11/02/%e2%80%9cjust-war%e2%80%9d-and-the-interrelated-predicates-and-precedents-of-nuremberg/

3. Higham, Charles Trading with the Enemy: The Expose of the Nazi-American Money Plot 1933-49 Dell Publishers, NY 1984; Loftus John and Aarons, Mark The Secret War Against the Jews: How Western Espionage Betrayed the Jewish People, St. Martin’s, N.Y. 1994

4. Churchill, Ward Indians ‘R’ Us: Culture and Genocide in Native North America, Between the Lines Pub. N.Y. 1993 and A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas 1492 to the Present City Lights, San Francisco, CA, 2001

5. The People’s Republic of China was not “recognized” as a de-facto nation-state and sole legitimate representative of the People of China by the U.S. and many other allies of it until October 25, 1971 while a client regime in Taiwan, an historical and integral part of China, was given the UN seat as the supposed “sole-representative” for all of China from October 24, 1945 to 1971 and until 1991 the Taiwan regimes actively claimed to the sole legitimate representative of China. The same applies to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea now recognized as a separate and de-facto nation-state by the U.S. from the “Republic of Korea” or “South Korea” also considered a separate and de-facto nation-state. But their objective existence and de-facto statuses did not logically depend upon recognition or non-recognition of other nation-states. The same applies to Indigenous nations that still qualify as nations within broader nation-states that were and are summarily declared in the U.S. Supreme Court “Marshall Cherokee Decisions” to be “Dependent and Captive” nations or “quasi” nations. Under the old “Constitutive Theory” recognition of a nation-state is a function of recognition by other nation-states but under the “Declarative Theory” recognition is a function of declaration and meeting uniform standards and criteria of a nation-state with a right to be recognized and treated as such once objectively established to be such.

6. Hersh, Seymour The Samson Option: Israel’s Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy, Random House, N.Y. 1991; The Samson Option refers to a policy of lighting off all an estimated 200 some nuclear weapons in a massive nuclear strike; as Wikipedia puts it: “ The “Samson Option” of the book’s title refers to the nuclear strategy whereby Israel would launch a massive nuclear retaliatory strike if the state itself was being overrun, just as the Biblical figure Samson is said to have pushed apart the pillars of a Philistine temple, bringing down the roof and killing himself and thousands of Philistines who had gathered to see him humiliated.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Samson_Option:_Israel’s_Nuclear_Arsenal_and_American_Foreign_Policy Thse nuclear weapons were developed with French, British and American help and were developed in partnership with Apartheid South Africa (eliminated by the new Government of South Africa under Nelson Mandela) that included individuals who had been interned by the British as members of the South African Nazi Party and as Nazi agents. So much for sensitivity to the Nazi Holocaust.

7. Craven, James “Review of Snakes in Suits: When Psychopaths go to Work” by Paul Babiak and Robert Hare http://jimcraven10.wordpress.com/2008/07/15/review-of-snakes-in-suits-when-psychopaths-go-to-work-by-paul-babiak-and-robert-hare/ ; “Tricks of the Psychopath’s, Sociopath’s and Politician’s Trade”, 4th Media (Beijing) http://www.4thmedia.org/2012/11/18/tricks-of-the-psychopath%E2%80%99s-sociopath%E2%80%99s-and-politician%E2%80%99s-trade/ ; “Ayn Rand and Ayn Randists: Psychopaths and Sociopath’s Incarnate” http://jimcraven10.wordpress.com/2012/10/07/ayn-rand-and-ayn-randists-psychopaths-and-sociopaths-incarnate/ ; “I Want it All and I Want it Now: The Real National Anthem of America and Capitalism” http://jimcraven10.wordpress.com/2012/09/05/i-want-it-all-and-i-want-it-now-the-real-national-anthem-of-america-and-capitalism/

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ALL SIX FORMER ISRAELI SECURITY [SHIN BET] CHIEFS SLAM OCCUPATION OF PALESTINE: “WE’VE BECOME A BRUTAL OCCUPATION FORCE SIMILAR TO THE GERMANS IN WORLD WAR II”

FROM THE 4TH MEDIA

FIRST PRINTED IN WASHINGTON’S BLOG

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All 6 Former Israeli Security Chiefs Slam Occupation of Palestine Which “Similar To Germans in World War II”

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Washington’s Blog | Wednesday, January 30, 2013, 16:32 Beijing
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“[We’ve Become] A Brutal Occupation Force Similar To Germans in World War II”

Israeli-security-chiefs

Criticism of Israeli policy by Israeli soldiers is taken much more seriously than criticism by outsiders.

Criticism of Israeli policy by its top security chiefs will be taken even more seriously.

Democracy Now reports today that all 6 former chiefs of Shin Bet – the agency responsible for Israel’s internal security, with the combined powers of an FBI and CIA – have criticized Israeli treatment of the Palestinians:

The stunning Oscar-nominated documentary, “The Gatekeepers” … brings together six former heads of Israel’s internal security agency, the Shin Bet, collectively speaking out for the first time ever. They detail their methods against Palestinian militants and civilians in the Occupied Territories, including targeted killings, torture, recruiting informants, and the suppression of mass protests during two intifadas. But in doing so, they also criticize the occupation they were assigned with defending and warn that successive Israeli governments have endangered their country’s future by refusing to make peace. “We are making the lives of millions unbearable, into prolonged human suffering, [and] it kills me,” Carmi Gillon says in the film. “[We’ve become] a brutal occupation force similar to the Germans in World War II,” adds Avraham Shalom ….

Avraham Shalom – the Shin Bet leader who compared Israel to the Nazis – knows what he’s talking about:

And, by the way, Avraham Shalom was a young kid in Vienna in the 1930s. He didn’t know that he’s a Jew. He was forced to go to school after the Kristallnacht. He was almost beaten to death by his classmates. He felt firsthand what it means to be a Jew under a racist regime. And when he compares that, he compares the Israeli occupation to the Germans, that—like how the Germans treated the Poles, the Czechs, the Dutch, he knows what he speaks about. And I think that his worry is something that had resonance in me, as well, about what—where will it lead, the occupation—I mean, if it will continue like that.

Washington’s Blog

http://www.washingtonsblog.com/2013/01/all-6-former-israeli-secret-service-chiefs-slam-occupation-of-palestine.html

Posted in Faces of Fascism, Zionism and Anti-Semitism, Zionism as Racism and Fascism | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

JOHN KERRY: ANOTHER SKULL AND BONESMAN AT STATE

skull and bones the tomb 1-dde3ddaba5skull and bones 9-547e62aae4skull14

If John Kerry were a member of the KKK would that cause some problems for his candidacy for Secretary of State? What about if he is a member of a kind of Preppy KKK–Skull and Bones–that like the other KKK also requires an oath of fealty that trumps all other oaths taken or to be taken including the oath to serve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.

As JFK put it:

“The very word ‘secrecy’ is repugnant in a free and open society; and we are as a people inherently and historically opposed to secret societies, to secret oaths, and to secret proceedings.”

— President John F. Kennedy – Address to newspaper publishers – April 27, 1961

“The high office of the President has been used to foment a plot to destroy the American’s freedom and before I leave office, I must inform the citizens of this plight.”

— President John Fitzgerald Kennedy – In a speech made to Columbia University on Nov. 12, 1963, ten days before his assassination!

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SECRETS AT YALE

LIST OF SKULL & BONES MEMBERS

STEPHEN PROTEHRO, SALON: Though a seniors-only society, Skull and Bones is more than a tad sophomoric. Each May on “Tap Day,” senior Bonesmen troll around Yale’s campus, selecting, or “tapping,” 15 juniors for membership in the upcoming class. The initiation rites that follow sound like something out of Fred Flintstone’s Water Buffalo Lodge or a Robert Bly retreat. Each knight, as neophytes are called, reportedly regales his fellow initiates with his sexual exploits. (He may or may not be naked and may or may not be lying in a coffin.) During initiation, he endures some sort of physical challenge (mud wrestling? diving into a dung pile?) before being born again with a new name and a new identity. In the outside world, members are never to speak about their society. If outsiders raise the topic, Bonesmen are supposed to leave the room. Members take their secrecy oath seriously — no insider has ever published an exposé — so it is impossible to separate the realities from the rumors that swirl around the society. One rumor has each new member receiving a $15,000 payout. Another says the interior of the “Tomb” (the eerie Gothic headquarters where twice-a-week meetings are held) is decorated with human remains, including the skulls and bones of notables such as Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa and Apache warrior Geronimo. — SALON

SKULL & BONES

MAY 2006

AP – A Yale University historian discovered a 1918 letter that raises anew questions about a secretive Yale student society and the remains of the American Indian leader Geronimo. The letter, written by a member of Skull and Bones to another member of the society, purports that some of the Indian leader’s remains were spirited from his burial plot in Fort Sill, Okla., to a stone tomb in New Haven that serves as the club’s headquarters. . . At one of the most selective universities in the country, Skull and Bones marks the elite of the elite. Only 15 Yale seniors are asked to join each year. Alumni include President Bush, Sen. John Kerry, President William Howard Taft, numerous members of Congress, media leaders, Wall Street financiers, the scions of wealthy families and agents in the CIA.

Members swear an oath of secrecy about the group and its strange rituals, which includes devotion to the number “322” and initiation rites that include confessing sexual secrets and kissing a skull. The atmosphere makes Skull and Bones favorite fodder for conspiracy theorists.

Its most enduring story concerns Geronimo, who died in 1909. According to lore, members of Skull and Bones – including the president’s grandfather, Prescott Bush – dug up his grave when a group of Army volunteers from Yale were stationed at the fort during World War I.

http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2006-05-09-geronimo_x.htm?ord=1

YALE ALUMNI MAGAZINE – Skull and Bones and other Yale societies have a reputation for stealing, often from each other or from campus buildings. Society members reportedly call the practice “crooking” and strive to outdo each other’s “crooks.” And the club is also thought to use human remains in its rituals. In 2001, journalist Ron Rosenbaum ’68 reported capturing on videotape what appeared to be an initiation ceremony in the society’s courtyard, in which Bonesmen carried skulls and “femur-sized bones.”

It may have been easier for the Bonesmen to plunder an Apache’s grave if they shared the racial attitudes typical of their era and social class.

It may have been easier for the Bonesmen to plunder an Apache’s grave if they shared the racial attitudes typical of their era and social class. At the time, says Gaddis Smith, Larned Professor of History emeritus, who is writing a history of Yale since 1900, “there was a racial consciousness and a sense of Anglo-Saxon superiority above all others.” He notes that James Rowland Angell, who became president of Yale in 1921, “would say, very explicitly, that we must preserve Yale for the ‘old stock.'” Smith adds, “The slogan of the first major fund-raising campaign for Yale, in 1926, was ‘Keep Yale Yale.’ The alumni knew exactly what it meant.”

http://www.yalealumnimagazine.com/issues/2006_05/notebook.html

EARLIER STORIES

PROZAC JOURNALISM
SKULL & BONES IS JUST THERE TO SERVE YOU, FOLKS

[This article is not just a defense of Skull & Bones; it also describes up how much of Washington’s elite feels about itself]

DON OLDENBURG, WASHINGTON POST – This legacy of Bones prominence is not surprising since Yale, like all prestigious universities, theoretically is attended by the nation’s best and brightest, many of whom are from wealthy and powerful families — a circle of success. Bones taps those who the members think are the most promising of this promising pool.

But with its veil of secrecy, Bones also inspires far-fetched conspiracy theories. Skull and Bones has been accused of being a satanic group, an international Mafia, and an incubator of future agents of a “New World Order.”

What feeds such suspicions is that Bonesmen are like a cross between Forrest Gump and Zelig — always in the picture at major historical crossroads: Bonesmen oversaw development of the atomic bomb and influenced the decision to use it on Japan. They managed the postwar occupation of Germany. They helped shape U.S. Cold War policies. They were policymakers during the Vietnam War. They have ties to the Council on Foreign Relations and the Trilateral Commission — two hot-button organizations for conspiracy theorists. . .

Since Bush moved into the White House, he has nominated or appointed at least 10 Bonesmen to prestigious positions — among them the head of the Securities and Exchange Commission, Bill Donaldson, ’53; Assistant Attorney General Robert McCallum, ’68; General Counsel to the Office of Homeland Security Edward McNally, ’79; and his close friend Ambassador to Trinidad and Tobago Roy Austin, ’68. . .

Bush has also benefited from Bones on his path to power. His first real job, the financing of his first oil company, his lucrative partnership owning the Texas Rangers baseball team, the big money backing his campaigns — all had Bones backing. . . .

For more than three centuries, Yale has seen its job as educating future leaders — from the 14 Yalies who served on the Continental Congress and four signers of the Declaration of Independence to four of the past six U.S. presidents (the two Bushes; Bill Clinton, Yale Law ’67; and Gerald Ford, Yale Law ’41).

This year’s Democratic primary was flush with Yalies, in addition to Kerry: Joe Lieberman, ’64 and Yale Law ’67, and Howard Dean, ’71. They and President Bush were undergrads when then-Yale President Kingman Brewster proclaimed Yale’s goal to be to produce “one thousand male leaders every year.” After Brewster turned the university coed in 1969, the statement was trimmed to “one thousand leaders.”

Levin, who has been president for 11 years, often refers to Yale as “a laboratory for leadership.” Aside from the university’s acclaimed academic life, Yale provides undergrads a wealth of opportunities to lead. . .

Looking out of his office windows, Levin can see Scroll and Key’s headquarters. In a sense, Skull and Bones is just a microcosm of Yale’s culture of leadership, he suggests. . .

EMENDATION

A YALE ALUMNUS points out that Skull & Bones is not is not next door to the Yale Daily News building, but a block away. ‘Next door to the Yale Daily News building is Wolf’s Head, which in Bush’s years was a wild-ass drinking fraternity, of which, I believe, he was a member.”

WELL, WE TOOK CARE OF THAT, DIDN’T WE? (LAUGHTER)

Russert: You were both in Skull and Bones, the secret society.

President Bush: It’s so secret we can’t talk about it.

Russert: What does that mean for America? The conspiracy theorists are going to go wild.

President Bush: I’m sure they are. I don’t know. I haven’t seen the (unintel) yet. (Laughs)

Russert: Number 322.

President Bush: First of all, he’s not the nominee, and I look forward . . .

EMENDATION
NO SKULL & BONES HELICOPTER LANDING PAD

WE HAVE REMOVED the cite of Alexandra Robbins book on Skull & Bones because the excerpt included legends about the secret organization that she later refutes. For example, when the sainted Doug Ireland passed on the item to an editor at one of the major news weeklies, he wrote back: ” I’ve passively collected S&B lore for some 20 years. I’ve never heard the bit about the roof of the S&B building being a helicopter landing pad; possible, but unlikely. The building is really only one story high, and it’s on a street right in the middle of the campus, next door to the Yale Daily News, as a matter of fact. I should think that aviation regulations would make it illegal to land a helicopter in such a densely populated area. . . John Kerry personally recruited a friend of mine to be in Bones but my friend, to his credit, turned them down.”

As it happened, we were contemporaneously in contact with an exceptionally good source on this matter, former New Haven alderman John Halle, whose reflections on that job we have just posted. He responded:

“Here’s the deal. The story about a landing pad for a helicopter is a canard, one of many, that are contained in the introduction of Alexandra Robbins excellent book. The way the book is organized to is to lay out all of the legends about S+B in the introduction and then, in the main body, Robbins debunks the ones which need to be debunked and documents what really goes on there. Unfortunately, she was too clever by half. A lot of people read only the introduction and took as fact false information, some of which turns out to have been created by the Bonsers themselves as a diversion.

“So, to be clear, there is no helipad at the Bones tomb. Also, while I haven’t been inside, by all accounts its a pretty shabby place, as is their summer retreat on the St. Lawrence River. (There is no Caribbean island). Also, so far as I know, you don’t get cash upon graduating. In fact, the organization itself has very little money. (They’re a 501C3 and yes, as an alderman you can be damn sure I looked into taxing them. That was the first thing I thought about. I never looked into trying to get the fire department to shut them down for lacking appropriate egress, which I think they might, but that’s for someone else.)

“This is not to say that there are not a lot of benefits to being in the Skulls. But it’s important to understand what these benefits are to understand the psychology of the members. What they get out of membership is a social circle of initiates of similarly uptight, ambitious and superficial elitists with whom they can let their hair down without fear of being judged. The last they need is cash. What they need is the ability to feel as “supported” and “connected” to others. I know this sounds new-agey, but that’s what Robbins book shows which, as I say, is quite good.”

Of course, the problem is that when you set out to create myths is that you end up creating myths.

Why Skull & Bones matters

As we learn more of the strange little society called Skull & Bones, it is useful to remember that what we know already is enough:

America is about to choose between two presidential candidates who belonged to an organization whose values were infantile, elitist, misogynist, anti-democratic and secret and whose purposes include the mutual support and protection of its members as they make their into the upper ranks of American society and throughout their adult lives. Far from apologizing for this, the two candidates refuse to give open and honest answers about their participation. Further, at least one of the candidates, Kerry, has retained a close enough relationship to the organization to have sought news members from among his young acquaintances.

The most benign view of this was expressed by the conservative columnist David Brooks, who told CBS, “My view of secret societies is they’re like the first class cabin in airplanes. They’re really impressive until you get into them, and then once you’re there they’re a little dull.”

Certainly, Skull & Bones is not alone. For example, a decade ago in ‘Shadows of Hope’ I described a more open if just as dubious influence on American politics:

While institutions such as the Council on Foreign Relations, Brookings and the American Enterprise Institute have long added theoretical underpinnings to political policy, Clinton’s arrival has forced such institutions of the New York-Washington axis to take seats behind the Cambridge-headquartered John F. Kennedy School of Government. In fact, the Clinton administration seems practically a subsidiary of this academy of wonkdom. Half of Clinton’s cabinet has ties to the school either as students, officials, fellows or faculty: Les Aspin, Bruce Babbit, Ron Brown, Henry Cisneros, Robert Reich, Richard Riley and Donna Shalala.

The Kennedy School is to government what the Harvard’s business school was to corporations in the 1980. There is a similar emphasis on technical skills — decision trees, case studies and so forth — and little interest in ethics, philosophical or humanistic principles. Not surprisingly, a lot of the money for the school comes from large corporations who are more than happy to have their tax deductible contributions used to teach public officials the Kennedy School way of governing.

“This bureaucratic boot camp did once consider creating a “chair in poverty” to study “who has been poor for a long time and why,” but according to the Washington Post, then Dean Graham Allison (now in Clinton’s Pentagon) was unable to come up with the money. It didn’t really surprise him since, after all, most donors are “wealthy people, not poor people.” The conservative nature of this institution can be gauged by the fact that flaming moderate Robert Reich was considered its left-wing, a flank that apparently did not qualify him for tenure.

Executive dean Hale Champion told the Post that “if there isn’t a lot of traffic between here and in Washington, then we’re not in touch with what’s going on.” A Kennedy School graduate student in an interview with Andrew Ferguson of the Washingtonian put it more succinctly:

“The vast majority of people [at the school] are idealists. They want to change the world. But it’s more than that. To be honest, we feel that we’re entitled to change the world. . . You think that’s arrogant. Maybe it is. But look around you. What you’ve got here are some of the brightest people in this country. If the country needs to change, let’s face it, we’re the ones to change it.”

It’s not the first time that Harvard has felt entitled to such a role in Washington. In the 1960s Harvard theorists applied their paradigms to Southeast Asia with disastrous results. The 1980s were propelled in part by dubious management theses emanating from its business school. In the 1990s we find not only the Kennedy School rising to power, but former members of the Soviet bloc coming under the sway of Harvard B-School professor Jeffrey Sachs, whose plans for weaning these emerging republics from communism appear an economic version of General Sherman’s approach to weaning Georgia from the Confederacy. . .

Harvard grads permeate not only the upper level of politics, but also of the media, the law and the think tanks, carrying with them an aura of what songwriter Allen Jay Lerner called Harvard’s “indubitable, irrefutable, inimitable, indomitable, incalculable superiority.” This Harvard old (still mostly) boy network is a significant — yet because of its discretion underrated — influence on the city’s values and policies, reflecting, in the words of the historian and reluctant Harvard grad V.L. Parrington, the “smug Tory culture which we were fed on as undergraduates.”

Seventy-five years later, this smug Tory culture quietly thrives in Washington, Not the least indication of this is the fact that products of Harvard and/or Yale comprise one-third of the top positions in an administration that said it was going to look like America.

Now the control has passed to Yale or, to be fair, the offspring of one of its most childish manifestations. It is said, of course, that if you raise such matters you are engaging in ‘conspiracy theories.’ In fact, this phrase is popular among the political and media elite precisely because it provides a dirty mirror reflection of the very values that this elite holds: “If the country needs to change, let’s face it, we’re the ones to change it.” It is schools such as Harvard and Yale that inculcate their political science and history majors with a sense of change being the product of a small number of great minds working in concert with their peers. It is this arrogant illusion that kept blacks, women, and the poor so long out of the history books in such places. They called it the Great Man Theory of History.

In fact, you don’t need any conspiracy at all to create a Skull & Bones, a Kennedy School, or a Washington Post newsroom. All you need is the right environment. If you want a field of corn, all you have to do is plant corn and get it enough water.

Besides, those who have used such institutions as Skull & Bones to make their way through life tend not to be clever enough to engage in a conspiracy. That requires social intelligence, lateral thinking, imagination, all of which are in short supply among the products of such places. That’s one reason they need the institutional assistance in the first place.

I know. I was supposed to be one of them. I was punched by several “final clubs” at Harvard but quickly turned them down for I found their members among the most boring people I had met at college. Instead, I found my way to the Harvard radio station – a salon des refuse for many of the most interesting people at the school. I became news director and was subsequently elected station manager, but was unable to serve because I had been placed on probation due to my excess of extracurricular activities and inattentiveness to the prescribed curriculum.

The other day, Jim Ridgeway of the Village Voice, a former editor of the Daily Princetonian, and I were trying to think of people who had served in major Ivy League media positions yet had not become – in the manner, say, of Adam Clymer or Don Graham – totally embedded in establishment values and media. We could only think of two others: William Greider and Larry Bensky. There are probably more, but it’s certainly a far smaller club than Skull & Bones. We were the weeds in the corn field. Another one, interestingly, was a guy named Howard Dean.

The problem with such people is that we actually know how the system works. We have been probationary members of it and have betrayed and deserted it taking along the secrets of the crypt. Yes, as David Brooks says, it is as boring as first class, but who said the distortion of power, the corruption of society, and narcissistic excesses of ambition had to be interesting? Power at play is often the dullest thing on earth because in the end it is only a bad substitute for what really matters.

Still, we are left with the problem that our supposedly democratic system has narrowed itself down to a choice of two members of an ersatz nobility smaller yet more powerful than the British nobility. And not only are its members not meant to say anything about it. According to them and their friends in the media, neither are we.

’60 MINUTES’ REPORT ON SKULL & BONES

SKULL AND BONES ODDS

[We asked readers for the odds of 600 Skull & Bones members of presidential age having two colleagues running against each other for the presidency.]

BPD – Apparently 100%.

MARK MOTYKA, MATHEMATICS LEAGUES – The odds of a Skull and Bones vs Skull and Bones Presidential election, using the numbers you gave for the estimate, would be the sqare of (600/146,000,000), or about one chance in 59,211,111,111. However, there is a glitch: since one of the two Bonesmen was already appointed to the position by the SCOTUS, we have a conditional probability for this particular election. That is, one of the candidates WILL be a Bonesman. In this particular case, the odds that Bush would run against another bonesman would be 600/146,000,000, or about one chance in 243,333. All of the above assumes the usual two candidate duopoly that our media so happily reinforces. Should Americans have a choice of more then than two presidential candidates, the odds are considerably lower.

EDDIE M. ABBOTT, M.D. – 1 chance in 60 billion. Pretty unlikely. But you also need to factor in the increased likelihood of a Yale graduate being president when compared to an Arkansas high school dropout. Don’t know how to do that.

RUTH ROWAN MA – Random chance of two skull and bones members running for president is in one in 59 billion ((600/146million)squared). But Gide would tell you to doubt that.

YALE PROFESSOR OF STATISTICS – What appears straightforward may not always be so. There are many assumptions one must make to proceed with the problem. If we impose very naive assumptions such that (i) party affiliation is not an issue, (ii) that each age-eligible person in Skull & Bones is just as likely as any other to run for president, and, (iii) more generally, we assume each age-eligible person in the overall population is just as likely as one another to run for president, then we proceed as follows. We sample two people to run for president from the overall age-eligible population at random, and see if both of them are from Skull & Bones. This is an example of a hypergeometric probability, and the answer is: 1.686043e-011

That is a VERY SMALL probability. We can add additional assumptions that take away some of the randomness of the above selection process (thereby, making the calculations more difficult), as we would certainly think that there is a greater probability that individuals from Skull & Bones would run for president versus a general age-eligible person in the entire population.

YALE SECRET CULT WON’T RETURN INDIAN SKULL BUSH’S GRANDDADDY HELP STEAL

INDIAN COUNTY – The Skull and Bones Society admitted to Apache leaders 17 years ago that they had a skull they call “Geronimo’s” in their secret cult museum in New Haven, Conn. Still, his remains have not been returned. Raleigh Thompson, former San Carlos Apache tribal councilman for 16 years, said it is time to bring Geronimo home to be buried in the mountains that he loved.

. . . During an interview at the Mount Graham Sacred Run, Thompson said he was present in New York when the Skull and Bones Society admitted that it held Geronimo’s remains in 1986. . . The grave robbing was exposed when Apache leaders received a photo and information in the 1980s. The informant, fearing for his life and never identified, provided Apache leaders with a photo of the cult museum’s display of Geronimo’s remains in a glass cage. The informant also provided a copy of a Skull and Bones Society log book, in which the 1918 grave robbery was recorded.

According to the Skull and Bones log book entry, Prescott Bush, grandfather of George W. Bush, and five other officers at Fort Sill, Okla., desecrated Geronimo’s grave.

After receiving the information, San Carlos Chairman Ned Anderson, Thompson and tribal attorney Joe Sparks were in an Apache tribal delegation which met with the Society. During a series of meetings, they met with Skull and Bones officials and Jonathan Bush, George Bush’s brother, in New York City in 1986.

However, Thompson said the skull that the Skull and Bones Society offered to return to the Apache delegation was that of a young boy, not Geronimo, and the Apache leaders refused it. “They admitted that they called this skull Geronimo. They gave us the skull, but the skull was so small that it looked like a young boy’s skull.” Thompson said. “Based on that, we didn’t want to take the skull. I think they switched the skull on us.”

NY OBSERVER ARTICLE

RON ROSENBAUM, NY OBSERVER – It’s the primal scene of American power, of Bush family values. For two centuries, the initiation rite of Skull and Bones has shaped the character of the men who have shaped the American character, including two Presidents named Bush. And last Saturday, April 14 – for the first time ever – that long-secret rite was witnessed by a team of outsiders, including this writer. Using high-tech night-vision video equipment able to peer through the gloom into the inner courtyard of the Skull and Bones “Tomb” in New Haven, The Observer team witnessed:

- The George W. effect: intoxicated by renewed proximity to Presidential power, a robed Bonesman posing as George W. harangued initiates in an eerily accurate Texas drawl: “I’m gonna ream you like I reamed Al Gore” and “I’m gonna kill you like I killed Al Gore.”

- Privileged Skull and Bones members mocked the assault on Abner Louima by crying out repeatedly, “Take that plunger out of my ass!”

- Skull and Bones members hurled obscene sexual insults (“lick my bumhole”) at initiates as they were forced to kneel and kiss a skull at the feet of the initiators.

- Other members acted out the tableau of a throat-cutting ritual murder.

It’s important to remember this is not some fraternity initiation. It is an initiation far more secret – and far more significant, in terms of real power in the United States – than that of the Cosa Nostra. If the Bushes are “the WASP Corleones” – as the ever more stingingly waspish Maureen Dowd has suggested – this is how their “made men” (and women) are made. It’s an initiation ceremony that has bonded diplomats, media moguls, bankers and spies into a lifelong, multi-generational fellowship far more influential than any fraternity. It was-and still remains – the heart of the heart of the American establishment. . .

Of course, there is more to Skull and Bones than the mystical mumbo-jumbo of its rituals. The rituals are less important than the relationships-the bonds of power and influence that develop between Skull and Bones initiates after they graduate. But the relationships are first forged by the rituals and fact that the founders of Time Inc. and the CIA., as well as several Secretaries of State and National Security Advisors – the men who made the decision to drop the Hiroshima bomb, invade the Bay of Pigs and plunge us into Vietnam, the Tafts, the Bundys, the Buckleys, the Harrimans, the Lovetts – all took part in this initiation ritual may have something to do with the real world power of those bonds. The unspoken understanding, the comfort level with the clandestine, the nods and winks with which power is exercised. . .

Most of the speculative lore about the Skull and Bones ritual has centered on its death fixation. Beyond the obvious skull-and-crossbones insignia, of course, the most persistent story is that initiates spend their senior year in the basement crypt of the Bones Tomb taking turns lying in a coffin and, in two long, intense, psycho-drama autobiographical sessions in said coffins, recount their personal and sexual history to the other 14 chosen ones. The better to bond for life with those they know best and prepare for their destiny as stewards of the ruling class. . .

KERRY MUM MEMBERSHIP IN INFAMOUS SKULL & BONES

BOSTON HERALD – Sen. John F. Kerry expounds on many issues in his presidential campaign, but he’s completely silent on one topic: his membership in Skull and Bones, Yale’s infamous secret society. “John Kerry has absolutely nothing to say on that subject. Sorry,” said Kerry spokeswoman Kelley Benander. . . There’s also another high-profile member of the club: President Bush.

Bonesmen already are buzzing over the prospect of the first Bones vs. Bones presidential race should Kerry win his party’s nomination and face Bush in 2004. “Bones don’t care who wins,” said author Alexandra Robbins, whose book “Secrets of the Tomb” pierced the secrecy shrouding the 171-year-old society. “If Kerry wins, it’s still a Bones presidency.” Robbins calls the group “probably the most secretive and successful club in America,” and adds, “It’s also pretty bizarre.”

Every year, 15 Yale juniors are tapped for the club, which holds meetings twice a week in a crypt-like building known as the “Tomb.” Robbins described the interior, replete with skulls and skeletons, as a cross between the “Addams Family” and a slightly shabby English men’s club. There are bizarre initiation rites, including a ceremony where new members must spend an evening before a roaring fire in the Tomb recounting details of their sexual history to fellow members.

Kerry was tapped for the club in 1968, two years after Bush, whose father and grandfather were also Bonesmen. Kerry’s brother-in-law from his first marriage, David Thorne, was Bones. So was the late husband of Kerry’s current wife, Teresa Heinz Kerry. The Bones alumni roster is flush with CIA officials, business moguls, congressmen and Supreme Court justices. The club owns a secluded 40-acre island retreat on the St. Lawrence River.

In 1986, Kerry allegedly tried to recruit Jacob Weisberg, then a college-age intern at “The New Republic” magazine. Weisberg, now Slate magazine editor, said Kerry made his pitch during a private meeting in his Senate office. Weisberg declined, pointedly asking Kerry how he squared his liberalism with membership in such an elitist club that refused to admit women. “Kerry got sort of flustered and said, `I’ve marched with battered women,’ ” Weisberg told the Herald. Five years later, Kerry was among those voting to force the club to admit women after a bitter court fight.

Posted in Neoclassical Economics and Neoliberalism as Neo-Imperialism, New World Order, Psychopaths in Management, Skull and Bones and Elite Societies, Social Systems Engineering Campaigns, U.S. IMPERIAL DECLINE, U.S. Terrorism | Tagged , , , , | 2 Comments

MASTERS OF THE UNIVERSE: BILDERBERG

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The Bilderberg Group Founder Reveals Secrets of the Bilderberg Group

Post Categories: Afghanistan
The Globalist Report | Monday, January 21, 2013, 16:11 Beijing
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20 years after the Bilderberg Group was established, its founder Prince Bernhard revealed to the world the secrets of the Bilderberg Group.

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Today, the Bilderberg Group is still the same shadowy and secretive organization that it was in 1954 when it was founded.

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In fact, former United States President Gerald R. Ford in 1965 revealed his thoughts about the exclusivity of the Bilderberg Group. The former president was quoted as saying “you don’t really belong to the organization, one gets an invitation from the Prince”.

The following years after the Bilderberg Group was established, the world’s only means of understanding what the organization is all about has been derived from selectively leaked information and the odd conspirator who has willingly divulged prohibited information (such as attendance lists).

However, 20 years after the Bilderberg Group was founded, the founding father of the Bilderberg Group, Prince Bernhard, actually revealed to the world the inner workings of the organization to The Argus-Press on June 21 1974.

The following is a summary of what the Bilderberg Group founder Prince Bernhard revealed. The Prince covered a wide range of topics, including ‘what is the Bilderberg Group’, ‘the purpose of the Bilderberg Group’ and the ‘rules that govern the Bilderberg Group’.

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Prince Bernhard, Founder of the Bilderberg Group

All Bilderberg Group meeting attendees are guaranteed privacy.

Reporters are never allowed to enter the hotel where Bilderberg Group meetings are held.

Participants who are caught dealing with the press, are not invited back.

Between 1954 (when it was founded) and 1974, on average 80 persons were invited to each meeting.

Up until 1974, and possibly beyond that, there was only one topic discussed at Bilderberg Group meetings. The topic was ‘prospects for the Atlantic world’.

The main speakers at Bilderberg Group meetings get 10 minutes to deliver their speech. Other participants are limited to 5 minutes per speech.

Security at all Bilderberg Group meetings is of the up-most importance. During Bilderberg Group meetings, they are to be “practically” surrounded by police for the three-day event.

The founder Prince Bernhard always tried to ensure that there was a 50% switch in representation at each Bilderberg Group meeting.

Any notes or official documentation is to be written in both American English and French.

When it comes to voting, the votes of who voted for what are never recorded.

Prince Bernhard, personally requested that Henry Kissinger attend Bilderberg Group meetings. Also, at the 1974 meeting, David Rockefeller was also in attendance.

Prince Bernhard also expected that the ideas that emerged from Bilderberg Group meetings would influence the inner circle to which it’s participants belong.

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Birthplace of the Bilderberg Group, 1954.

This brief, yet revealing insight into the inner workings of the Bilderberg Group highlights that there is still plenty we do not know about the organization.

The Globalist Report

********************

For more information about the Bilderberg Group, click here. To download a copy of the newspaper printed in The Argus-Press on June 21 1974, click here for part one
and click here for part two.

Also, you can click here for a direct link to the article online.

The post Bilderberg Group Founder Reveals Secrets of the Bilderberg Group appeared first on Globalist Report and was written by Andrew Puhanic.
To contact Andrew Puhanic, please visit Globalist Reporter http://www.theglobalistreport.com/contact-us/

The Globalist Report is an alternative news source of articles and reports about the Globalists, Globalist Agenda and New World Order.
Visit http://www.theglobalistreport.com to read more.

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Home » Activism » Bilderberg Group » Facts About The Bilderberg Group You Never Knew

Facts About The Bilderberg Group You Never Knew
Written by Andrew Puhanic
Published on Friday, June 8th, 2012
Globalist Report

Awareness of the Bilderberg Group worldwide is becoming more and more evident as each Bilderberg Group meeting takes place. Although the knowledge and understanding about the Bilderberg Group is still relatively low, the campaign that has been spearheaded by the alternative media against the Bilderberg Group has guaranteed that all Bilderberg Group meetings will no longer be held in secret and that their globalist agenda will always be exposed.

The news and information that we derive from the mainstream media, and to some extent the alternative media, is usually centered around the events of the Bilderberg Group meetings and their agenda.

However, for some strange and unknown reason, there has been little to no interest from both the mainstream media and alternative media in trying to understand the make-up of the Bilderberg Group and other intricacies about the organisation.

It is time that the alternative media, activists and anti-globalists begin assessing and analysing the Bilderberg Group on a much deeper level. Considering that the participants of the Bilderberg Group control and influence over 90% of the world’s population, I think it’s warranted that a deeper and thorough examination takes place.

Although this is a relatively minor review of some of the intricacies of the Bilderberg Group, I hope that it inspires you to further research and investigate the Bilderberg Group.

Interesting Facts about the Bilderberg Group

Who Attends the Bilderberg Group?

For the last three years, the organisers of the Bilderberg Group meetings have released an official participants list. Within the participant list, it is interesting to note that there have been only 24 countries represented at the last three meetings.

The country that has had the largest presence has been the United States of America (28.3%). Of the 396 participants at the 2010, 2011 and 2012 Bilderberg Group meetings, 111 Americans where present. Participants from the United Kingdom had a representation of 6.57% and participants from miscellaneous (International) countries and organisations also represented 6.57% of participants.

Therefore, at the last three Bilderberg Group meetings America, the United Kingdom and miscellaneous (International) countries and organisations represented 41% of all Bilderberg Group participants from the last three years.

It has been commonly believed that the make-up of participants at all Bilderberg Group meetings have been the same. Unfortunately, this is not correct. While analysing the participants list of the last three Bilderberg Group meetings, I discovered that only 11.74% of participants attended all three meetings. 17.44% of participants attended at least two meetings and 70.82% of participants only attended one meeting.

Bilderberg-Group-Participants-from-2010-2011-and-2012

The Bilderberg Group Planned to Increase Oil Prices by 400% in 1973

It’s well-known that at Bilderberg Group meetings, participants discuss (in secret) the globalist agenda and issues pertaining around the new world order. However, what is not commonly known is the fact that in 1973 the Bilderberg Group planned to increase petrol prices by up to as much as 400%.

In May 1973, with the dramatic fall of the dollar, ‘Prince Bernhard’s Bilderberg group heard an American participant, Walter Levy, outline a ‘scenario’ for an imminent 400 per cent increase in OPEC petroleum revenues.

The purpose of the secret Saltsjöbaden meeting was not to prevent the expected oil price shock, but rather to plan how to manage the about-to-be-created flood of oil dollars, a process from U.S. Secretary of State Kissinger later called ‘recycling the petrodollar flows.’

After stating the prospect that future world oil needs would be supplied by a small number of Middle East producing countries, Walter Levy declared prophetically: ‘The cost of these oil imports would rise tremendously, with difficult implications for the balance of payments of consuming countries. Serious problems would be caused by unprecedented foreign exchange accumulations of countries such as Saudi Arabia and Abu Dhabi.’

He then added, ‘A complete change was underway in the political, strategic and power relationships between the oil-producing, importing and home countries of international oil companies and national oil companies of producing and importing countries.’

Finally, he then projected an OPEC Middle East oil revenue rise, which would translate into just over 400 per cent, the same level Kissinger was soon to demand of the Shah (See images Below)

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These two excerpts are from the confidential protocol of the May 1973 meeting of the Bilderberg group at Saltsjöbaden, Sweden. Note that there was discussion about the danger that ‘inadequate control of the financial resources of the oil producing countries could completely disorganize and undermine the world monetary system.’

The second excerpt speaks of ‘huge increases of imports from the Middle East. The cost of these imports would rise tremendously.’ Figures given later in the discussion show a projected price rise for OPEC oil of some 400 per cent. (Source: Engdahl, William. Century of War : Anglo-American Oil Politics and the New World Order. London, 2004)

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One of the Founders of the Bilderberg Group was Caught Accepting a $1.1 million Bribe

Prince Bernhard, who is one of the founders of the Bilderberg Group, admitted on record that he accepted a US$ 1.1 million bribe from the United States aircraft manufacturer Lockheed Corporation so that he could influence the United States government’s purchase of fighter aircraft.

In fact, the Prince himself wrote a letter in 1974 to the Lockheed Corporation demanding that he receive commissions for the work that he had been doing. In 1976, a report commissioned by the government was released to the Dutch public. Considering that this globalist had served in more than 300 corporate boards and committees worldwide, it’s interesting to note that no criminal charges were ever made against him.

The Elected Bilderberg Group Chairman

Considering that we can assume that at least 28% of participants at each and every Bilderberg Group meeting have been from the United States of America, the fact is that all of the chairman have been from Europe.

This fact displaces the common belief that the United States of America have officially managed and controlled Bilderberg Group meetings. Although it must be noted that due to the large number of representatives from the United States, their influence is probably greater than that of the chairman.

However, on the other hand, if we consider that almost 80% of the 24 countries represented at the last three Bilderberg Group meetings are European, the numbers of participants from the United States of America may not be as influential as once thought.

How the Media Have Been Reporting Bilderberg Group Meetings Since 1954

It’s a well-known fact that up until 2012 the mainstream media have in effect had a blackout on all Bilderberg Group reporting. The reporting by both the mainstream media and alternative media on the 2012 Bilderberg Group meeting was probably the most comprehensive we have ever seen.

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Nonetheless, the reporting of the Bilderberg Group meetings from its inception has been negligible. Between 1950 and 1999, there were only 15 articles and news reports that contained the term “Bilderberg Group”. Between the year 2000 and 2004, 16 articles and news reports were written and between 2005 and 2011 that figure jumped to 213 (Source: Google News)

From the evidence presented its easy see that the mainstream media has in effect deliberately not reported on anything related to the Bilderberg Group.

In 2012, the agenda of the mainstream media changed and an increase in Bilderberg Group reporting became evident. This can be clearly demonstrated by the 7750 results that Google News produced between January 2012 and June 2012. In effect, that’s a 3076% increase in media coverage in one year.

Who Manages the Official Bilderberg Group Website?

Anyone and everyone who is interested in learning about the Bilderberg Group would have come across the official Bilderberg Group website. Although there is very little information about the Bilderberg Group on its own official website, at present there is no other official sources of information where anyone can derive information about the group itself.

The website that I’m referring to is http://www.bilderbergmeetings.org

As soon as you enter the website, the look and feel of it indicates that it may not be an official website. The lack of information, the inability of the website to report on members who attended meetings prior to 2010 and the vagueness and lack willingness to provide detailed information about the meeting agenda’s are all valid reasons why the website may not be an official website.

What’s even more interesting about the official Bilderberg Group website is the fact that within the privacy statement, a declaration is made that states “your IP address, browser type and how you arrived at the website are being recorded”.

Although Google analytics can provide the same information, it’s interesting to note that the Webmaster of the website also states that this information is being used by their development team for Internet optimisation of the site and present and future clients.

The privacy statement also implies that by entering the site, you automatically agreed to the terms and conditions of the website and that your information is being used to improve the performance on the site itself and any other clients. (Who are the Bilderberg Groups present and future clients???). This could just easily be some shonky Web development or it could be something more sinister.

To gain an even deeper understanding of who the webmaster of the official Bilderberg Group website is and where it is managed, I tried to run a simple domain IP search. The results of the domain IP search exercise where negative. I tried using four different websites that provided domain IP search functionality without any luck
http://www.yougetsignal.com/tools/web-sites-on-web-server/
http://www.selfseo.com/find_ip_address_of_a_website.php
http://ip-lookup.net/domain.php
http://www.hcidata.info/host2ip.cgi

So whoever is managing the official Bilderberg Group website either has something to hide or has some other valid reason to ensure that no one knows the origins of the website.

If you know more about the official Bilderberg Group website than has been discussed here, please share your insights with us by clicking here.

Summary

Although these simple facts shed a little more light than has previously been shared, there is still a considerable amount of research and investigation required before we can feel confident that we have fully exposed the Bilderberg Group.

As I said at the beginning, although this is a relatively minor review of some of the intricacies of the Bilderberg Group, I hope that it inspires you to further research and investigate the Bilderberg Group.

Related posts:
1. The Australian Bilderberg Group Connection

2. Mainstream Media Ends Bilderberg Group Reporting Blackout

3. Will Mitt Romney Attend the Next Bilderberg Group Meeting in 2012?

4.An Inconvenient Bilderberg Truth

http://www.theglobalistreport.com/bilderberg-group-facts/

Documentary about the New World Order, Globalists and Global Elite

Written by Andrew Puhanic
Published on Sunday, June 3rd, 2012
Globalist Report

A momentous shift towards a New World Order and world government is taking place. The global elite, bankers and Globalists who are seeking a New World Order are trying everything possible to prevent the general public from understanding what they are trying to achieve.

The notion of world government is no longer a conspiracy, but rather a reality that everyone will have to contend with at some point.

Trying to understand the meaning of the New World order is difficult. Even more difficult than trying to understand the New World Order, is trying to explain to a friend or family member what the New World Order is all about.

There are many reputable sources that can provide information about the New World order and the Globalists, however as a starting point I would recommend you watch the following documentary titled ‘Thrive: what on earth will take?’

Produced by Foster Gamble, Thrive is an excellent documentary that tries to explain what’s really going on in our world by following the money and how the globalists and global elite have consolidated their power to control nearly every aspect of our lives. Foster Gamble doesn’t just explain how the globalists, bankers and global elite control our us, he also attempts to offer solutions to the problems that the globalists, bankers and global elite have created.

I encourage you to watch this documentary and to share your thoughts and views about the many topics are covered.

Bilderberg Group Member [and Skull and Bones Member] to be Selected by President Obama as the Next Secretary of State

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Post Categories: Afghanistan
Andrew Puhanic | Monday, December 31, 2012, 20:31 Beijing
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Bilderberg

Bilderberg Group, a secretive and complex organisation comprised of the world’s elite, government leaders and CEO’s of the world’s largest corporations is vying to have another one of its members join the Obama Administration.

It has been rumored that John Kerry, a Bilderberger and United States Senator from Massachusetts, will become America’s next Secretary of State.
This news comes as no surprise considering that the Bilderberg Group has a proven history of successfully influencing governments to appoint its members to influential positions within various Government departments and agencies.

Most recently Mark Carney (Newly appointed governor of the Bank of England) and Mario Monti(Prime Minister of Italy), members of the Bilderberg Group, were appointed to positions within Government that ultimately have given the Bilderberg Group considerable political influence.

Mark Carney, a well-known member of the Bilderberg Group who attended the 2012 and 2011 meetings

The most recent Bilderberg Group meeting that Senator John Kerry attended was the2012 Bilderberg Group meeting (Chantilly, Virginia, USA)
At the 2012 Bilderberg Group meeting, Senator Kerry mingled in secret with the likes of Eric Schmidt (Executive Chairman, Google), Robert Zoellick (President, The World Bank Group), Jorma Ollila(Chairman, Royal Dutch Shell) andGlobalist Henry Kissinger (Chairman, Kissinger Associate).

Discussions held with the above Globalists and other Bilderberg Group members were held in total secrecy, without any record, transcript or summary of what the discussions entailed.

In fact, no record exists of what promises and outcomes resulted from the discussions.

However, even more disturbing than the notion that politicians and the global elite are meeting in secret is the fact that most of Europe’s powerful elite now have access to influence one of America’s most powerful positions.

Peter Sutherland, the chairman of Goldman Sachs International, is one of the Bilderberg Group’s most influential members. Presently,Goldman Sachs and the Bilderberg Group have representatives in the upper echelons of Government in Italy, Ireland, France, Greece, Germany and Belgium.
Undoubtedly, the secretive relationship between the Bilderberg Group and Governments around the world has led to compromises and corruptionthat affect the citizens governments are supposed to represent.

This is especially true when both parties are sleeping with each other.

If Senator Kerry is appointed as America’s next Secretary of State, serious questions need to be asked about how the Senator’s ability to represent America without influence and prejudice from the Bilderberg Group won’t be compromised.

Written by Andrew Puhanic
Published on Tuesday, December 18th, 2012
Globalist Report

Posted in 4th Media, Faces of Fascism, Masters of the Universe, Meme Warfare and Imperialism, Neoliberalism as Neoimperialism, New World Order, Nuremberg Precedents, Social Systems Engineering Campaigns | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 4 Comments

Revealed: U.S. Spy Operation That Manipulates Social Media to Spread Pro-American [and Pro-War] Propaganda

Revealed: US Spy Operation That Manipulates Social Media: To Spread Pro-American Propaganda

Post Categories: Afghanistan
Nick Fielding and Ian Cobain, The Guardian | Thursday, January 17, 2013, 16:03 Beijing

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Military’s ‘sock puppet’ software creates fake online identities to spread pro-American propaganda

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General David Petraeus has said American efforts to infiltrate online discussion are aimed at ‘countering extremist ideology and propaganda and ensuring credible voices are heard’.

The US military is developing software that will let it secretly manipulate social media sites by using fake online personas to influence internet conversations and spread pro-American propaganda.

A Californian corporation has been awarded a contract with United States Central Command (Centcom), which oversees US armed operations in the Middle East and Central Asia, to develop what is described as an “online persona management service” that will allow one US serviceman or woman to control up to 10 separate identities based all over the world.

The project has been likened by web experts to China’s attempts to control and restrict free speech on the internet. Critics are likely to complain that it will allow the US military to create a false consensus in online conversations, crowd out unwelcome opinions and smother commentaries or reports that do not correspond with its own objectives.

The discovery that the US military is developing false online personalities – known to users of social media as “sock puppets” – could also encourage other governments, private companies and non-government organisations to do the same.

The Centcom contract stipulates that each fake online persona must have a convincing background, history and supporting details, and that up to 50 US-based controllers should be able to operate false identities from their workstations “without fear of being discovered by sophisticated adversaries”.

Centcom spokesman Commander Bill Speaks said: “The technology supports classified blogging activities on foreign-language websites to enable Centcom to counter violent extremist and enemy propaganda outside the US.”

He said none of the interventions would be in English, as it would be unlawful to “address US audiences” with such technology, and any English-language use of social media by Centcom was always clearly attributed. The languages in which the interventions are conducted include Arabic, Farsi, Urdu and Pashto.

Centcom said it was not targeting any US-based web sites, in English or any other language, and specifically said it was not targeting Facebook or Twitter.

Once developed, the software could allow US service personnel, working around the clock in one location, to respond to emerging online conversations with any number of co-ordinated messages, blogposts, chatroom posts and other interventions. Details of the contract suggest this location would be MacDill air force base near Tampa, Florida, home of US Special Operations Command.

Centcom’s contract requires for each controller the provision of one “virtual private server” located in the United States and others appearing to be outside the US to give the impression the fake personas are real people located in different parts of the world.

It also calls for “traffic mixing”, blending the persona controllers’ internet usage with the usage of people outside Centcom in a manner that must offer “excellent cover and powerful deniability”.

The multiple persona contract is thought to have been awarded as part of a programme called Operation Earnest Voice (OEV), which was first developed in Iraq as a psychological warfare weapon against the online presence of al-Qaida supporters and others ranged against coalition forces.

Since then, OEV is reported to have expanded into a $200m programme and is thought to have been used against jihadists across Pakistan, Afghanistan and the Middle East.

OEV is seen by senior US commanders as a vital counter-terrorism and counter-radicalisation programme. In evidence to the US Senate’s armed services committee last year, General David Petraeus, then commander of Centcom, described the operation as an effort to “counter extremist ideology and propaganda and to ensure that credible voices in the region are heard”. He said the US military’s objective was to be “first with the truth”.

This month Petraeus’s successor, General James Mattis, told the same committee that OEV “supports all activities associated with degrading the enemy narrative, including web engagement and web-based product distribution capabilities”.

Centcom confirmed that the $2.76m contract was awarded to Ntrepid, a newly formed corporation registered in Los Angeles. It would not disclose whether the multiple persona project is already in operation or discuss any related contracts.
Nobody was available for comment at Ntrepid.

In his evidence to the Senate committee, Gen Mattis said: “OEV seeks to disrupt recruitment and training of suicide bombers; deny safe havens for our adversaries; and counter extremist ideology and propaganda.” He added that Centcom was working with “our coalition partners” to develop new techniques and tactics the US could use “to counter the adversary in the cyber domain”.

According to a report by the inspector general of the US defence department in Iraq, OEV was managed by the multinational forcesrather than Centcom.

Asked whether any UK military personnel had been involved in OEV, Britain’s Ministry of Defence said it could find “no evidence”. The MoD refused to say whether it had been involved in the development of persona management programmes, saying: “We don’t comment on cyber capability.”

OEV was discussed last year at a gathering of electronic warfare specialists in Washington DC, where a senior Centcom officer told delegates that its purpose was to “communicate critical messages and to counter the propaganda of our adversaries”.
Persona management by the US military would face legal challenges if it were turned against citizens of the US, where a number of people engaged in sock puppetry have faced prosecution.

Last year a New York lawyer who impersonated a scholar was sentenced to jail after being convicted of “criminal impersonation” and identity theft.

It is unclear whether a persona management programme would contravene UK law.

Legal experts say it could fall foul of the Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981, which states that “a person is guilty of forgery if he makes a false instrument, with the intention that he or another shall use it to induce somebody to accept it as genuine, and by reason of so accepting it to do or not to do some act to his own or any other person’s prejudice”.

However, this would apply only if a website or social network could be shown to have suffered “prejudice” as a result.

Nick Fielding and Ian Cobain, The Guardian

http://m.guardiannews.com/technology/2011/mar/17/us-spy-operation-social-networks

• This article was amended on 18 March 2011 to remove references to Facebook and Twitter, introduced during the editing process, and to add a comment from Centcom, received after publication, that it is not targeting those sites.

http://www.4thmedia.org/2013/01/17/revealed-us-spy-operation-that-manipulates-social-media-to-spread-pro-american-propaganda/

Posted in 4th Media, Faces of Fascism, Mainstream Media (MSM) Shills, Meme Warfare and Imperialism, Petraeus, Political Economy, Social Systems Engineering Campaigns, Theorists and Meme Merchants, U.S. Terrorism | Tagged , , , , , , | 1 Comment

IMAGINE

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IMAGINE: FIRST PUBLISHED AT THE EASTERN DOOR

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From “The Pikunii Sun” Vol 1 No. 2 Newspaper of Pikunii (Blackfoot People) and other interested persons. Also printed in “The Eastern Door” a newspaper of the Mohawk Nation of Kahnawake, Quebec, Canada

Imagine…

by James M. Craven/OMAHKOHKIAAIIPOOYII

There is a great deal of sensitivity to one of the most notorious of the many Holocausts humankind has suffered: the Nazi Holocaust against Jews, Gypsies and others. Movies like Schindler’s List are a constant reminder of massive suffering that must never be forgotten and historical lessons that must be learned. Most believe that something like the Holocaust of the Nazis against Jews or Gypsies or other victims targeted by the Nazis could never happen here in America or in Canada.

Imagine that something like what happened to Jews in Germany happened in America or Canada. Imagine that Jewish children were forced to repeat Christian prayers and were beaten or even murdered if they spoke or prayed in Hebrew or Yiddish and spoke or prayed Jewish prayers. Imagine if Jewish children were forced to eat pork that was not only forbidden for religious reasons but was also rotten, insect-infested and of the lowest quality so that many children could be “fed” cheaply and very profitably.

Imagine if vulnerable and trusting Jewish children were routinely sexually and physically abused by “clergy” and when the sexual and physical abuse was discovered, those who reported it were beaten or murdered while those who committed the ugly deeds, were protected by powerful and rich churches and sent elsewhere to do more crimes to other Jewish children. Imagine that Jewish children were used for medical experiments or used to test new drugs or surgical procedures. Imagine if Jewish children were used as sexual objects for powerful pedophiles–“dignitaries”—when visiting the isolated institutions in which the Jewish children were kept away from their families and communities.

Imagine if Jewish children were sterilized through coercion or deception. Imagine if Jewish children were registered and controlled by a BJA (Bureau of Jewish Affairs) that had a long history of fraud, theft, abuse and dereliction of trust responsibilities with respect to traditional Jewish lands and resources. Imagine if throughout the Jewish Ghettos, corrupt and sell-out Jews were selected or elected through fraudulent elections to control other Jews in the interests of non-Jews bent on the eventual elimination–through murder, intermarriage, redefinition, assimilation or sterilization–of all Jews.

Imagine if Jewish children were forced into special Boarding/Residential Schools designed to beat, torture, intimidate and brainwash the “Jewishness” out of them.

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Imagine if there were football teams with names like the “Kansas City Kikes”, the “San Francisco Sheenies”, the “Houston Hebes” or the Jersey City Jew Boys”; and at half-time, some caricature, of what the bigoted and ignorant consider to be a “typical Jew”, came out to do the “money-grubbing tango”. Imagine if Jews were forbidden to celebrate Jewish holidays or to wear traditional Jewish yamulkas or prayer shawls. Imagine if all the precedents of Nuremberg and International Law (Treaties) were routinely broken by non-Jews while Jews were expected to keep all promises and responsibilities under those laws.

Racist Caricatures449

You say it could not happen to Jews in America or Canada what was done in Nazi Germany? You say that especially after Nuremberg, and the horrors that were revealed there, “Never Again”, anywhere? With respect to Jews in America and Canada, perhaps all of the above and more could happen and perhaps not. But there is no “perhaps” that all of the above and much more was done—and is being done–in America and in Canada and elsewhere in the world to Indigenous Peoples.

When do Indians and First Nations Peoples get movies like “Schindler’s List” that expose the past and present of the American and Canadian Holocausts? When do non-Indians care about the American and Canadian Holocausts against Indigenous Peoples as much as many non-Jews do –and should–care about the Nazi Holocaust? When do Indians get the precedents, legal protections and demands for justice of Nuremberg applied in–and to–the very Nations that so piously and hypocritically sat in judgment at Nuremberg?

Jim Craven
Omahkohkiaaiipooyii
Blackfoot Nation

The utmost good faith shall always be observed towards Indians; their land and property shall never be taken from them without their consent.”
(Northwest Ordinance, 1787, Ratified by Congress 1789)

“…but this letter being unofficial and private, I may with safety give you a more extensive view of our policy respecting the Indians, that you may better comprehend the parts dealt to to you in detail through the official channel, and observing the system of which they make a part, conduct yourself in unison with it in cases where you are obliged to act without instruction…When they withdraw themselves to the culture of a small piece of land, they will perceive how useless to them are their extensive forests, and will be willing to pare them off from time to time in exchange for necessaries for their farms and families. To promote this disposition to exchange lands, which they have to spare and we want, for necessaries which we have to spare and they want, we shall push our trading houses, and be glad to see the good and influencial individuals among them run in debt, because we observe that when these debts get beyond what the individuals can pay, they become willing to lop them off by cession of lands…In this way our settlements will gradually circumscribe and approach the Indians, and they will in time either incorporate with us as citizens of the United States, or remove beyond the Mississippi. The former is certainly the termination of their history most happy for themselves; but, in the whole course of this, it is essential to cultivate their love. As to their fear, we presume that our strength and their weakness is now so visible that they must see we have only to shut our hand to crush them…” (Classified Letter of President Thomas Jefferson (“libertarian”—for propertied white people) to William Henry Harrison, Feb. 27, 1803)

“Hitler’s concept of concentration camps as well as the practicality of genocide owed much, so he claimed, to his studies of English and United States history. He admired the camps for Boer prisoners in south Africa and for the Indians in the Wild West; and often praised to his inner circle the efficiency of America’s extermination–by starvation and uneven combat—of the ‘Red Savages’ who could not be tamed by captivity.” (Adolf Hitler, by John Toland, p. 702)

“Set the blood quantum at one-quarter, hold to it as a rigid definition of Indians, let intermarriage proceed…and eventually Indians will be defined out of existence. When that happens, the federal government will finally be freed from its persistent Indian problem.” (BIA Document quoted in Patricia Limerick, “The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West” p. 338)

“It is readily acknowledged that Indian children lose their natural resistance to illness by habitating so closely in these schools, and that they die at a much higher rate than in their villages. But this alone does not justify a change in the policy of this Department, which is geared towards the FINAL SOLUTION OF OUR INDIAN PROBLEM.” (Department of Indian Affairs Superintendent D.C. Scott to B.C. Indian Agent-General Major D. McKay, DIA Archives, RG 10 series). April 12, 1910 (emphasis added)

From Hitler and His Secret Partners by James Pool:

“Always contemptuous of the Russians, Hitler said: ‘For them the word ‘liberty’ means the right to wash only on feast-days. If we arrive bringing soft soap, we’ll obtain no sympathy…There’s only one duty: to Germanize this country by the immigration of Germans, and to look upon the natives as Redskins.’ Having been a devoted reader of Karl May’s books on the American West as a youth, Hitler frequently referred to the Russians as ‘Redskins’. He [Hitler] saw a parallel between his effort to conquer and colonize land in Russia with the conquest of the American West by the white man and the subjugation of the Indians or ‘Redskins’. ‘I don’t see why’, he said, ‘a German who eats a piece of bread should torment himself with the idea that the soil that produces this bread has been won by the sword. When we eat wheat from Canada, we don’t think about the despoiled Indians.” (James Pool, Ibid, pp. 254-255)

Redskins logo

“Hitler drew another example of mass murder from American history. Since his youth he had been obsessed with the Wild West stories of Karl May. He viewed the fighting between cowboys and Indians in racial terms. In many of his speeches he referred with admiration to the victory of the white race in settling the American continent and driving out the inferior peoples, the Indians. With great fascination he listened to stories, which some of his associates who had been in America told him about the massacres of the Indians by the U.S. Calvary. He was very interested in the way the Indian population had rapidly declined due to epidemics and starvation when the United States government forced them to live on the reservations. He thought the American government’s forced migrations of the Indians over great distances to barren reservation land was a deliberate policy of extermination.

Just how much Hitler took from the American example of the destruction of the Indian nations his hard to say; called ghettos “reservations.”(p. 273-274)

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CIA: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE: CIABASE OF RALPH MCGEHEE AND WORK OF THE LATE STEVE KANGAS

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CIA Past, Present and Future, Part I

by Ralph McGehee

The essential point I try to make through all of the effort in my computer data base, CIABASE, is that the CIA is a policy-implementing agency not (primarily) an intelligence agency — the CIA gathers desired data from selected agents to reinforce predetermined conclusions. In most situations it avoids overt information like the plague because such information frequently disproves the conclusions it wants you and I and itself to believe. The CIA claims to be an intelligence agency that spends only two to three percent of its money on covert operations. The only look into that classified deceit came during the 1975-1976 Senate Church Committee investigation which said the CIA in some years spent about 80 percent of its budget for covert operations — while all the time claiming an absurdly small covert action budget. A recent announcement reveals the Agency’s plans for the future.

In October 1994, the Clinton administration officially announced its worldwide program of intervention via Morton Halperin, former head of the ACLU in D.C., who is now special assistant to the president and senior director for democracy at the National Security Council. The three foreign policy operating principals are the advancement of democracy, security and prosperity. Halperin said, “We divide the world in two, those countries who choose democracy, we help…in those who do not choose it, we create conditions where they will choose it.” Need there be any more specific statement re the CIA’s role in the post Cold War period? The organization that for nearly 50 years installed dictators frequently under the guise of democracy now fights for democracy?

As noted in the last update notice — the National Endowment for Democracy (NED) is the overt vehicle for political operations as it subsidizes and influences elections, political parties, think tanks, academia, business groups, book publishers, media, and labor, religious and women’s and youth organizations. NED assumed this role from the CIA in 1983, but as indicated in a 1994 government study, NED is a front for operations of other government agencies. Here then, I believe is the CIA’s role for the future — a continuation of its covert operations of the past.

In this period the CIA advised that it will gather economic intelligence via a new center to track economic espionage. The new center is made up of corporations and government agencies, and is designed to determine industry’s needs for economic threat assessments. Comment: another threat to be used by the CIA to continue to justify its role in the post Cold War world. How soon after making economic counterintelligence a program of daily reporting to corporations, does economic counterintelligence become economic intelligence? Is there any difference between the two? To their credit many corporations rejected the CIA’s help — they have a better appreciation of the quality of CIA intelligence than the Agency itself.

MATERIAL ADDED TO CIABASE THIS PERIOD

In addition to extracting information from such publications as Covert Action Quarterly, Intelligence Newsletter, Military Intelligence, Extra, Top Secret, Unclassified, Time, Newsweek, U.S. News & World Report, the Washington Post, The Washington Times, The Nation, The Progressive, a new printed/computerized report, Intelligence, a new computer service with periodic printed analyses, Intelligence Watch Report, selected academic, think tank and government studies; and, other sources, CIABASE has added material from the following listed books and publications.

David Corn, BLOND GHOST: TED SHACKLEY AND THE CIA’S CRUSADES, published by Simon & Schuster in New York in 1994. This is one of the few excellent books on the CIA. Corn follows the career of Theodore Shackley from the environs of Cold War Berlin, to various other world hot spots as he tries to overthrow Castro’s Cuba and we end up in a near nuclear conflagration with the Soviets; to Laos where he directs CIA’s hilltribe Hmong guerrillas to act like regular troops — leading to their destruction; to Vietnam where after three years of Shackley-declared “intelligence successes” [one high-level officer says “it seems pretty obvious Saigon (CIA) doesn’t know what the f…’s going on,”] he leaves for another adventure elsewhere. His can-do persona convinces the CIA’s hierarchy of his ability and he progresses up the career ladder.

Shackley’s legacy lives today in the CIA’s like-thinking, can-do, tunnel-visioned, rigid-thinking, team players. One of the more disturbing aspects of Corn’s book is the claimed recognition at the time by various high-level CIA officials that our intelligence on Vietnam was at best, of little value, and at worst manipulated to show non-existent progress — yet none of these officials protested.

Mike Frost and Michael Gratton, SPYWORLD: INSIDE THE CANADIAN AND AMERICAN INTELLIGENCE ESTABLISHMENTS, by Doubleday, Canada. The book describes how the Canadian Communications Security Establishment (CSE) is used as an arm of America’s National Security Agency while also illegally monitoring Canadians. This book provides one of the most detailed and descriptive accounts of how close-in technical intelligence operations are conducted, their successes, and their threats to the security of us all.

Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, November 1, 1994. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ALDRICH AMES ESPIONAGE CASE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR U.S. INTELLIGENCE. Amazing incompetence goes unpunished and uncorrected.

Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, U.S. House of Representatives, November 30, 1994. REPORT OF INVESTIGATION: THE ALDRICH AMES CASE. As Senator Moynihan wrote, “Our stupid but permanent CIA, what will we do about it, nothing.”

Wayne G. Jackson, Historical Staff, Central Intelligence Agency, declassified 6/22/94. ALLEN WELSH DULLES AS DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE, 26 FEBRUARY 1953-29 NOVEMBER 1961: VOLUME V, INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT OF POLICY. This of course is the CIA’s role — to support policy with slanted intelligence.

Wayne G. Jackson, Historical Staff, Central Intelligence Agency, declassified 6/22/94. ALLEN WELSH DULLES AS DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE, 26 FEBRUARY 1953-29 NOVEMBER 1961: VOLUME III, COVERT ACTIVITIES. The book outlines the government’s role in the unsuccessful operation in 1957-1958 in support of dissident military leaders attempting to overthrow Sukarno’s government in Indonesia. The CIA coordinated the operation with relevant elements of the United States Government. The Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, was so involved he acted as a “CIA case officer.” A detailed description of a second operation — the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in 1961 is an extended mea culpa (not). The CIA invaded Cuba with 1,500 armed men and expected with an additional air strike to overturn Castro’s dedicated and committed revolutionary army. The book makes little mention of CIA operations in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam during the Dulles era.

John Heidenry. THEIRS WAS THE KINGDOM: LILA AND DEWITT WALLACE AND THE STORY OF THE READER’S DIGEST. New York, W. W. Norton. This is an informative book that portrays the close relationship between the CIA and the Reader’s Digest — as the latter frightened everyone with Cold War tales. The book names individuals, publications and books authored as part of CIA’s propaganda. Much information from this book has been entered in CIABASE.

Peter Grose, GENTLEMAN SPY: THE LIFE OF ALLEN DULLES. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company in 1994. The book covers the life of Allen Dulles from his early childhood to President of the Council on Foreign Relations, to being the impetus behind the creation of the CIA, to the Director of the Agency, to his post Bay of Pigs dismissal by Kennedy, and his life thereafter. The book, although generally understated, reviews some of major covert operations (with the exceptions of Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam) undertaken during the Dulles era and sums up by saying “The most damaging long-term legacy of Ajax (the CIA’s overthrow of the government of Iran in 1953) was the hubris that CIA through a covert political action, could so easily…change the politics of the world, shaping foreign societies to the American design.” Hopefully, someone in our foreign policy mechanism will recognize that the “promotion of democracy” policy of the Clinton Administration is merely a rehash of the Cold War actions that so often failed at tremendous cost to the American people. GENTLEMAN SPY notes the incompatibility of covert operations and intelligence, “you can’t get intelligence from advocates” — now if someone would only tell the President and Congress.

Irving Horowitz, (Ed). THE RISE AND FALL OF PROJECT CAMELOT: STUDIES IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL SCIENCE AND PRACTICAL POLITICS. Published by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press in 1967. An interesting sidelight to this publication is [that] MIT’s Center for International Studies was funded by CIA. Project CAMELOT was a military counterinsurgency project with a first year budget of eight million dollars that envisioned an alliance of the Pentagon and the academic community on a scale similar to the Manhattan Project.

Robert Manning, (Editor-in-Chief, 1988). WAR IN THE SHADOWS: THE VIETNAM EXPERIENCE. Boston Publishing Company, Boston, MA. A number of scholars and participants in the war wrote individual chapters of WAR IN THE SHADOWS. The book in many aspects is the most informative, concise and accurate of many of the books on Vietnam re the clandestine operations of the Special Operating Groups (SOGs) and the CIA’s various programs.

The United States’ leading wartime writer/scholar on the Vietcong, Douglas Pike, wrote the chapter, “The Vietcong Secret War.” He states the liberation associations of the VC were villagers molded into tight-knit, self-controlled, self-contained associations. Mao Tse-tung of China and Vo Nguyen Giap of Vietnam called liberation associations the initial phase and the sine qua non of their revolutions. In 1963, the VC announced that seven million South Vietnamese (generally rural civilians) had joined these associations. Pike’s article avoids numbers but the existence of those associations and their massive numbers was the intelligence community’s greatest secret or most egregious failure (one that I have rallied against for a quarter of a century). If the CIA had known and/or reported the seven-million-person-strong association structure, it would have invalidated all U.S. justifications for the war; hence, no war. Liberation association members — or to put it another way — most of the South Vietnamese — and their dedication, caused our defeat in Vietnam. Victory was never a possibility. William Colby, the CIA’s main man on Vietnam, called the liberation associations the skeletal organizations of no real power that came into existence late in the fighting.

In WAR IN THE SHADOWS, Pike outlines the spy networks of the Vietnamese communists — his coverage of counterespionage operations where I had a direct role are generally accurate and detailed. The communists penetrated the Thieu Government at every level and a CIA study written by the courageous intelligence analyst who fought the CIA at every step, Sam Adams, said the communists had 30,000 spies in Thieu’s government with a target of 50,000 in a few years. The Chapters, “Dawn of the War,” and “Operation Phoenix,” are also detailed. CIABASE includes much information from the WAR IN THE SHADOWS.

GAO/GGD-94-94, May 1994, U.S. General Accounting Office Report. INTERNATIONAL TRADE: U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY ISSUES AFFECTING U.S. BUSINESS ACTIVITIES IN CHINA.

John Loftus and Mark Aarons, St. Martin’s Press, 1994. THE SECRET WAR AGAINST THE JEWS: HOW WESTERN ESPIONAGE BETRAYED THE JEWISH PEOPLE. The authors are far too rhetorical to be considered reliable. I added no entries in CIABASE from this book.

JOURNAL OF DEMOCRACY — numerous recent issues have been entered in CIABASE. Sponsored foreign authors — and their plans for democracy in their countries.

SURVEILLANT, Volume 3, Number 6. This once impressive magazine’s issue took months to come out and even so it is quite disappointing. It appears to have little information not available from newspapers and magazines. Prior to receiving this issue, I had already read and entered in CIABASE all of the relevant books listed. However, Surveillant’s reviews of those books are helpful. The magazine has few references to Aldrich Ames other than noting a number of books about him are in the works.

Mark Reibling, WEDGE: THE SECRET WAR BETWEEN THE FBI AND CIA, published by Alfred A. Knopf in 1994. Upon first glance this seemed to be an impressive book with considerable new information about CIA/FBI operations and the problems between the two organizations. But on closer examination it appears to be so rife with unsupported data and conclusions, it loses all credibility. I did not add any citations to CIABASE from this book.
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This report was copied from Ralph McGehee’s CIABASE website as at 2001-11-14 CE.
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CIA Past, Present and Future, Part II

by Ralph McGehee

The primary news re the Central Intelligence Agency in early 1994 was the discovery and arrest of Aldrich Ames as a spy for Russia. The worst intelligence nightmare come true. I have not been surprised by the CIA’s ability to rise Phoenix-like from the ashes of its many covert action and intelligence disasters — but will it survive the Aldrich Ames debacle? The question is academic, for if the CIA does not survive some new or re-designed intelligence agency will rise to take its role; e.g., implementing policy while supplying “intelligence” to justify policy goals. (Already the commission to investigate the intelligence community’s deficiencies — the Warner/Aspin Commission has laid out the ground rules and will narrowly focus on non-substantive issues.)

As early as 1951, Walter “Beetle” Smith, director of the CIA under Truman, said covert action was distracting CIA from gathering and analysis of intelligence and asked whether the Agency would continue as an intelligence agency or had become a “cold war department.” Allen Dulles, the director under Eisenhower, answered the question and chose the latter path and in some years spent up to eighty percent of the CIA’s budget on covert operations. Covert dominance persisted until the Congressional investigations of the mid-1970s. Over the years the Agency increased expenditures for technical collection systems but CIA-supplied budget figures consistently understate its covert action costs.

For example, during the Afghanistan war the covert budget was nearly one billion dollars in one year, a figure openly discussed in Congress. At the same time the CIA claimed it spent only three percent of its money for covert operations. Those figures reflect an impossibly high amount but demonstrate how the CIA deceives the American people about the size and expense of its covert operations.

The CIA continues its role as the maker or breaker of governments while in the catbird seat of providing supportive intelligence. Critics of the Agency’s egregious intelligence miss the point, its intelligence is designed to fail — it must produce politicized intelligence — that is its role, to provide information to justify policy. Occasionally presidents need real intelligence but the infrastructure is so distorted by this requirement, and so bloated by bureaucrats, that it is incapable of providing accurate, unbiased information. An insider’s book, Silent Warfare: Understanding the World of Intelligence, by Abram N. Shulsky, argues that seeking intelligence to support policy is a legitimate task of the CIA.

The move to transfer or augment or conceal the CIA’s role in covert operations began over ten years ago with creation of the National Endowment for Democracy (NED) and later with the establishment of the Joint Special Forces Command. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) also play a role in foreign policy.

The Joint Special Forces Command assumes or supplements the Agency’s role in paramilitary operations; low intensity conflicts; strategic reconnaissance; unconventional warfare, including covert or clandestine operations, subversion, sabotage, intelligence collection, and escape and evasion; psychological operations, counterterrorism and others. (Special Forces also collect demographic information on indigenous populations — a task similar to the much disputed “Project Camelot,” of the 1960s.)

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) also appear to to be involved in CIA covert actions. The degree to which they serve as cover for CIA operations, funding, or personnel is not known. The book, Holy War, Unholy Victory, one of the few substantive books on covert action in Pakistan and Afghanistan in the 1980s, says European NGOs that sprung up around CIA operations were so intertwined with CIA it was impossible to separate them.

The Clinton Administration pushes the theme of promoting democracy around the world. In October 1994, the administration confirmed its worldwide program of intervention via Morton Halperin, former head of the ACLU in D.C., who is now special assistant to the president and senior director for democracy at the National Security Council. Halperin said, “We divide the world in two, those countries who choose democracy, we help … in those who do not choose it, we create conditions where they will choose it.” This statement indicates, of course, the CIA, or whatever, will continue the eternal, never-changing role of subverting other governments while reporting only policy-supportive intelligence.

The United States “promotes democracy” in the less accessible, restricted societies — Third World countries and the former Soviet States. The current democracy-promoting operations follow a pattern. The Administration, by influencing established human rights organizations and/or by creating new human rights groups, 12 in Africa alone, declares a country to be in violation of human rights. Propaganda damns these miscreants. Once a government has been appropriately demonized — diplomatic, political, propaganda, media operations and economic measures are applied to force the target country to honor human rights.

When the target nation lessens or abolishes political restrictions, the National Endowment for Democracy (NED), the United States Information Agency (USIA), the government-backed and guided Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), the Export-Import Bank, the State Department, the Agency for International Development (AID), and the CIA all begin overt or covert operations to modify or replace governing authority. When these methods fail, we have the Joint Special Forces Command to fight the “insurgency,” with “counterinsurgency” operations.

NED is the primary overt vehicle for political operations — in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Latin America, Eastern Europe and in the former states of the USSR. NED subsidizes and influences elections, political parties, think tanks, academia, business groups, book publishers, media, and labor, religious, women’s, and youth organizations. NED assumed this role from CIA beginning in 1983, and uses many of the same institutions but operates more openly. While NED is in the open drawing all the attention, it is in part a smoke screen for operations by other organizations. As proof we cite a government study that states the United States through AID and USIA, “and other agencies,” is a huge and primary source of funding for democracy promotion programs.

An explicit demonstration of all of these processes was revealed recently when Russia’s Federal Counterintelligence Service reported in early 1995 that American research centers, institutes and aid organizations, were in fact spying on Russia and working to undermine it as a competitor to the U.S. “Through their special services [CIA] and scientific centers, the U.S. is penetrating deeply into all spheres of our country’s life, occupying strategic positions and influencing the development of political and economic processes in Russia … The use of scientific centers in intelligence and sabotage activities against Russia acquires a total character.”

The report named the Soros Foundation and dozens of other U.S. organizations that it says are using Russia’s open atmosphere to engage in subversive activity designed to steal secrets or restrain Russia as a competitor to the “one and only superpower.”

The report names groups from Harvard, Columbia and Duke Universities and their involvement in the December 1993 parliamentary elections. The university groups organized large polling samples and asked many detailed questions. Comment: This sort of activity was part of the social conditioning programming of the notorious Project Camelot, a Pentagon counterinsurgency project that envisioned an alliance of the Pentagon and the academic community on a scale similar to the Manhattan project. Camelot was used in Chile in the sixties but the resulting outcry forced its cancellation.

Another good example of U.S. interference is China. Prior to the Tiananmen Square incident, NED maintained two offices inside China and conducted regular seminars on Democracy. NED also sponsored various Chinese writers and publications. Probably NED or CIA, recruited numerous Chinese students studying in the United States; and, when Tiananmen Square erupted, either sent of helped fax thousands of letters to recipients in China, inflamed opinion via the Voice of America; and sheltered a leading dissident in the U.S. Embassy, which also arranged for many dissidents to flee China. NED continues to support Chinese activists and awards Tiananmen’s “Goddess of Democracy,” to noted dissidents of all nations.

In the early part of 1994 the United States tried to force the Chinese to allow U.S.-backed Chinese and Tibetan activists freer rein in exchange for continuation of the Most Favored Nation (MFN) trade status and called China a violator of human rights. (In May 1994, Chinese police detained four members of a local Association for Human Rights as one of their number boarded a flight for the United States.) In late May 1994 Clinton, bowing to pressure from business interests, separated human rights from China’s Most Favored Nation (MFN) trade status.

The other more prominent NED operations in 1993 and early 1994 in Asia, were Vietnam and Burma. In the case of Burma, the Administration announced a diplomatic campaign in March 1994, to isolate the Burmese government while proclaiming we were considering economic sanctions to force Burma to improve its human rights. Some of the activities sponsored in Burma by NED as listed in NED’s 1993 annual report, include the Democratic Voice of Burma, the National League for Democracy/Liberated Area; the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB); and the Federation of Trade Unions of Burma.

We continue operations to promote democracy in Vietnam. Such operations first began in the early 1950s, and became the Vietnam War. As a tragic footnote to history, the Vietnamese Government in mid-June 1994 announced their death toll: three million people — one million North Vietnamese and two million soldiers and civilians of the South. In addition more than four million sustained injuries and over two million people were made invalids.

There appears to be a great deal of ambiguity on the part of domestic political ideologies as to whether promoting democracy is good or bad, should be condoned or condemned, or supported or opposed selectively. In South Africa, the former Soviet Republics, Somalia, Bosnia, Haiti, China, Burma, and some other countries there is support, even pressure, for U.S. interference, but in other countries, many object to the U.S. role. In my experience with, and research on the CIA, the majority of United States political operations have had disastrous consequences for the target countries and in many cases also for the United States.

Where the U.S. has operated to change governments, it frequently replaced popular administrations with military dictatorships, or with elected governments that fronted for military rule, or with very conservative civilian rule. From Iran in 1953 to the 1994 election in El Salvador CIABASE records dozens of examples of the tragic consequences of U.S. intervention.
BOOKS, AND OTHER SOURCES ADDED TO CIABASE THIS PERIOD

POWER AND PRINCIPLE: MEMOIRS OF THE NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISER 1977-1981, by Zbigniew Brzezinski. Published in New York by Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Brzezinski implies that in his position in the Trilateral Commission in the mid 1970s, he chose Jimmy Carter to be the Democrat’s presidential candidate. After the election, Carter named Trilateralists to all top national security and foreign policy positions. We note Trilateralists and members of the Trilateral Commission’s sister organization, the Council on Foreign Relations, occupy all top level foreign policy positions in the Clinton Administration.

HOLY WAR, UNHOLY VICTORY: EYEWITNESS TO THE CIA’S SECRET WAR IN AFGHANISTAN, by Kurt Lohbeck, published by Regnery Gateway, Washington, D.C., 1993. The author who worked for various U.S. new organizations at different periods of the war had unique access to U.S.-backed participants in the war. He had personal discussions with the Director of CIA, William Casey, and President Ronald Reagan and at least once delivered money to one of the mujahaddin group leaders supported by the CIA. Lohbeck also went on many attack missions into Afghanistan with the mujahaddin.

Despite his close associations, Lohbeck is essentially critical of the persecution and outcome of the war. The CIA insisted on giving the majority of its support to Gulbaddin Hekmatyar, a fanatic resistance leader who is also vehemently anti-American and supports the extremist Pan-Islam movement. Hekmatyar’s power is now a major concern of our policymakers who consider the primary enemy in the area to be radical Islamic fundamentalism. Lohbeck also records and names some of the humanitarian aid organizations that sprung up around the covert operations of the CIA and frequently became so intertwined with them that they were inseparable — particularly the various European NGOs. Holy War is an informative and worthwhile book.

WAR OF NUMBERS: AN INTELLIGENCE MEMOIR, by Samuel Adams, published in 1994 by Steerforth Press. Sam Adams was a junior CIA analyst who for years fought the CIA’s and the military’s deceitfully low estimates of Vietnamese Communist strengths. Sam died in 1988, but Steerforth Press posthumously brought out his nearly complete manuscript. “War of Numbers” is a masterpiece of articulate exposition about the battle in the trenches of the Agency’s Intelligence Directorate over the Vietnam War. Adams’ explanations of the processes he used to make his determinations, the meticulous attention to detail, and the seemingly inexplicable deficiencies of the CIA’s Intelligence Directorate that did not assign anyone full-time to count the Viet Cong until the mid-1960s, all make this book essential reading. “Numbers” says CIA estimates virtually ignored what should have been its primary source — captured enemy documents. If the Agency had used those documents it would have had to increase the numbers of the enemy to their real numbers, making the war an American invasion, which it was.

THE INDOCHINA STORY: A FULLY DOCUMENTED ACCOUNT, by the Committee of Concerned Asian Scholars, published by Pantheon Books in New York in 1970.

It is difficult to read this book and understand how the American people could believe the lies about the war by our Government. The book put forth in 1970 — five years before the war ended — a documented version of what had happened and would happen in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos.
THE CIA UNDER HARRY TRUMAN: CIA COLD WAR RECORDS, by Dr. Michael Warner, published by the History Staff, Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, Washington, D.C. The book contains a compilation of Top Secret Documents outlining the transition of the OSS to the CIA; the CIA under DCI Hillenkoetter: and, the Smith Years 1950 to 1952. There is a minimum of editorializing with the flow of the book supported by copies of Top Secret documents. The Agency’s (required) view of the world threatened by the International Communist Conspiracy and the falling dominoes, comes through vividly in the various position papers and intelligence estimates.

THE CIA’S DARKEST SECRETS: AN EXCLUSIVE INVESTIGATION OF CORRUPTION AND INCOMPETENCE IN AMERICA’S SPY SERVICE. The cover article of the 4 July 1994 issue of U.S. News & World Report.

Foreign Policy magazine, Winter 1993-1994, an article by Marvin Ott, “SHAKING UP THE CIA.” An establishment criticism of the CIA’s intelligence with recommendations for reform. The criticisms and recommendations have been around for years but now the atmosphere may be ripe for accomplishing some change.

NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY: 1993 ANNUAL REPORT. The document outlines NED activities throughout the world in Latin American and the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, and the republics of the former Soviet Union. The report gives a nation-by-nation account of the various institutions and their leaders funded by NED and should be required reading for political activists and policymakers for all countries and persuasions. The names of all supported institutions have been entered into CIABASE.

JOURNAL OF DEMOCRACY, a quarterly published by the National Endowment for Democracy and John Hopkins University Press. The Journal includes writings by many who are apparently subsidized writers. Names of authors and titles of some writings contained in issues of the Journal have been entered into CIABASE. We may assume that some of these persons are on the U.S.-National Endowment for Democracy payroll — or to put it another way — agents of the United States. The July 1992 issue contains the startling announcement of a new “underground” movement in China — the Free Trade Union of China. This announcement was published by the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions — a long time CIA labor front organization.

PROMOTING DEMOCRACY: FOREIGN AFFAIRS AND DEFENSE AGENCIES FUNDS AND ACTIVITIES — 1991 TO 1993, General Accounting Office report GAO/NSAID-94-83, January 1994. The report breaks down support for democracy in the regions of the world by agency or department with dollar totals for 1991, 1992 and 1993.

NED AT 10, Foreign Affairs Magazine, Summer 1994, by Thomas Carothers.

THE BIG WHITE LIE, by Michael Levine, published in 1993 by Thunder’s Mouth Press. Many of the book’s claims are apparently valid, but the manner of their presentation and hyperbole make it difficult to separate fact from dramatic license. Collateral reporting, including a 60 Minutes segment, shows the CIA was duped into facilitating drug shipments to the United States to authenticate penetration operations.

SPIES AND PROVOCATEURS: A WORLDWIDE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PERSONS CONDUCTING ESPIONAGE AND COVERT ACTION, 1946-1991, by Wendell L. Minnick, published in North Carolina in 1992 by McFarland & Company, Inc. The book contains a very useful and comprehensive inventory of known espionage cases and personalities — from the KGB to the CIA. The book also lists key events in a chronology at the back of the book. Its alphabetical catalog of agents and officials, with brief descriptions, makes it a one-of-a-kind resource. In some cases Minnick’s ‘s details seem over simplified but can be an important aid to further research. CIABASE entries from the book include names of cases related primarily to CIA, plus a few entries about other major operations and operators.

MARITA: ONE WOMAN’S EXTRAORDINARY TALE OF LOVE AND ESPIONAGE FROM CASTRO TO KENNEDY, by Marita Lorenz with Ted Schwarz, published by Thunder’s Mouth Press in New York in 1993. A lover of Fidel Castro sent by CIA to kill him. The book seems to be a mixture of fact and fiction and it is difficult to determine which is which. Marita asserts that she rode with anti-Castro Cubans and Lee Harvey Oswald to Dallas in November 1963 — but left before the assassination of Kennedy.

IN OUR IMAGE: AMERICA’S EMPIRE IN THE PHILIPPINES, by Stanley Karnow, published by Random House, Inc., in 1989. In Our Image details the role played by the United States as it involved itself in Philippine politics — particularly after World War Two — and gives a good account of events that led to the removal of Marcos and the installation of Cory Aquino. Karnow describes the blow-by-blow battle in Washington to get President Reagan to accept Marco’s removal. The book also provides a clear and precise account of the role OPC/CIA played in lionizing and electing Magsaysay in the 1950s and the Agency’s failed efforts in a later election.

SILENT WARFARE: UNDERSTANDING THE WORLD OF INTELLIGENCE, Second Edition Revised. The book was originally written by Abram N. Shulsky, with the revision prepared by Gary Schmitt. This is the bible of the pro-intelligence set. Its definitions and descriptions of the processes of intelligence seem precise and could by used as a primer for CIA trainees. The book details the scope of intelligence: human intelligence operations, technical collection, open-source collection, the analysis of intelligence, counterintelligence, counterespionage, and covert action — but as is always true, pro-CIA discussions of covert actions are useless. Surprisingly the book badly makes an argument for politicized intelligence, “In a supportive role, intelligence must concentrate its efforts on finding and analyzing information relevant to the implementations of policy.” This practice accurately describes CIA’s intelligence from its inception to today.

SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES: FORCE STRUCTURE AND READINESS ISSUES, GAO/NSIAD-94-105, March 1994. A General Accounting Office study of Special Forces that criticizes and discusses the “unified” command of United States’ special operations. For those wishing to understand the background, effectiveness, command relationships and force structures this is an essential document. Although treating special operations only in general terms, it does summarize the plans and uses of the Special Forces.
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CIA and the Crisis of Democracy

by Ralph McGehee

The bombing at Oklahoma City in late April [1995] focused all attention on terrorism. The reaction to that disaster reminds me of the steps that drew us into the Vietnam War. Each action brought forth a greater re-action, culminating in over 58,000 deaths and our ignominious defeat.

McNamara claims we were terribly, terribly wrong about Vietnam yet it seems we are embarked on a similar domestic course. Would it not be better to admit we were terribly, terribly wrong about the attack on the Branch Davidians than continue down this destructive path?

The supposedly liberal Clinton Administration, even before the events at Oklahoma City, pushed for more repressive legislation. His administration, like most preceding administrations both Democrat and Republican, draw their top people from the Trilateral Commission and its founding elite group — the Council on Foreign Relations. What neither organization wants is fully participatory democracy here or abroad — see the Trilateral Commission book, The Crisis of Democracy. The bombing in Oklahoma and its aftermath apparently assures the passage of even more repressive legislation.

Internationally, one event of note was the revelation of CIA operations with death Squads in Guatemala that killed an American, Michael Devine, and the husband of an American lawyer, Jennifer Harbury. Death squads have been created and used by the CIA around the world — particularly the Third World — since the late 1940s, a fact ignored by the elite-owned media.

In January 1995, our elites demonstrated their power to make policy this time in Mexico via a Chase Bank report. The report’s author, Riordan Roett, is the Director of Latin American studies at Johns Hopkins University when not on leave with Chase. The report said the Mexican government must “eliminate the Zapatistas” to restore credibility and stability, and Mexico’s President, Zedillo, ordered military operations into the Zapatistas’ stronghold. Roett’s report also said that the ruling PRI might have to rig future elections. In the U.S., after Congress rebuffed Clinton’s effort to provide Mexico with $40 billion in U.S. loan guarantees to reimburse U.S. banks and mutual funds for Mexico’s inability to pay interest on its loans to them, Clinton unilaterally came up with $20 billion from the U.S. Treasury.

President Clinton early in this period named his appointees to the Commission on the Roles and Capabilities of the Intelligence Community. The Commission is larded with corporate executives, ex-intelligence wonks and many former Cold War warriors. The 19 “questions” it is to examine are broad and would seem to defy the abilities and energies of this group. As with virtually all such commissions, this is an exercise in calming public outcry for something to be done after the Aldrich Ames debacle. Following each major intelligence or covert action disaster you have cries for change. Appointing a commission allows time for public outrage to dissipate. We can be confident this Commission will implement little if any significant action.

The Institute for the Study of Diplomacy at Georgetown University held a series of meetings in late 1994 and early 1995 on “American Intelligence for the Twenty-First Century” as a lead-in to the Presidential Commission on the Roles and Capabilities of the U.S. Intelligence Community. The chairman of the latter, Les Aspin, was a participant in the colloquium. Others — speakers and members of the Institute — came predominately from either retired or active CIA personnel. Not surprisingly the group opted for a stronger CIA led by a Director of Central Intelligence who had real authority over the entire intelligence community. While opting for a leaner and less costly community primarily via consolidation of military intelligence units, the group ignored the Ames debacle and concluded that the presidential commission should focus on requirements and missions rather than on budget and personnel. The latter of course, is primary to any real reform — especially its old-boy personnel that defend the disastrous status quo.

The DCI nominee, John Deutch, in his confirmation hearings claims he will reform the CIA’s personnel and policies. His affiliations, abilities and determination are obvious — but will he implement needed change? Does he understand that by removing many of the the CIA’s top bureaucrats and replacing them with its younger generation, he is merely substituting older psychologically-screened, rigid-thinking, tunnel-visioned, team players, with younger ones?

Earlier update notices have covered the use of the National Endowment for Democracy (NED) as an implement for subverting other governments via the transfer of many of CIA functions in those operations to NED. The Agency for International Development (AID) and the United States Information Agency (USIA) also participate in “democracy promotion” operations in addition to the covert activities of CIA. Some European-based and many U.S. funded non-governmental organizations (NGOs) also participate directly or indirectly in these operations. While such organizations and agencies are the more or less overt manifestation, CIA retains the primary role of supporting or overthrowing other governments.

In a generally conflicting view of NGOs, the liberal magazine, NACLA: Report on the Americas, in its March/April 1995 issue, discusses the current usage of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Latin America. The author indicates that NGOs may serve a useful purpose in Latin America and that some liberals assume the growth of non-governmental organizations in Latin America reflects a strengthening of civil society.

The author goes on to say that in searching for alternative models of development, North American progressives need to question whether these NGOs are invariably the best vehicle. Earlier the Reagan administration’s low-intensity warfare used NGOs to supplement counterinsurgency campaigns. Now NGOs have an important role in promoting participatory, egalitarian and sustainable forms of development. Northern organizations must be flexible enough to learn from mistakes. Given the growth in numbers and competence of Latin American NGOs, northern NGOs are rethinking their mandate and role.

But in assessing covert actions we feel NGOs are an ambiguous area. We note a report by Russia’s Federal Counterintelligence Service that records what happens in the former USSR. The report says, “through their special services [CIA] and scientific centers [and NGOs] the U.S. is penetrating deeply into all spheres of the country’s life, occupying strategic positions and influencing the development of political and economic processes in Russia.”

A personal note: The harassment directed at me for the last one and a half plus years — by presumably the FBI or the joint FBI/CIA Counterintelligence office — continues. On the night of 23/24 April my shed was broken into, I am harassed in local stores, subject to vehicular surveillance and tail-gateing and my wife’s car was tail-gated by the Herndon police. I fear I will be arrested for shoplifting or assault or some other trumped-up charge.

BOOKS AND OTHER ITEMS

This period I added information to CIABASE from a number of new on-line and/or printed intelligence publications. “Intelligence,” a computerized as well as printed magazine published in Paris, France, is particularly informative. Intelligence Watch Report, published in the U.S., provides daily and periodic substantive coverage of world-wide developments in intelligence. The NY Transfer News is another valuable computerized report. A number of individuals sent me hard-to-find books or other important material such as informed E-Mail. I select, edit and summarize the most relevant from all of those sources and incorporate this with information from the usual sources: Covert Action Quarterly, Military Intelligence, Extra!, Unclassified, The Nation, Mother Jones, The Progressive, the newsweeklies, The Washington Post and the Washington Times, etc.

McNamara, Robert Strange. (1995). IN RETROSPECT: THE TRAGEDY AND LESSONS OF VIETNAM. NY: Times Books. A superficial and selective mea culpa. The former Secretary of Defense claims our governing elite had little understanding of the Vietnamese and the war — and from the perspective of 25 years — explains all that they did (do) not know. McNamara decries the Vietnamese lack of resolve to fight, he still does not realize that they won, repelling the world’s strongest military force. McNamara was the best and brightest of the “best and brightest,” but his book does not cite a single communist source. The shallowness of his analysis exposes the intellectual prostitution demanded of America’s academic elite. Sam Adams, a CIA analyst, who fought the CIA at every step, said the Agency in undercounting the VC, refused to use what should have been its primary source — captured enemy documents. In my own experience I discovered that the CIA buried any information that did not support its pro-war policies. Asian communist leaders set forth in their writings the plans and programs of their revolutions but I doubt if any Agency operative, or any member of the best and brightest, ever read or, if so, understood those writings. The CIA recruited paid agents to tell the CIA what it wanted to hear, ignoring the mass of overt information that so disproved our rationales for the war. This practice epitomizes Agency operations from the beginning to the present.

Mohammad Yousaf & Adkin, M. (1992). THE BEARTRAP: AFGHANISTAN’S UNTOLD STORY. London, England: Leo Cooper. The book outlines CIA’s support operation for the Mujaheddin in Afghanistan via Pakistan’s Inter-Service Intelligence (ISI), Pakistan’s CIA. ISI funneled 70 per cent of all material aid — money, uniforms, weapons, including stinger missiles and demolitions — to radical Islamic fundamentalists. Now radical Islamic fundamentalism is one of our major problems.

Howard, E.L. (1995). SAFE HOUSE: THE COMPELLING MEMOIRS OF THE ONLY CIA SPY TO SEEK ASYLUM IN RUSSIA. Bethesda, MD: National Press Books. Howard says he had no contact with the Soviets until FBI harassment operations forced him to flee the United States and seek sanctuary in the USSR.
Adams, James. (1995). SELL OUT: ALDRICH AMES AND THE CORRUPTION OF THE CIA. NY: Penguin Books USA. The story of Ames’ betrayal. To protect Ames the KGB ran deception operations that kept the FBI chasing false leads for years. The book foreshadows a series of other such books on Ames.
Andrew, C. (1995). FOR THE PRESIDENT’S EYES ONLY: SECRET INTELLIGENCE AND THE AMERICAN PRESIDENCY FROM WASHINGTON TO BUSH. NY: HarpersCollins Publishers.

Kempe, F. (1990). DIVORCING THE DICTATOR: AMERICA’S BUNGLED AFFAIR WITH NORIEGA. NY: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

William, P. (1991). PUPPETMASTERS: THE POLITICAL USE OF TERRORISM IN ITALY. London: Constable.

Minter, W. (1994). APARTHEID’S CONTRAS: AN INQUIRY INTO THE ROOTS OF WAR IN ANGOLA AND MOZAMBIQUE. London, England: ZED Books Ltd.

Institute for the Study of Diplomacy of Georgetown University, CHECKLIST FOR THE FUTURE OF INTELLIGENCE, prepared by Dr. John Hollister Hedley. The checklist concludes that the CIA is fine, it just needs more power and influence.

Anderson, J. L. & Anderson, S. (1986). INSIDE THE LEAGUE: THE SHOCKING EXPOSE OF HOW TERRORISTS, NAZIS, AND LATIN AMERICAN DEATH SQUADS HAVE INFILTRATED THE WORLD ANTI-COMMUNIST LEAGUE. NY: Dodd, Mead & Company.

GAO REPORT: RADIO MARTI: PROGRAM REVIEW PROCESSES NEED STRENGTHENING. GAO/NSAID-94-265 11 PAGES.

GAO REPORT: CHEMICAL WEAPONS: STABILITY OF THE U.S. STOCKPILE. GAO/NSAID-95-67.

JOURNAL OF DEMOCRACY, A PUBLICATION OF THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY.

Godson, Roy (editor). Books published in the 1980s by the National Strategy Information Center (NSIC). Readers’ alert: Irrelevance, ignorance, arrogance and dissembling. The books are:
INTELLIGENCE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE 1980’S: COUNTERINTELLIGENCE
INTELLIGENCE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE 1980’S: ANALYSIS AND ESTIMATES
INTELLIGENCE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE 1980’S: INTELLIGENCE AND POLICY
INTELLIGENCE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE 1980’S: CLANDESTINE COLLECTION
INTELLIGENCE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE 1980’S: COVERT ACTION
INTELLIGENCE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE 1980’S: ELEMENTS OF INTELLIGENCE
INTELLIGENCE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE 1980’S: DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE
INTELLIGENCE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE 1990’S: COLLECTION, ANALYSIS, COUNTERINTELLIGENCE AND COVERT ACTION
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Congress Attacks the CIA

by Ralph McGehee, July 1997

The two June 1997 Congressional Intelligence Oversight Committee reports recommended approval of the intelligence budget (approved 7/10/97) while demanding changes in the way the Intelligence Community (IC) operates.

Both Committees ordered an improvement in analytical personnel and results. This to me is exactly right. Since the earliest days of the CIA, it recruited people both for itself, and the foreign liaison services it creates, who are psychologically tested to be team-playing extroverts with rigid mentalities — sounding the death knell for controversial or accurate intelligence. The CIA over its entire history has recruited those deficient in analytical promise and its 50-year record of intelligence failures should have clued us to the problem. The 25-year failure of intelligence on Vietnam is but just one example.

The Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SIC) Report 105-24, June 9, 1997, is particularly detailed and informative and while authorizing increases in budget and personnel for the CIA, notes the inability of CIA analysts and directs that this problem be corrected. The report also orders CIA make new investments and efforts in counter-proliferation, counter-terrorism, counter-narcotics, counter-intelligence and covert action. This report taken with the companion House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence report, below, documents the intelligence community’s analytical inabilities. You cannot run effective operations against terrorists, drug dealers, distributors of weapons of mass destruction and others if you do not and cannot analyze the information you collect.

The House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (HIC) report 105-135, 6/18/97 is especially condemnatory stating the Intelligence Community (IC) has very limited analytical capabilities to meet the myriad challenges, especially strategic and predictive. The report says the IC lacks the analytical depth, breadth and expertise to monitor political, military, and economic developments worldwide. Analytical deficiencies include: a largely inexperienced workforce; lack of foreign languages; limited in-country familiarity among analysts; and a focus on current intelligence that erodes strategic analyses. The IC must improve training and personnel selection. The IC is awash in unexploited open source information. “Put simply, collecting information that is not processed and analyzed is simply a waste…”

Unfortunately the two Committees do not address the other major deficiencies of the CIA. Any number of analysts, and books by some of them, record the impossibility of accurate intelligence surviving the bureaucratized and politicized processing of CIA’s Directorate of Intelligence (DI).

In my experience, raw field intelligence had to survive political decisions by the Directorate on Operations (DO) managers — who frequently achieved those positions by accommodating to the demands of politicizing information. In a large field station, raw reports were measured by the operational desk chief, the station reports office and in some cases the Deputy Chief and Chief of Station. This review was repeated when and if the report reached Headquarters — the DO desk chief, the branch chief, the division reports officer, and the division chief, before it was sent on to the DI. The DI then followed a similar procedure for reports from the DO. One informed person recorded eight DI review layers these had to survive prior to dissemination.

The Agency denies this and other problems via its media operations. Using its relationship with the media, CIA routinely turns or tries to turn intelligence and operational failures into successes. The standard canard — its successes must remain forever secret while its failures are headlined — is for the most part not true.

The CIA’s pre-1975 use of over 500 members of the domestic media to burnish its image, boost its covert operations and cover its failures, gives lie to this canard. In more recent times, CIA report dated 10/12/91, entitled “Task Force on Greater CIA Openness”, outlined its relationship with the media. The report said:

PAO (Public Affairs Office) has relationships with reporters from every major wire service, newspaper, news weekly and TV network … this has helped turn some “intelligence failure” stories into “intelligence success” stories, and it has contributed to … countless others. In many instances we have persuaded reporters to postpone, change, hold or even scrap stories.

An example of this occured after its egregious failure to predict the downfall of the USSR. The Agency tried to turn this embarrassment into a “success.” Rather than determine what went wrong with intelligence under DCIs Casey and Gates, the CIA waged a campaign to show that it anticipated the Soviet collapse. CIA declassified selected documents, and then the Director of Intelligence, Douglas MacEachin, took a sabbatical at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government where the CIA financed the case study that concluded “CIA got it right.” Both profited. Harvard continued to receive millions in research contracts from CIA and the Agency protected its image. Details of its vindication appeared in an article by Bruce Berkowitz and J. Richelson — their article drew heavily on the Harvard case study.

It should be clear why the CIA has such a terrible intelligence record. The politicized/bureaucratized structure ensures that managers, who owe their supervisory positions to political accommodations, can alter, negate or cancel unwanted information. The current CIA leadership is replete with those who have documented records of politicizing intelligence, as recorded in an article in March 1997 issue of Foreign Policy Magazine.

The article says that former DCI Gates’s immediate successors have compounded the problem by refusing to deal with politicization of intelligence. They have condoned efforts seeking to obfuscate the record and have recycled those high-level officials who contributed to the politicization. Two senior officers who corrupted intelligence on the USSR later became the National Intelligence Officer (NIO) for Russia and the Deputy Director for Intelligence. The project manager for the politicized papal plot assessment is one of CIA’s highest ranking officers, the Deputy Director for Operations. The co-author is the CIA historian. Deutch even named Gates to head a panel to determine whether a NIE had been politicized.

Now Congress charges the CIA to meet the challenges of counter-proliferation, counter-terrorism, counter-narcotics, counter-intelligence and increased covert action. It is obvious that this terribly flawed organization cannot meet these difficult challenges. But it is just as obvious that we will sit on our collective hands and do nothing as we wait for the next CIA operational/intelligence disaster.
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CIA: Ignorant, Arrogant and Incompetent

by Ralph McGehee

The New York Times reported recently — “One of the most secret documents of the Cold War is out: the CIA’s inquest into the 1961 Bay of Pigs fiasco, which laid the blame for the disastrous invasion of Cuba squarely on the agency’s own institutional ‘arrogance, ignorance and incompetence’.”

Scans of documents:

http://www.seas.gwu.edu/nsarchive/latin_america/cuba/ig_report/images/Cuban_Operation.htm

[Now at http://www.anusha.com/pigs-all.htm.%5D
ZIP files available for download:

http://www.seas.gwu.edu/nsarchive/latin_america/cuba/ig_report/index.html

[Now at http://karws.gso.uri.edu/Marsh/Bay_of_Pigs/BayofPigs.html%5D

The CIA convinced itself and the White House that the invasion would magically create in Cuba “an organized resistance that did not exist,” composed of 30,000 Cubans who would “make their way through the Castro army and wade the swamps to rally to the liberators.”
If the CIA could not work with Cubans, Kirkpatrick warned, “how can the agency possibly succeed with the natives of Black Africa or Southeast Asia?”

The report warned those who would use the CIA to overthrow enemies, saying that job belongs to the Pentagon and its broad arsenal of military forces around the globe.

The IG’s report painted a picture of an agency shot through with deadly self-deception, one whose secret operations were “ludicrous or tragic or both.”

Also released were some 300 pages of documents with the IG’s report. Those pages include comments from various top-level CIA officials who predictably laid the blame for the conclusions of the report on other factors such as the rival ambitions of Lyman Kirkpatrick and Richard Bissell, the CIA’s Deputy Director for Operations and President Kennedy’s cancellation of a second air strike.

The CIA to itself is never at fault — the blame always lies elsewhere — its only reaction to criticism is denial and attacks on critics.

Those reactions, to me, epitomize the then and present “incompetence, arrogance and ignorance.”

As noted the Bay of Pigs report painted a picture of an agency shot through with deadly self-deception, one whose secret operations were “ludicrous or tragic or both.” Kirkpatrick accuses the agency of faulty intelligence on both the strength of the Castro regime and the opposition to it. This is particularly evidenced by the realities — the CIA was matching the 1,500-man brigade, after an amphibious landing, against Castro’s combined military forces, estimated as: Cuba’s Revolutionary Army of 32,000 men; and the militia of 200,000 men — a prescription for a predictable disaster.

The Inspector General’s report was written in 1961 but it just as appropriately could have been written about today’s CIA. Any number of ex-CIA officials from John Deutch the last DCI, to recently resigned intelligence and case officers, record the state of deep rot in the CIA’s Directorate of Operations (especially its leadership) and in the Directorate of Intelligence.

The United States, as the leader of the world community, needs the best possible intelligence service — something the CIA’s 50-year history of failed covert operations and bad and politicized intelligence cannot provide due to its “ignorance, arrogance and incompetence.”

The IG’s Cuba report was made public just as the Administration was pushing another covert operation to topple Saddan Hussein of Iraq. But even a general apologist for the Agency, former CIA Director Robert Gates, said of this new plan, “Nobody should kid themselves that it will be successful … you might as well play Lotto.”

The Associated Press reported that the CIA drafted plans against Saddam Hussein using Kurds and Shiites to sabotage key economic and political targets in Iraq. The plan would be the fifth covert attempt by the CIA to get rid of the Iraqi president. DCI Tenet feels the plan is risky, and NSC adviser Berger doubts the agency’s ability to undermine Hussein and warns of the debts incurred to the survivors of its various disasters.
The new plan would target utility plants and government broadcast stations, and employ propaganda programs like a “Radio Free Iraq.” “This is a major campaign of sabotage.” Since 1991, CIA has backed Kurdish dissidents in northern Iraq, Shiite Muslims in the south and Iraqi exiles and defectors in London and Jordan in an unsuccessful effort to destabilize Saddam.

One of the current deficiencies of the CIA is its (continuing) inability to analyze intelligence. Even the very pro-Agency House Intelligence Committee in its annual 1997 report said the CIA was unable to analyze political, military and economic information — this is about as dismal an evaluation as possible.

If the CIA is intelligence and operationally-challenged, and is “ignorant, arrogant and incompetent” and refuses to change, what good is it?
Ralph McGehee
CIABASE
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CIA and Operation Phoenix in Vietnam
by Ralph McGehee, 1996-02-19

Until outlawed in mid 70s CIA directly involved in assassination attempts against Castro of Cuba, and Congolese leader Lumumba. CIA also encouraged plots that resulted in assassination of Dominican Republic President Trujillo, South Vietnamese president Ngo Dinh Diem in 63 and Chilean Rene Schneider in 73. Most extensive assassination op was Operation Phoenix conducted during latter part of VN war. Twentieth Century Fund. (1992). The Need to Know: Covert Action and American Democracy, 83.

Vietnam, 65-70 details re Vietnam. From 65-68 U.S. and Saigon intel services maintained an active list of VC cadre marked for assassination. Phoenix Program for 69 called for “neutralizing” 1800 a month. About one third of VC targeted for arrest had been summarily killed. Security committees established in provincial interrogation centers to determine fate of VC suspects, outside of judicial controls. Green Berets and navy SEALs most common recruits for Phoenix Program. Green Beret detachment B-57 provided admin cover for other intel units. One was project cherry, tasked to assassinate Cambodian officials suspected of collaborating with NVNese, and kgb. Another was project oak targeted against svnese suspected collaborators. They controlled by special assistant for counterinsurgency and special activities, which worked with CIA outside of general abrams control. Stein. J. (1992), A Murder in Wartime, 360-1.

Vietnam, 66-73 Phoenix op from 1/68 thru 5/71, CORDS reported 20,857 VCI killed. Gvt of VN reported 40,994 from 8/68 thru mid 71. Per cord statistics 12.4% Deaths could be attributed to Phoenix ops. Kenneth osborn of program said Phoenix became a depersonalized murder program. A dept of defense analyst thayer, found that 616 suspected VCI targeted by Phoenix from 1/70 thru 3/71 were killed by Phoenix forces. After war NVNese foreign minister Nguyen Co Thach said CIA’s assassination program slaughtered far more than the 21,000 officially listed by the U.S. In some parts of south 95% of communist cadre assassinated or compromised by Phoenix. Manning, R., (ed), (1988), War in the Shadows: the Vietnam Experience, 72.

Vietnam, 68-72 Under Phoenix “security committees” in provincial “interrogation centers” would determine fate suspected NLF. Counterspy spring/summer 78, 8.

Vietnam, 69 Under Phoenix in July 69 “Vietnam information notes,” a state dept publication said target for 69 elimination of 1,800 VCI per month. Frazier, H. (ed). (1978), Uncloaking the CIA, 97.

Vietnam, 73 According to Defense Dept official 26,369 South Vietnamese civilians killed under Phoenix while op under direct U.S. control (Jan 68 thru Aug 72 ). By same source, another 33,358 detained without trial. Colby in 73 admitted 20,587 deaths thru end 71 , 28,978 captured, and 17,717 “rallied” to Saigon gvt. Thus approx 30% targeted individuals killed. All Phoenix stats fail to reflect U.S. Activity after “official” U.S. Control of op abandoned. Counterspy spring/summer 75 8.

Vietnam, 75 Counter-spy magazine describes Phoenix Program as “the most indiscriminate and massive program of political murder since the nazi death camps of world war two.” Counterspy spring/summer 75 6.

Vietnam, in 82 Ex-Phoenix operative reveals that sometimes orders were given to kill U.S. military personnel who were considered security risks. He suspects the orders came not from “division”, but from a higher authority such as the CIA or the ONI. Covert Action Information Bulletin (now Covert Action Quarterly) summer 82 52.

Vietnam. Phoenix Program to neutralize VCI (tax collectors, supply officers, political cadre, local military officials, etc). Plan to send pru or police teams to get in practice, death the frequent result of such ops, some times through assassinations pure and simple. Powers, T. (1979), The Man Who Kept the Secret, 181.

Vietnam. Phoenix Program took over 20,000 lives, 65-72 U.S. Congress,Church Committee Report. (1976) B 1 27.

Vietnam, July 71 Colby inserted chart to Representative Reid showing that some 67,282 persons had been neutralized by Phoenix ops against VC between 68-71 Of these 31 percent had been killed, 26% rallied, and 43% captured or sentenced. Frazier, H. (ed). (1978). Uncloaking the CI, 18.

Vietnam, 67-73 The Phoenix Program used the CIA’s assassination squads, the former counter terror teams later called the provincial reconnaissance units (PRU). Technically they did not mark cadres for assassinations but in practice the pru’s anticipated resistance in disputed areas and shot first. People taken prisoner were denounced in Saigon-held areas, picked up at checkpoints or captured in combat and later identified as VC. Sheehan, N. (1988), A Bright Shining Lie, 732.

Vietnam, Phoenix Program, late 60 early 70 took over 20,000 lives in Vietnam. U.S. Congress,Church Committee Report. (1976) B 1 27.

Vietnam. Phung Hoang aka Phoenix Program quotas for units set by komer for all 242 districts. One result indiscriminate killing with every body labeled VCI. Powers, T. (1979), The Man Who Kept the Secrets, 181-2.
Conflict, li.

Law professor at University of Washington, Seattle, Roy L. Prosterman, designed the land reform program the U.S. Government promoted in the Philippines, Vietnam, and El Salvador. In each place the program was accompanied by a rural terror. In Vietnam the Phoenix Program killed 40,000 civilian between August 68 and mid-71; in Philippines, martial law; in El Salvador, a state of siege. Covert Action Information Bulletin (now Covert Action Quarterly) Winter 90 69

Consequences.

Vietnam, 67-70 Phoenix a fiasco, it unmanageable and encouraged outrageous abuses. Valentine, D. (1990), The Phoenix Program, 323.

Vietnam, 75 according to Frank Snepp’s Decent Interval up to thirty thousand special police, CIA and Phoenix related Vietnamese employees were left behind. Saigon CIA station managed to pull out only 537 of its 1900 Vietnamese including close to 1000 high-level Vietnamese who had built close relationships with the agency over the years. Covert Action Information Bulletin (now Covert Action Quarterly) 6-7/79 4.

Vietnam, 68-72 CI Phoenix project run jointly CIA and U.S. Army military intel. Counterspy 5/73 21.

Vietnam, 75 U.S. military provided approx 600 case officers to supplement 40-50 CIA case officers for Phoenix ops. Counterspy spring/summer 75 8.

Vietnam. The Phoenix and the identity card programs. Volkman, E., & Baggett, B. (1989), Secret Intelligence, 150.

Vietnam, 65-69 CI/pacification efforts initiated by French culminate in Phoenix Program designed to eliminate Viet Cong infrastructure. Made official June 68, Phoenix was intensification of ci ops and involved “mass imprisonment, torture and assassination.” For thorough Phoenix description seeCountersp 5/73 20.

Vietnam, 66-73 Phoenix Program synthesis police and pm programs. CIA managing census grievance, rd cadre, counterterror teams and pics. Military intel working with mss, ARVN intel and regional and popular forces. Aid managing chieu hoi and public safety, including field police. Needed to bring altogether under special police. Valentine, D. (1990), The Phoenix Program, 99.

Vietnam, 66 beginning of Phoenix Program. Lv 218. Phoenix to increase identification VC infrastructure and passing info to military, police, and other elements who were to induce defections, capture them, or attack them in their strongholds. Colby, W. (1989). Lost Victory, 266.

Vietnam, 67-73 In 67 CIA proposed all U.S. Intel agencies pool info on VC at district, province and Saigon levels for exploitation. Program first called intel coor and exploitation program (icex). Phoenix the name of program. Assigned quotas for VC to be neutralized. To focus police and intel orgs. Against communist apparatus. Blaufarb, D.S. (1977), The Counterinsurgency Era, 243-8.

Vietnam, 67-73 District intel ops coor center (diooc). Dien ban center a model for all of Phoenix. Bldg 10′ x 40′. Manned by two U.S. soldiers, 2 census grievance, one rd cadre, and one special branch. Diooc intel clearinghouse to review, collate, and disseminate info. Immediate local reaction. Americans kept files of sources, VCI and order battle. Reaction forces 100 police, 1 PRU unit, guides from census grievance. Marines screened civilian detainees using informants and diooc’s blacklist. Valentine, D. (1990), The Phoenix Program, 126.

Vietnam, 67 12/20/67 Prime Minister signed directive 89-th. T/vp/m legalizing Phung Hoang, VN clone of Phoenix. Valentine, D. (1990), The Phoenix Program, 148.

Vietnam, 67 Phoenix Program in fledgling stage conceived and implemented by CIA. Valentine, D. (1990), The Phoenix Program, 147.

Vietnam, 68 Phoenix Program statistics were phony a bust and a fake. DeForest, O., & Chanoff, D. (1990), Slow Burn, 54-55.

Vietnam, 69 Program of 69 campaign called for elimination of VCI. Program became known as Phung Hoang or Phoenix. In each province the chief established a province security committee (PSC). PSC controlled the npff and sp who maintained province interrogation centers (pics). Counterspy 5/73 20.

Vietnam, 71 CIA had no intention handling over attack on VCI to national police command. CIA advisers to special police advised to begin forming special intel force units (sifu). 8-Man teams composed of 4 volunteers each from special police and field police. Sifu targeted at high-level VCI, as substitutes for pru. They sign CIA planned manage attack on VCI thru sb, while keeping Phoenix intact as a way of deflecting attention. Valentine, D. (1990), The Phoenix Program, 391.

Vietnam, 71 In revising Phoenix Program (because of all communist penetrations in gvt) first steps to hire southeast asia computer associates (managed by a CIA officer) to advise 200-odd VNese techs to take over MACV and CORDS computers. VNese were folded into big mack and Phung Hoang management info system (phmis). Valentine, D. (1990). The Phoenix Program, 363.

Vietnam, 72 In report on Phoenix effectiveness in 9/72 Phung Hoang crossed out and anti-terrorist inserted. The end of Phoenix? Some Phoenix ops in 73. Valentine, D. (1990). The Phoenix Program 403, 406.

Vietnam, 75 U.S. Still involved in Phoenix in 75. Program renamed special police investigative service (spis). U.S. provides data processing facilities for spis thru, Computer Science Services, inc. Which runs intel thru machines to classify and collate them and then turns info over to spis. Valentine, D. (1990). The Phoenix Program, 415.

Vietnam. Phoenix Program, resources control program, checkpoints, identification card program, paramilitary police called the police field force a 100 man mobile company at least one assigned to each province. Aid helped upgrade police and developed national police academy, improved communications and files, established one two-way radio in every village. Chieu hoi program. Refugee generation programs. Province coordinating committees supervised civic action on bridges, roads, public buildings, agricultural extension work, medical technicians and more. Blaufarb, D.S. (1977). The Counterinsurgency Era, 217-8.

Vietnam, 67-73 The Phoenix Program used the CIA’s assassination squads, the former counter terror teams later called the provincial reconnaissance units (PRU). Technically they did not mark cadres for assassinations but in practice the PRU’s anticipated resistance in disputed areas and shot first. People taken prisoner were denounced in Saigon-held areas, picked up at checkpoints or captured in combat and later identified as VC. Sheehan, N. (1988), A Bright Shining Lie, 732.

Vietnam, Phoenix. Ranelagh, J. (1986), The Agency 437-441.

Vietnam, police. Public safety included Michigan State University program. Resources control, effort to regulate movement resources both human and material. Includes set up checkpoints roads and waterways, mobile checkpoints. Resulted in 560,000 arrests by 1969. National identity registration program. Every VNese 15 or older must register and carry identification card. Fingerprints obtained. Once completed program to include fingerprints, photos and bio data. Surveillance of suspects role of special police branch. Sp agents penetrate subversive organizations and use intel collection, political data and files from census data to separate good from bad. Pacification or Phoenix Program. Systematic effort at intel collection and exploitation. All intel services and America’s CIA and military intel orgs. Pool data from informers and prisoners. With this info police and provincial reconnaissance units make raids in contested areas to seize or eliminate VCI agents. See Klare, M.T. (1972), War Without End, 265 for more death squads.

Vietnam, 66-71 Phoenix op designed to help U.S. Military reach crossover point, where dead and wounded exceeded VC’s ability to field replacements. In 4/67 Pres Johnson announced formation of civil ops and revolutionary development support (CORDS) for pacification. R. Komer as deputy commander of MACV-CORDS. CORDS budget about $4 billion from 68-71. CORDS the management structure for pacification programs. Personnel both military and civilian. By 71, 3000 servicemen, advisers to ARVN, placed under CORDS. 1200 Civilians by 71. Usaid responsible for material aid. State and USIA also provided personnel. But CIA played the crucial role. CORDS reinstated civic action teams under name revolutionary development cadre. Rd program formed teams of 59 SVNese, divided into 3 11-man security squads and 25 civic action cadres. Teams to spend 6 months in a village to fulfill “eleven criteria and 98 works for pacification.” 1. Annihilation of …Cadre; 2. Annihilation of wicked village dignitaries; etc. System placed 40,000 two-way radios in villages. Land reform failed. (Photos of Phoenix propaganda material). Teams helped create regional and popular forces (rf/pfs). Ruff-puffs, suffered high casualties. They represented half of SVN gvt forces, they had 55-66% of casualties. They inflicted 30% of communist casualties. Underground pm effort called Phoenix which included a “census grievance,” stay-behind. He actually a spy. All info fed into intel coordination and exploitation program. VNese at Komer’s request set up staff that with CIA was responsible for coordinating intel reports on VC infrastructure. Info from census grievance, military, police reports. PM units – including CIA’s provincial reconnaissance units and ruff-puffs. Arrestees – those not killed when captured – taken to provincial interrogation centers (pic). Also regional prisons and a national center all financed by CIA. Problems of coordination and jealousy. Numerical quotas created saying how many VCI to be eliminated each month. Torture used in questioning. Manning, R., (ed), (1988), War in the Shadows: the Vietnam Experience, 55-65.

Vietnam, 71 William E. Colby on july 19, 1971, before Senate subcommittee testified CIA op Phoenix had killed 21,587 Vietnamese citizens between 1/68 and 5/71. In response to a question from mr. Reid “do you state categorically that Phoenix has never perpetrated the premeditated killing of a civilian in a non-combat situation?” Colby replied: “No, I could not say that…I certainly would not say never.” Counterspy 12/78 6.

Vietnam, 67 First MACV alloted Phoenix 126 officers and ncos. By end 67 one nco assigned to each of 103 dioccs then in existence. All military officers and enlisted men assigned to Phoenix Program took orders from CIA. Valentine, D. (1990). The Phoenix Program, 145.

Vietnam, 68-73 Phoenix ci/terror op funded and covered by U.S. Aid, CORDS pacification survey, public employment projects, and other benign agencies. Counterspy may 73 22.

Vietnam, 71 1.7 Billion dollars go to CORDS in Phoenix Project. Colby refuses congressional audit Phoenix funds before committee. Counterspy 5/73 24.

Vietnam, 71 When questioned concerning unaccounted-for 1.7 Billion dollars which had financed much of covert aspect of Phoenix Program, Ambassador Colby assured house subcommittee on foreign ops and govt info, all main problems has been resolved and Congress could rest assured aberrations of brutality would remain at a minimum. He did not know how many innocent victims the program had killed, maybe 5,000, maybe more. He did not have authority to discuss reasons why Congress could not audit 1.7 billions worth of taxpayers funds which went to CORDS. Counterspy 5/73 24.

Vietnam, 69 Colby rendered due process obsolete. VCI target broken into three classes a, for leaders and party members; b, for holders of responsible jobs; c, for rank-and file. Decision c category to be ignored since Phoenix directed at VCI command and control structure. Hamlet Evaluation System (HES) explained. Hes guesstimate of VCI in 1/69 was 75,000. Valentine, D. (1990). The Phoenix Program, 260.
Vietnam, 71 House subcommittee on foreign operations and gvt. Info. investigates Phoenix. Colby insists project “respectable”, brutality minimized. Estimates 5000 killed. Congress denied audit of Phoenix funds. Counterspy may 73 24.

Vietnam, 67-73 CIA developed Phoenix Program in 67 to neutralize: kill, capture or make defect VCI. VCI means civilians suspected of supporting communists. Targeted civilians not soldiers. Phoenix also called Phung Hoang by VNese. Due process totally nonexistent. SVNese who appeared on black lists could be tortured, detained for 2 years without trial or killed. Valentine, D. (1990). The Phoenix Program, 13.

Vietnam, 68 Phoenix ci/terror program established by Thieu’s presidential decree, literally written by CIA man William Colby. Decree and future authorizations indicated that suspects could be arrested without a warrant or copy of charges and detained on basis of police dossier heresay evidence. Once arrested, suspect could not confront accusers or see dossier, was denied bail legal counsel, and was denied a trial or even a hearing. At best one’s case was reviewed by province security committee composed of milt and intel officers. Under Phoenix all rights of due process stripped. Counterspy Winter 78 28.

Covert Action Information Bulletin 13:3, 16-17:6-10; 17:48-49; 22:2,4,6,10-24; “from Phoenix associates to civilian-military assistance,” 22:18-19; “from the hessians to the contras: mercenaries in the service of imperialism,” 22:10-11.

89 An article by Rob Rosenbaum from interviews with General Secord and Ted “Blond Ghost” Shackley. They give their answers to questions about Iran-Contra, secret war in Laos, Phoenix Program in Vietnam, CIA-Mafia plots of the sixties. Shackley discusses charges of opium smuggling in Laos by elements supported by CIA. Photos of Secord and Shackley. Shackley interview in his risk-assessment consulting firm, Rosslyn-based Research Associates International. Vanity fair, 1/90 72-77, 126-8,130-1 Vietnam 68-73 Evan Parker, Jr., John Mason, and John Tilton all from CIA were men who headed Phoenix Program when it supposedly transferred to military and CORDS. Roger McCarthy said CIA very much involved with Phoenix. Corn, D. (1994), Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIA’s Crusades, 193.

Vietnam. John Murray, of WHD, and his wife Delores, former CIA ops officer, sending letters of disclosures re Shackley. He covertly contacted William Miller, staff director of Church Committee, and told how Shackley and Helms in 70 arranged to keep CIA from being implicated in My Lai massacres. (Some evidence suggested massacre related to CIA’s Phoenix Program.) Corn, D. (1994), Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIA’s Crusades, 302.

Vietnam, 67 50 officers and enlisted men invited to join counter insurgency program. Those who accepted by CIA joined as junior officer trainees. Most assigned to provinces as rdc/p or rdc/o advisers and many as Phoenix coordinators. Valentine, D. (1990). The Phoenix Program, 198.

Vietnam, 68-69 Robert K. Brown (later editor of Soldier of Fortune magazine) worked with James K. Damron, CIA’s project coordinator for the Phoenix Program in Gia Dinh province. Pigeon, R. (1986). The Soldier of Fortune, 44.

Vietnam, Orrin DeForest, with U.S. Air Force special investigations early on. Joined CIA in 68 as chief interrogator Hau Nghia province in bien hoa under cover of Office of Special Assistance (OSA). Duties included inspection of pics, training VNese in interrogation. Monitoring intel production. He discovered pics poorly run, Phoenix Program slipshod, and CIA had been unable generate single agent. Using methods learned while working with Japanese national police in identifying, communist agents, disregarding CIA methods, DeForest’s efforts produced 80% hard intel in VN. Minnick, W. (1992). Spies and Provacateurs, 50-1. training, 55 Eisenhower establishes public safety program whose goal is to train foreign police units in, among other things, counterinsurgency. 62 Program becomes Office of Public Safety which eventually procures 400 officers in 45 countries and yearly budget 50 million. Much of Phoenix funding and training was thru Office of Public Safety. By 75 ops had distributed 200 million in equipment foreign police, trained 7000+ senior police officials, and trained over 1 million rank and file police officers worldwide. Counterspy Winter 78 29-30.

Vietnam, 75 Counter-spy magazine describes Phoenix Program as “the most indiscriminate and massive program of political murder since the nazi death camps of world war two.” Counterspy Spring/Summer 75 6.

Vietnam. Former Phoenix advisor Wayne Cooper said “Operation Phoenix was a unilateral American program”, and Klare confirmed by saying “although most of the dirty work was performed by indigenous operatives, Phoenix was designed, organized, financed, and administered by U.S. authorities.” Counterspy Winter 78 27.

Vietnam. “Phoenix demonstrated that the U.S. Government through the CIA will create, impose, and conduct an operation in another country without a semblance of a mandate from a given people or their representatives as long as the operation is considered in interest of U.S. governmental objectives.” Counterspy Winter 78 27-8.

Vietnam, 59-69 the SEALs and the Phoenix Program. The Intel Coordination and Exploitation Program (ICEX) was a joint MACV/CIA op – forerunner of Phoenix. SEALs helped train VNese personnel. SEALs assigned ops detachments. SEALs worked with PRUs. By 68, with prisoner snatches, ambushes, and increasing VC defections, ICEX program neutralizing 800 VCI every month. Phoenix began 7/1/68. Description of the province intel ops coordinating center (piocc) and the district (diocc). Combatting VCI in urban areas responsibility of national police force and police field force. SEALs taught PRUsin mekong delta. Description of prus. They the most effective native troops. By end of 68, the iv corps PRUswere almost entirely advised by seal personnel. Seal advisors accompanied PRUson average of 15 missions a month. Description of ops. Dockery, K. (1991). SEALs in Action, 167-176.

Vietnam, 68-73 ttwo small groups wreaked havoc on the VCI. The Provincial Reconnaissance Units (PRU) and the Navy’s SEALs. PRUs and SEALs often worked together and both killed many VCI and guerrillas — the enemy had wrapped itself in the population. Together they were fewer than 6000 men. They had access to the best intel often coming directly from CIA. Pru had roots in the counterterror teams of the early 60s. In 66 the ct became prus. Details of the makeup and recruiting source of the prus. PRUsoften killed targets. Military participation in the pru program was to end in 10/70. Pru was the most effective action arm of the Phoenix Program. Details of the SEALs larger-than-life reputation earned in VN. Andrade, D. (1990), Ashes to Ashes, 171-199.

Vietnam, 65-72 During Nixon’s first 2 1/2 years, state department officially admits that the CIA-run Phoenix Program murdered or abducted 35,708 VNese civilians, 4,836 more than the pentagon claimed the NLF had assassinated or kidnapped during the same period, and a monthly increase over the 200 killed by the CIA every month under johnson. Senator Gravel edition, (1971), Pentagon Papers v 300.

Vietnam, 65-73 Phoenix Program torture tactics include rape, electric shock, water torture, hanging from ceiling, beatings, incarceration and execution. Counterspy 5/73 16. Vietnam, 69-71 K. Barton Osborn, Phoenix agent, testified to Congress “I never knew an individual to be detained as a VC suspect who ever lived through an interrogation in a year and a half. Uc 114. Note says this testimony given before U.S. Congress,Heari. 315-321.

Vietnam, 73 “The prime difference between the types of intelligence provided to the military units and the Phoenix coordinator was that all information going to Phoenix was of a political nature … I was following through on a reported (VC) suspect that one of my agents had identified. The man was interrogated at the marine counter-intelligence complex and I was invited to witness it. As I entered the hooch the man was being taken out, dead. He died from a six inch dowel pushed through his ear and into his brain.” Barton Osborn, former Phoenix case officer before Armed Services Committee, 1973. Counterspy Spring/Summer 75 7.

Vietnam. Colby supervised est of pics in each of SVN’s 44 provinces. Each center constructed with CIA funds. Agency personnel directed each centers op much of which consisted of torture carried out by VN nationals. Coi 207. Colby admitted serious abuses committed under Phoenix. Former intel officers came before Congressional cmttees to describe repeated examples torture. Marchetti, V., & Marks, J.D. (1974), The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence, 207 see fn.

Vietnam, 66-74 CIA analyst, Nelson H. Brickman, on 11/66 produced basic guidelines for [the Phoenix Program] in a memorandum that described the VCI and suggested which parts of it should be targeted. His memo said rank-and-file members were not legitimate targets “because they were most often unwilling participants in the revolution.” Brickman called for using all available intelligence services to neutralize the VCI. Robert Komer was so impressed he assigned Brickman to the revolutionary development office. He adopted brickman’s suggestion that there was no need to begin a new anti-vci program, only that the existing programs be brought together and managed by a single bureau. He recommended the U.S. Agencies get their houses in order before bringing in the gvn. Brickman “deserved the credit” for the Phoenix Program. A program called intel coordination and exploitation (icex) was the first structure. Evan parker named director of icex but komer had full control. U.S. Military reluctantly participated initially. Icex officially created on 7/9/67, although basic structure had been in place a year. Building of district ops and coordinating centers (doicc) which by late 67 were called district intel and ops coordinating centers (dioccs). MACV directive 381-41 stated: “to coordinate and give impetus to U.S. and gvn operations…Directed toward elimination of the VC infrastructure.” Icex placed under cords. South Vietnamese were unwilling to take program seriously. Andrade, D. (1990), Ashes to Ashes, 58-70.

Vietnam, 67-72 K. Barton Osborn’s testimony re the Phoenix Program before the house committee on government ops, 8/71. Osborn characterized program as a “sterile, depersonalized murder program.” Andrade, D. (1990), Ashes to Ashes, xv-xvi.

Vietnam, 67 The Phoenix (Phung Hoang) program was officially born on 12/20/67 when the SVNese premier issued a decree. This differed from ICEX only in official SVNese support for the program. Seal-and-search op in Bui Cui village. LRRP ambush parties. People’s self-defense forces (psdf) started after Tet, it was a nationwide system of local militias. Andrade, D. (1990), Ashes to Ashes, 72-81.

Vietnam, 68-70 PIOCCC had extensive dossiers on VCI and the chieu hoi program was the largest producer of Phoenix intel. 132. A criticism of Phoenix was the covert control by CIA. Despite influx of military advisers, CIA controlled chain of command and purse strings. Colby, top man of CORDS in 69 had been with CIA. American directors of Phoenix at national level were all CIA. In 7/69 the system changed. “Management and support facilities for Phoenix were officially transferred from the office of the special assistant to the ambassador (osa) (cia) to MACV, who assumed full responsibility for providing for or arranging monetary and logistical support through American channels.” From July 69 on, CIA made up only a small part of the program. Details of numbers neutralized and differences between CIA and military estimates. The use of diocc VCI target folders, a simple prepared set of biographical, operational, and administrative questions. By the end of 1970 one hundred thousand copies had been distributed. A sophisticated computerized collation program called the Phung Hoang Management Info System (PHMIS) was implemented. The program combined the national police tracking system with VCI info to gear up police for handling both. PHMIS was manned by Vietnamese, using American advisers as trainers. 135-6. Andrade, D. (1990), Ashes to Ashes, 134.

Vietnam, 68 President Thieu with the help of William Colby, Komer’s deputy for CORDS, drafted a decree that officially sanctioned Phoenix/Phung Hoang on 7/1/68. Article 3 was of paramount importance — it defined who was or was not a member of the VCI. Article 3 — definitions: the Viet Cong infrastructure is all Viet cong, political and administrative organizations established by the communist party which goes under the name people’s revolutionary party, from the cities to the countryside. The Central Office of South Vietnam (COSVN) is the highest level steering organization…And the front for the liberation of South Vietnam (NLFSVN)….Viet Cong military units, members of mass organizations established by the Viet Cong, citizens forced to perform as laborers, or civilians in areas temporarily controlled by the Viet cong, are not classified as belonging to the Viet Cong infrastructure. Definition adjusted over time. Andrade, D. (1990), Ashes to Ashes, 84.

Vietnam, 94 VN rejects visit of ex-CIA chief Colby, now a Washington lawyer, who had planned to visit as a director of a U.S.-based investment fund. Fund directors had planned to hold a reception Monday. Event canceled, and directors will meet in Bangkok. Colby was CIA’s chief in Saigon during war and was associated with Phoenix, an op to root out rural support for communist guerrillas via sweeping arrests, torture and execution of suspects. Critics said most of those killed were innocent peasants. Chicago Tribune 12/3/94 21.

Vietnam, accelerated pacification campaign, July 68 Thieu with Colby’s help issued decree est Phoenix committees at national, regional and provincial and even district level, “to which all the agencies involved had to furnish representation.” Colby, W. (1978). Honorable Men, 267.
Vietnam, Australia, Vietnam, 62-73 Australian AATTV teams operated in VN often in CIA Phoenix op. `Black team’ commanded by American of australian usually given target figure. He pinpointed and black team would go out, usually dressed in enemy’s gear and the assassination then blamed on VC. Toohey, B., & Pinwill, W. (1990), Oyster: The Story of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service 87-88.

Vietnam, icex intel coor and exploitation MACV/cia program to work on VCI with Vietnamese cooperation. Colby helped devise program which became Phoenix. Colby, W. (1978), Honorable Men 267.

Vietnam, National Security study memo, 67-69 said although Phoenix launched in Dec 67, Vietnamese cooperation minimal and only after American prodding, Thieu issued a decree in July 68 directing network to be set up. Program forced on VNese. Pru supervised, controlled and financed by Americans. Frazier, H. (ed). (1978), Uncloaking the CIA, 111-125.

Vietnam, Phoenix Program most notorious of counterinsurgency programs. Originated by robert w. Komer, who now headed Civilian Operations Revolutionary Development Staff (CORDS), Phoenix designed to root out secret Vietcong infrastructure in South Vietnam. Miller, N. (1989). Spying for America379.

Vietnam, Phoenix, 68-70 In 69 CIA apparently had attack squeamishness and pulled out of CORDS. Concluded Phoenix inappropriate. It believed North had moved away from military engagement to lacing entire gvt with spies — possibly as many as 30,000 so Thieu’s gvt could be easily overthrown. Baritz, L. (1985). Backfire, 269.

Vietnam, Phoenix op. Every person who ran program from Saigon assigned to program from CIA. Colby and 20,000 + figure of persons killed under Phoenix, see fn ag 440. Phoenix General Ranelagh, J. (1986), The Agency 436-441.

Vietnam, Phoenix Program, beginning circa 66-67 CORDS pacification program. Komer settled on massive intel program on VC who could be neutralized by SVN forces. First called ICEX. Name changed to Phoenix in 69 with SVN version phung hoang. Had interrogation centers in each of SVNs 235 districts and 44 provinces, card files and computerized indexes. Pru’s of 50 to 100 men. In Phoenix CIA provided weapons, paid for Saigon computer files, funded and trained PRU’s and passed intel to Phoenix. Colby told senate Phoenix killed 20,587 VCI. When questions arose re legality Colby retreated and said 87% killed in regular military actions. Two army lts. Told federal judge they order to maintain kill quota 50 VCI a month. Prados, J. (1986), Presidents’ Secret Wars, 307-310.

Vietnam, Phoenix Program evaluation. Robert Komer wrote Phung Hoang has been a small, poorly managed, and largely ineffective effort. Clearly Phoenix failed to eliminate the infrastructure that remained after heavy losses of tet. Ce 274-8. Colby continued to see Phoenix as contributing usefully to attack on VC. Blaufarb, D.S. (1977), The Counterinsurgency Era, notes 328.

Vietnam, Phoenix Program, july 69 “Vietnam information notes” a State Dept publication says: target for 1969 calls for elimination of 1,800 VCI per month. Frazier, H. (ed). (1978). Uncloaking the CIA, 97.

Vietnam, Phoenix Program. Part of total pacification program of gvt VN. Colby testified that in over two and a half years there were 29,000 captured, 17,000 defected and 20,500 killed, of which 87% were killed by regular and paramilitary forces and 12% by police and similar elements. Vast majority killed in military combat, fire fights, or ambushes, and most of remainder were killed in police actions attempting to capture them. Major stress to encourage capture. Borosage, R.L., & Marks, J. (eds.). (1976), The CIA File, 190.

Vietnam, Phoenix Program. Quotas and indiscriminate killing of people. CIA conceived and organized program and regional and provincial officers in charge were all CIA. Colby actually wrote Phoenix directive which Thieu was finally pressured into adopting july 68 Colby conceded Phoenix recorded deaths of 20,587. Powers, T. (1979). The Man Who Kept the Secrets, 181-2.

Vietnam, Phoenix Program, 67-75 Targets members VCI. 637 Military intel advisers assigned to Phoenix. Much money given to VNese police to expand detention facilities. Phoenix org: first the district co – ordination center, diocc, that maintained dossiers on suspected VC. Once enough evidence person placed on police green list. Suspect then jailed without right to civilian trail. In cordon and search ops all villagers lined up and walk past police checkpoint. Next level province interrogation center, pic, staffed by SVNese, Americans and CIA. After interrogation, suspect passed on to province security committee, comprised of police chiefs, military and police intel and advisors. Finally suspects could be imprisoned under law for 2 years. This one way to neutralize. Other way via Provincial Reconnaissance Units, PRUs, who would kidnap or assassinate agents targeted by diocc. Had American advisors from SEALs, Green Berets. Official amnesty program called chieu hoi used to convince VC to surrender. VC categorized as a,b, or c. A were key members, c least impt. National police detention center processed 180,000 a year. American money and effort went into national identification card, id, project. All Vietnamese over age 15 jailed if did not carry a card a RAND computer tracked the 15 million suspects also cross-linked to 10 million dossiers and fingerprints. The Dossier issue 6, 11/83 14-5.

Vietnam, Phoenix, 72-73 The F-6 program was a defensive measure to bolster Phung Hoang after the Easter Offensive. F-6 sought to increase pressure on the VCI by allowing province chiefs to move against suspected cadre on the strength of a single report rather then the usual three. With the culmination of the F-6 program in early 73, the Phoenix Program came to an end. In the spring of 72 phung hoang was absorbed into the national police. The last American advisers left VN in december 72. Various tables, command structure charts in appendix. Andrade, D. (1990), Ashes to Ashes, 231-251.

Vietnam, 66-73 Phoenix Program synthesis police and pm programs. CIA man managing census grievance, rd cadre, counterterror teams and pics. Military intel working with mss, arvn intel and regional and popular forces. Aid managing chieu hoi and public safety, including field police. Needed to bring altogether under special police. Valentine, D. (1990). The Phoenix Program, 99.

Vietnam, 67-73 CIA developed Phoenix Program in 67 to neutralize: kill, capture or make defect VCI. VCI means civilians suspected of supporting communists. Targeted civilians not soldiers. Phoenix also called phung hoang by VNese. Due process totally nonexistent. SVNese who appeared on black lists could be tortured, detained for 2 years without trial or killed. Valentine, D. (1990). The Phoenix Program, 13.

Vietnam, 68-72 NLF according to Nixon adm decimated during Tet Offensive, remainder by Phoenix Program. Nvese officer reported Phoenix resulted in loss of thousands of our cadres. Proof in 2 remaining offensives. In 72 and in 75 they did not rely on guerrillas. Baritz, L. (1985), Backfire, 273.

Vietnam, 68 Phoenix Program quota of 1800 neutralizations per month. Viet Cong Infrastructure system (vciis) fed 3000 names VCI into computer at combined intel center political order battle section. Beginning of computerized blacklist. In Saigon DIA, FBI and CIA used computers. Until 70 computerized blacklist a unilateral American op. Valentine, D. (1990). The Phoenix Program, 259.
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CIA Support of Death Squads

by Ralph McGehee

Posted on RemarQ, 9 October 1999

The information below is from CIABASE files on Death Squads supported by the CIA. Also given below are details on Watch Lists prepared by the CIA to facilitate the actions of Death Squads.
Angola
Bolivia
Brazil
Cambodia
Central America

Chile
Columbia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Dominican Republic

Eastern Europe
East Timor
Egypt
El Salvador
Europe

Georgia
Germany
Greece
Guatemala
Haiti

Honduras
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Israel

Italy
Latin America
Mexico
Nicaragua
Norway

Panama
Paraguay
Philippines
Puerto Rico
Russia

South Africa
South America
Syria
Thailand
Turkey

Uruguay
USSR
Vietnam

Death Squads: Miscellaneous

CIA set up Ansesal and other networks of terror in El Salvador, Guatemala (Ansegat) and pre-Sandinista Nicaragua (Ansenic). The CIA created, structured and trained secret police in South Korea, Iran, Chile and Uruguay, and elsewhere — organizations responsible for untold thousands of tortures, disappearances, and deaths. Spark, 4/1985, pp. 2-4 1953-94 Sponsorship by CIA of death squad activity covered in summary form. Notes that in Haiti CIA admitted Lt. General Raoul Cedras and other high-ranking officials “were on its payroll and are helping organize violent repression in Haiti. Luis Moreno, an employee of State Department, has bragged he helped Colombian army create a database of subversives, terrorists and drug dealers.” His superior in overseeing INS for Southeastern U.S., is Gunther Wagner, former Nazi soldier and a key member of now-defunct Office of Public Safety (OPS), an AID project which helped train counterinsurgents and terrorism in dozens of countries. Wagner worked in Vietnam as part of Operation Phoenix and in Nicaragua where he helped train National Guard. Article also details massacres in Indonesia. Haiti Information, 4/23/1994, pp. 3,4

CIA personnel requested transfers 1960-7 in protest of CIA officer Nestor Sanchez’s working so closely with death squads. Marshall, J., Scott P.D., and Hunter, J. (1987). The Iran-Contra Connection, p. 294

CIA. 1994. Mary McGrory op-ed, “Clinton’s CIA Chance.” Excoriates CIA over Aldrich Ames, support for right-wing killers in El Salvador, Nicaraguan Contras and Haiti’s FRAPH and Cedras. Washington Post, 10/16/1994, C1,2

Angola: Death Squads

Angola, 1988. Amnesty International reported that UNITA, backed by the U.S., engaged in extra-judicial executions of high-ranking political rivals and ill-treatment of prisoners. Washington Post, 3/14/1989, A20

Bolivia: Death Squads

Bolivia. Between October 1966-68 Amnesty International reported between 3,000 and 8,000 people killed by death squads. Blum, W. (1986). The CIA A Forgotten History, p. 264

Bolivia, 1991. A group known as “Black Hand” shot twelve people on 24 November 1991. Killings were part of group’s aim to eliminate “undesirable” elements from society. Victims included police officers, prostitutes and homosexuals. Washington Post 11/25/1991, A2
Bolivia: Watch List

Bolivia, 1975. CIA hatched plot with interior ministry to harass progressive bishops, and to arrest and expel foreign priests and nuns. CIA was particularly helpful in supplying names of U.S. and other foreign missionaries. The Nation, 5/22/1976, p. 624

Bolivia, 1975. CIA provided government data on priests who progressive. Blum, W. (1986). The CIA A Forgotten History, p. 259

Brazil: Watch List

Brazil, 1962-64. Institute of Research and Social Studies (IPES) with assistance from U.S. sources published booklets and pamphlets and distributed hundreds of articles to newspapers. In 1963 alone it distributed 182,144 books. It underwrote lectures, financed students’ trips to the U.S., sponsored leadership training programs for 2,600 businessmen, students, and workers, and subsidized organizations of women, students, and workers. In late 1962 IPES member Siekman in Sao Paulo organized vigilante cells to counter leftists. The vigilantes armed themselves, made hand-grenades. IPES hired retired military to exert influence on those in active service. From 1962-64 IPES, by its own estimate, spent between $200,000 and $300,000 on an intelligence net of retired military. The “research group” of retired military circulated a chart that identified communist groups and leaders. Black, J.K. (1977). United States Penetration of Brazil, p. 85

Brazil: Death Squads

Brazil, circa 1965. Death squads formed to bolster Brazil’s national intelligence service and counterinsurgency efforts. Many death squad members were merely off-duty police officers. U.S. AID (and presumably the CIA) knew of and supported police participation in death squad activity. Counterspy 5/6 1979, p. 10

Brazil. Death squads began appear after 1964 coup. Langguth, A.J. (1978). Hidden Terrors, p. 121

Brazilian and Uruguayan death squads closely linked and have shared training. CIA on at least two occasions co-ordinated meetings between countries’ death squads. Counterspy 5/6 1979, p. 11

Brazil, torture. After CIA-backed coup, military used death squads and torture. Blum, W. (1986). The CIA A Forgotten History, p. 190

Cambodia: Watch List

Cambodia, 1970. Aided by CIA, Cambodian secret police fed blacklists of targeted Vietnamese to Khmer Serai and Khmer Kampuchea Krom. Mass killings of Vietnamese. Valentine, D. (1990). The Phoenix Program, p. 328

Cambodia: Death Squads

Cambodia, 1980-90. U.S. indirect support for Khmer Rouge — U.S. comforting mass murderers. Washington Post, 5/7/1990, A10 editorial
Central America: Death Squads

Central America, circa 1979-87. According to Americas Watch, civilian non combatant deaths attributable to government forces in Nicaragua might reach 300, most Miskito Indians in comparison 40-50,000 Salvadoran citizens killed by death squads and government forces during same years, along with similar number during last year of Somoza and still higher numbers in Guatemala. Chomsky, N. (1988). The Culture of Terrorism, p. 101
Central America, 1981-87. Death toll under Reagan in El Salvador passed 50,000 and in Guatemala it may approach 100,000. In Nicaragua 11,000 civilians killed by 1968. Death toll in region 150,000 or more. Chomsky, N. (1988). The Culture of Terrorism, p. 29

Central America. See debate carried in Harpers “Why Are We in Central America? On Dominoes, Death Squads, and Democracy. Can We Live With Latin Revolution? The Dilemmas of National Security.” Harpers, 6/1984, p35

Central America, 1982-84. Admiral Bobby Inman, former head of NSA, had deep distaste for covert operations. Inman complained that the CIA was hiring murderers to conduct operations in Central America and the Middle East — eventually Inman resigned. Toohey, B., and Pinwill, W. (1990). Oyster: the Story of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service, pp. 215-6

Chile: Watch List

Chile, 1970-73. By late 1971 the CIA in near daily contact with military. The station collecting the kind of information that would be essential for a military dictatorship after a coup: lists of civilians to be arrested, those to be protected and government installations occupied at once. Atlantic, 12/1982, p. 58

Chile, 1970-73. CIA compiled lists of persons who would have to be arrested and a roster of civilian and government installations that would need protection in case of military coup against government. Corn, D. (1994). Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIA’s Crusades, p. 251
Chile, 1972-73. Drew up lists those to be arrested immediately, or protected after a coup by military. Sergeyev, F.F. (1981). Chile, CIA Big Business, p. 163

Chile late 1971-72. CIA adopted more active stance re military penetration program including effort to subsidize anti-government news pamphlet directed at armed services, compilation arrest lists and its deception operation. CIA received intelligence reports on coup planning throughout July, August and September 73. U.S. Congress, Church Committee Report. (1976) v 7, p. 39

Chile. Chilean graduates of AIFLD, as well as CIA-created unions, organized CIA-financed strikes which participated in Allende’s overthrow. In 1973 AIFLD graduates provided DINA, Chile’s secret police, with thousands of names of fellow unionists who were subsequently imprisoned and tortured and executed. Counterspy 4/1981, p. 13

Chile. Blum, W. (1986). The CIA A Forgotten History, 240

Chile, 1973-74. After 1973 coup, U.S. Embassy intelligence types gave their files on the Chilean and foreign left to the junta’s military intelligence service (SIM). NACLA (magazine re Latin America) 8/74, p. 28.

Chile, 1973. The military prepared lists of nearly 20,000 middle-level leaders of people’s organizations, scheduled to be assassinated from the morning of the coup on. The list of some 3,000 high-level directors to be arrested. Lists detailed: name, address, age, profession, marital status, and closest personal friends. It alleged U.S. military mission and the CIA involved in their preparation. Moa 186. From late June on plotters began to finalize lists of extremists, political leaders, Marxist journalists, agents of international communism, and any and all persons participating with any vigor in neighborhood, communal, union, or national organization. The Pentagon had been asked to get the CIA to give the Chilean army lists of Chileans linked to socialist countries. Names sorted into two groups: persons not publicly known but who important in leftist organizations; and, well-known people in important positions. 20,000 in first group and 3,000 in second. Second group to be jailed, the first to be killed. Sandford, R.R. (1975). The Murder of Allende, pp. 195-6

CIA provided intelligence on “subversives” regularly compiled by CIA for use in such circumstances. Blum, W. (1986). The CIA A Forgotten History, p. 194

Columbia: Watch List

Colombia. Luis Moreno, an employee of State Department, bragged he helped Colombian army create a database of subversives, terrorists and drug dealers. Haiti Information, 4/23/94, pp. 3,4

Columbia: Death Squads

Colombia. MAS (Muerte A Secuestradores): “Death to Kidnappers,” Colombian antiguerrilla death squad founded in December 1981 by members of Medellin cartel, Cali cartel, and Colombian military. Scott, P. and Marshall, J. (1991). Cocaine Politics, p. 261.

Colombia, 1993-94. Amnesty International called Colombia one of worst “killing fields.” U.S. is an accomplice. William F. Schultz, human rights group’s newly appointed Executive Director for the U.S., told a news conference that using fight against drugs as a pretext — Colombian government doesn’t reign in [its forces]. About 20,000 people killed since 1986 in one of Latin America’s most “stable democracies.” only 2% political killings related to drug trafficking and 70% by paramilitary or military. U.S. probably a collaborator and much of U.S. aid for counternarcotics diverted to “killing fields.” AI report said human meat is sold on black market and politicians gunned down along with children, homosexuals, and drug addicts. U.S. support because of Colombia’s strategic position. No one is safe, people killed for body parts. Washington Times, 3/16/1994, p. a15

Costa Rica: Watch List

Costa Rica, 1955. Ambassador Woodward reported the government should be urged to maintain closer surveillance over communists and prosecute them more vigorously, and the government should be influenced to amend the constitution to limit the travel of communists, increase penalties for subversive activities and enact proposed legislation eliminating communists from union leadership. Meanwhile USIA aka USIS programs “to continue to condition the public to the communist menace” should be maintained. Z Magazine, 11/1988, p. 20

Cuba: Watch List

Cuba, 1955-57. Allen Dulles pressed Batista to establish with CIA help, a bureau for the repression of communist activities. Grose, P. (1994). Gentleman Spy: the Life of Allen Dulles, p. 412

Cuba: Death Squads

Cuba, 1956-95 CIA’s war against Cuba and Cuba’s response. In 1956, CIA established in Cuba the infamous Bureau for the Repression of Communist Activities, BRAC — secret police that became well known for torture and assassination of Batista’s political opponents. Unclassified W/1994-1995 16-17

Dominican Republic: Watch List

Dominican Republic, 1965. CIA composed list of 55 communist ringleaders of projected takeover of government. Crozier, b. (1993). Free Agent, p. 58

Dominican Republic: Death Squads

Dominican Republic, cover, 1965. 18 public safety program advisers, 6 of whom CIA. Police organized La Banda, a death squad. Lernoux, P. (1982). Cry of the People, p. 187

Eastern Europe: Watch List

East Europe, USSR, 1952-93. Radio Free Europe researchers have hundreds of thousands of file cards on prominent east bloc citizens and a staff of 160 researchers. Washington Post, 4/4/1993, p. A19

East Timor: Death Squads

East Timor, 1975-76. Role of U.S. Government, CIA/NSA, and their Australian collaborators in East Timor is another example of support for genocide which joins a long list of similar cases. Carter and Ford administrations have been accomplices in the massacre of anywhere between one-in-ten (Indonesian foreign minister Mochtar’s latest figure) and one-in-two Timorese. Counterspy, Spring 1980, p. 19

Ecuador: Watch List

Ecuador, 1962. Subversive control watch list. With agent from Social Christian party CIA will form five squads composed of five men for investigative work on subversive control watch list. Agee, P. (1975). Inside the Company: CIA Diary, pp. 240, 247 Ecuador, 1963. The CIA maintained what was called the lynx list, aka the subversive control watch list. This a file that might have 50 to 500 names. People on the list were supposed to be the most important left-wing activists whose arrest we might effect through the local government. Would include place and date of birth, wife’s name, where they worked, and biological data on the whole family, including schools the children attended, etc. In Ecuador the CIA paid teams to collect and maintain this type information. Agee, (1981). White Paper Whitewash, p. 55

Egypt: Watch List

Egypt, Pakistan, 1993. 4/16/1993 2 teams from CIA and FBI to Peshawar to check information given them by Egyptian intelligence services. Egyptians reported terrorist groups based in Peshawar belong to “Arab Afghans” with ties to fundamentalist Muslims in U.S. CIA specialists met with officers of Mukhabarat Al-Amat who had list of 300 Egyptians believed to be hard inner core of Jihad led by Mohammed Sahwky Islambuli. Names of various terrorists. On request by CIA and others, 100 expulsions on 4/10. Intelligence Newsletter, 4/29/1993, pp. 1,5

El Salvador: Watch List

El Salvador, 1980-89. On TV D’Aubuisson, using military intelligence files, denounced teachers, labor leaders, union organizers and politicians. Within days their mutilated bodies found. Washington had identified most leaders of death squads as members Salvadoran security forces with ties to D’Aubuisson. Washington Post op-ed by Douglas Farah, 2/23/1992, p. C4

El Salvador, 1982-84. Significant political violence associated with Salvadoran security services including National police, National Guard, and Treasury Police. U.S. Government agencies maintained official relationships with Salvadoran security establishment appearing to acquiesce in these activities. No evidence U.S. personnel participated in forcible interrogations. U.S. Did pass “tactical” information to alert services of action by insurgent forces. Information on persons passed only in highly unusual cases. Senate Intelligence Committee, October 5, 1984, pp. 11-13

El Salvador: Death Squads

El Salvador, 1961-79. Vigilante organization called Democratic National Organization (Orden) created early 1960s to further control countryside. Created in 1961 but abolished in 1979. But quickly regained and even surpassed former vicious role. Today its members form the core of civil defense corps. White, R.A. (1984). The Morass, p. 133

El Salvador, 1961-84. During the Kennedy administration, agents of the U.S. government set up two security organizations that killed thousands of peasants and suspected leftists over the next 15 years. Guided by Americans, these organizations into the paramilitary units that were the death squads: in 1984 the CIA, in violation U.S. law, continued to provide training, support, and intelligence to security forces involved in death squads. Over the years the CIA and U.S. military organized Orden, the rural paramilitary and intelligence net designed to use terror. Mano Blanco grew out of Orden, which a U.S. ambassador called the “birth of the death squads;” conceived and organized Ansesal, the elite presidential intelligence service that gathered files on Salvadoran dissidents and gave that information to the death squads; recruited General Medrano, the founder of Orden and Ansesal as a CIA agent; supplied Ansesal, the security forces, and the General Staff with electronic, photographic, and personal surveillance of individuals who later assassinated by death squads; and, trained security forces in the use of investigative techniques, weapons, explosives, and interrogation with “instruction in methods of physical and psychological torture.” The Progressive, 5/1984, pp. 20-29

El Salvador, 1963. U.S. government sent 10 special forces personnel to El Salvador to help General Jose Alberto Medrano set up Organizacion Democratica Nacionalist (Orden)–first paramilitary death squad in that country. These green berets assisted in organization and indoctrination of rural “civic” squads which gathered intelligence and carried out political assassinations in coordination with Salvadoran military. Now there is compelling evidence to show that for over 30 years, members of U.S. military and CIA have helped organize, train, and fund death squad activity in El Salvador. Covert Action Information Bulletin (Quarterly), Summer 1990, p. 51

El Salvador, 1963. National Democratic Organization (Orden) formed as pro-government organization with assistance from CIA, U.S. military advisers, AID’s police training program. Orden supervised by Salvadoran national security agency, intelligence organization of military. CIA chose “right hand man,” Jose Medrano, to direct Orden. Orden served as base for death squad operations and sanctioned in 1970-79 all “above ground” unions. Barry, T., and Preusch, D. (1986). AIFLD in Central America, p. 33

El Salvador, 1965-85. For a report of CIA supporting death squad activities in El Salvador see “Spark,” 4/1985, pp. 2-4

El Salvador, 1966. Developed death squads with help of green berets. Campaign used vigilantes to employ terror. Later called civil defense corps. White, R.A. (1984). The Morass, pp. 101-3

El Salvador, 1968. AIFLD creates Salvadoran Communal Union (UCS) which emphasized self help for rural farmers and not peasant organizing. Initially, UCS had support military government. By 1973 UCS seen as too progressive and AIFLD officially expelled. U.S. funding UCS continued through training programs and private foundations. UCS charged with ties to Orden, organization which carried out death squad activity. With failing pro-government union efforts, AIFLD called back to control UCS in 1979. Barry, T., and Preusch, D. (1986). AIFLD in Central America, p. 34

El Salvador, 1976-85. Attended conferences of World Anti-Communist League: Roberto D’Aubuisson, El Salvador. Former major in military intelligence; charged with being responsible for coordinating nation’s rightist death squads. Established Arena political party with assistance of U.S. new right leaders. Anderson, J. L.. and Anderson, S. (1986). Inside the League

El Salvador, 1979-84. House Intelligence Committee investigation of U.S. intelligence connections with death squad activities concluded U.S. intelligence agencies “have not conducted any of their activities in such a way as to directly encourage or support death squad acts.” House Intelligence Committee, annual report, 1/2/1985, pp. 16-19

El Salvador, 1979-88. Death squads recruited under cover of boy scouts. Boys operated as a death squad known as Regalados Armed Forces (FAR). They murdered union officials, student leaders and teachers accused of being guerrilla sympathizers. Herman Torres, a death squad member, learned that the scouts part of nationwide net based on the paramilitary organization known as Orden and coordinated from the main military intelligence unit known as Ansesal run by D’Aubuisson. After coup of 1979, Orden and Ansesal officially disbanded. In 1982, when Arena won control of the constituent assembly, the top legislative body was turned into a center for death squads. Another death squad called the secret anti-communist army (ESA). Bush and North in 12/11/1983 were sent to make it clear U.S. would not tolerate death squads. Perez Linares boasted he killed Archbishop Romero on 3/24/1980. Catholic Church’s human rights office reports 1991 death squad and government killings in first half of 1988 double the number of 1987. Mother Jones, 1/1989, pp. 10-16

El Salvador, 1980-84. Colonel Roberto Santivanez, former chief of the Salvadoran Army’s special military intelligence unit, testified before U.S. Senators and Congressmen. He charged that Roberto D’Aubuisson was the principal organizer of the death squads, along with Colonel Nicolas Carranza, the head of the country’s Treasury Police. He said Carranza also serves as a paid CIA informer. Other reports said Carranza received $90,000 a year for providing intelligence to the CIA. Washington Post, 4/1/1984

El Salvador, 1980-84. Former U.S. Ambassador to El Salvador, Robert White, said the Reagan administration covered up information that Salvadoran rightist Roberto D’Aubuisson ordered the killing of Archbishop Romero. Washington Post, 2/3/1984, 2/7/1984

El Salvador, 1980. Former U.S. Ambassador Robert White, said D’Aubuisson presided over a lottery to select which Salvadoran military officer would assassinate Archbishop Romero, gunned down on 3/24/1980. White said the U.S. Embassy received an eyewitness account of the 3/22 meeting that plotted Romero’s murder. Washington Post from Associated Press, 3/1984

El Salvador, 1981-83. Colonel Carranza, leader of Salvador’s infamous Treasury Police, oversaw the government reign of terror in which 800 people were killed each month. Carranza received $90,000 a year from the CIA from 1979-84 Reportedly living in Kentucky. The Nation, 6/5/1988, p. 780

El Salvador, 1981-84. House Intelligence Committee concluded “CIA did not directly encourage or support death squad killings.” Report added that “some intelligence relationships with individuals connected with death squads” may have given the impression that the CIA condoned, because it was aware of, some death squad killings. Washington Post, 1/14/1985, A20

El Salvador, 1981-84. Senate Intelligence Committee reported several Salvadoran security and military officials have engaged in death squads acts. Large numbers of low-level personnel also involved. Death squads have originated from the Treasury Police and the National Guard and police. Washington Post, 10/12/1984

El Salvador, 1981-84. The CIA and military advisers have helped organize, trained, financed and advised Salvadoran army and intelligence units engaged in death squad activities and torture. Information from two well-informed sources in Salvadoran government. Christian Science Monitor, 5/8/1984, p. 1

El Salvador, 1981-88. Discussion of the use of death squads in El Salvador (No indication of direct CIA participation). The Nation, 5/8/1989, p. 625

El Salvador, 1986. Despite extensive government labor clamp down (including National Guard raid of hospital workers strike), Irving Brown, known CIA and head AFL-CIO’s Department of International Affairs, issues report claiming “a shift away from violent repression and an improvement in human rights.” Statement incredible in light of death squad attacks on unionists. Barry, T., and Preusch, D. (1986). AIFLD in Central America, p. 35

El Salvador, 1987. Central American death squads reported operating in the Los Angeles area. NACLA (magazine re Latin America), 6/1987, pp. 4-5

El Salvador, 1988. Americas Watch in September said the military killed 52 civilians in first 6 months, compared with 72 in all of 1987. In 1988 the Salvadoran rebels have stepped up the war. Washington Post, 11/26/1988, A1&18

El Salvador. AID public safety advisors created the national police intelligence archive and helped organize Ansesal, an elite presidential intelligence service. Dossiers these agencies collected on anti-government activity, compiled with CIA surveillance reports, provided targets for death squads. Many of 50,000 Salvadorans killed in 1981-85 Attributable to death squad activity. National Reporter, Winter 1986, p. 19

El Salvador. Covert Action Information Bulletin (Quarterly) 12:14-15;12:5-13.

El Salvador. Medrano “the father of the death squads, the chief assassin of them all,” according to Jose N. Duarte. On 23 March 1985, Medrano was assassinated. Medrano in 1984 admitted he had worked for the CIA in 1960-69. The Progressive, 6/1985, p. 11

El Salvador. Administration sources said at height of rightist death squad activity, Reagan administration depended on commanders of right wing death squads. The U.S. shared some intelligence with them. U.S. intelligence officers developed close ties to chief death squad suspects while death squads killed several hundred a month and totaling tens of thousands. Washington Post, 10/6/1988, A 39 and 43

El Salvador. Article contrasting results of Senate Committee 1984 news accounts of official cooperation between CIA and Salvadoran security officers said to be involved in death squad activities. First Principles, 12/1984, pp. 2-4
El Salvador. CIA supplied surveillance information to security agencies for death squads. Blum, W. (1986). The CIA A Forgotten History, pp. 321, 327

El Salvador. Falange mysterious death squad comprising both active and retired members security forces. Conducts death squad activities. Covert Action Information Bulletin (Quarterly), 4/1981, p. 14

El Salvador. Formation of Organisation Democratica Nacionalista Orden Formed in 1968 by Medrano. Forces between 50,000 and 100,000. From 1968-79, Orden official branch of government. First junta attempted to abolish, but group reorganized as National Democratic Front. Example of Orden death squad acts. Covert Action Information Bulletin (Quarterly), 4/1981, p. 14

El Salvador. See Dickey article re slaughter in El Salvador in New Republic, 12/13/1983, entitled “The Truth Behind the Death Squads.” fn Dickey, C. (1985). With the Contras, p. 286

El Salvador. The CIA and U.S. Armed forces conceived and organized Orden, the rural paramilitary and spy net designed to use terror against government opponents. Conceived and organized Ansesal, the presidential intelligence service that gathered dossiers on dissidents which then passed on to death squads. Kept key security officers with known links to death squads on the CIA payroll. Instructed Salvadoran intelligence operatives “in methods of physical and psychological torture.” Briarpatch, 8/1984 p. 30 from the 5/1984 Progressive

El Salvador. UGB (Union Guerrilla Blanca) (white warriors union). Headed by D’Aubuisson, who trained at International Police Academy. D’Aubuisson claims close ties CIA. Former ambassador White called D’Aubuisson a “psychopathic killer.” Covert Action Information Bulletin (Quarterly), 4/1981, p. 14

El Salvador, 1979-88. See “Confessions of an Assassin,” article. Herman Torres Cortez is the assassin who was interviewed and tells of death squad operations in El Salvador. Mother Jones, 1/1989, p. 10

El Salvador, 1983. Vice President Bush delivered an ultimatum to Salvadoran military to stop death squad murders. Mother Jones, 8/1986, p. 64

El Salvador, 1987. Assassins, certainly sponsored by and probably members of Salvadoran security forces, murder Herbert Ernesto Anaya, head of Salvadoran civil rights commission and last survivor of commission’s eight founders. Prior harassment of Anaya solicited neither protest nor protection from Duarte or U.S. administration. Contrary to popular opinion, death squad activity has not waned. “Selective killings of community leaders, labor organizers, human rights workers, rural activists and others have replaced wholesale massacres” since signing of Arias plan. Los Angeles organization “El Rescate” has compiled chronology of human rights abuses. The Nation, 11/14/1987, p. 546

El Salvador. CIA took more than two years 1980-83 begin seriously analyzing papers captured from D’Aubuisson. ICC 242. Papers said reveal death squad supporters, atrocities. Marshall, J., Scott P.D., and Hunter, J. (1987). The Iran-Contra Connection, p. 22

El Salvador, 1988. Death squad activity surged in El Salvador in 1988 after a period of relative decline. Amnesty International report “El Salvador: Death Squads- A Government Strategy,” noted in NACLA (magazine re Latin America) 3/1989, p. 11

El Salvador, 1989. Although human rights monitors consistently link death squad acts to the Salvadoran government, many U.S. media report on death squads as if they an independent or uncontrollable force. Extra, Summer, 1989, p. 28

El Salvador, 1989 Member of Salvadoran army said first brigade intelligence unit army troops routinely kill and torture suspected leftists. First brigade day-to-day army operations carried out with knowledge of U.S. military advisers. CIA routinely pays expenses for intelligence operations in the brigades. U.S. has about 55 advisers in Salvador. Washington Post, 10/27/1989, A1,26

El Salvador, circa 1982-84. Ricardo Castro, a 35 year old Salvadoran army officer, a West Point graduate, said he worked for the CIA and served as translator for a U.S. official who advised the military on torture techniques and overseas assassinations. Castro personally led death squad operations. The Progressive, 3/1986, pp. 26-30

El Salvador, domestic, 1986-87. Article “The Death Squads Hit Home.” For decades they terrorized civilians in El Salvador, now they are terrorizing civilians in the U.S. The FBI shared intelligence about Salvadoran activists in the U.S. with Salvador’s notorious security services. The Progressive, 10/1987, pp. 15-19

El Salvador. Office of Public Safety graduate Colonel Roberto Mauricio Staben was, according to journalist Charles Dickey “responsible for patrolling — if not contributing to — the famous death squad dumping ground at El Payton a few miles from its headquarters.” also, Alberto Medrano, founder of El Salvador’s counterinsurgency force Orden, was an operations graduate. Finally, Jose Castillo, who was trained in 1969 at the U.S. International Police School, later became head of National Guard’s section of special investigations which helped organize the death squads. The Nation, 6/7/1986, p. 793

El Salvador. Former death squad member Joya Martinez admitted death squad operations carried out with knowledge and approval 2 U.S. military advisers. LA Weekly, 1/25/1990

El Salvador. DCI report to House Intelligence Committee re CIA connections with death squads. National security archives listing.

El Salvador. FBI’s contacts with the Salvadoran National Guard. Information in Senate Intelligence Committee Report, 7/1989, pp. 104-5

El Salvador. Former San Francisco police officer accused of illegal spying said he worked for CIA and will expose CIA’s support of death squads if he prosecuted. Tom Gerard said he began working for CIA in 1982 and quit in 1985 because he could not tolerate what he saw. He and Roy Bullock are suspected of gathering information from police and government files on thousands of individuals and groups. Information probably ended up with B’nai B’rith and ADL. CIA refused to confirm Gerard’s claim. Gerard said there is proof CIA directly involved in training and support of torture and death squads in El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala during mid 1980s. Proof in his briefcase San Francisco police seized. Gerard said several photos seized by police show CIA agents attending interrogations, or posing with death squad members. Washington Times, 4/28/1993, A 6

El Salvador, 1963-90. In 1963 U.S. sent 10 Special Forces to help General Madrano set up Organizacion Democratica Nacionalista (Orden), a death squad. Evidence this sort activity going on for 30 years. Martinez, a soldier in First infantry brigade’s department 2, admitted death squad acts. Said he worked with two U.S. Advisers. Castro, another soldier, talks about death squads and U.S. contacts. Rene Hurtado, former agent with Treasury Police, gives his story. Covert Action Information Bulletin (Quarterly) Summer 1990, pp. 51-53
El Salvador, 1973-89. El Salvador’s ruling party, Arena, closed off fifth floor of National Assembly building to serve as HQ for national network of death squads following Arena’s 20 March 1988 electoral victory. Hernan Torres Cortez, a former Arena security guard and death squad member, said he was trained and recruited by Dr. Antonio Regalado under orders of Roberto D’Abuisson intelligence service, Ansesal, in 1973. Official network was broken up in 1984 following Vice President Bush’s visit, but was reinstated in 1988. Intelligence Newsletter, 1/18/1991, p. 5

El Salvador, 1979-90. A detailed discussion of Salvador’s death squads. Schwarz, B. (1991). American Counterinsurgency Doctrine and El Salvador, pp. 41-3

El Salvador, 1980-84. Expatriate Salvadorans in U.S. have provided funds for political violence and have been directly involved in assisting and directing their operations. Senate Intelligence Committee, October 5, 1984, p. 15

El Salvador, 1980-84. Numerous Salvadoran officials involved in death squad activities — most done by security services — especially the Treasury Police and National Guard. Some military death squad activity. Senate Intelligence Committee, October 5, 1984, 15

El Salvador, 1980-89. D’Aubuisson kept U.S. on its guard. Hundreds of released declassified documents re relationship. Washington Post, 1/4/1994, A1,13

El Salvador, 1980-89. Declassified documents re 32 cases investigated by United Nations appointed Truth Commission on El Salvador reveal U.S. officials were fully aware of Salvadoran military and political leaders’ complicity in crimes ranging from massacre of more than 700 peasants at El Mozote in 1981 to murder of 6 Jesuit priests in 1989, and thousands of atrocities in between. Lies of our Time 3/1994, pp. 6-9

El Salvador, 1980-89. President Reagan and Vice President Bush instituted polices re fighting communists rather than human rights concerns. From 11/1980 through 1/1991 a large number of assassinations — 11/27, 5 respected politicians; 12/4, rape and murder of 3 American nuns and a lay workers; 2 American land reform advisers on 1/4/1981. Archbishop Romero killed 3/1980. There clear evidence D’Aubuisson’s involvement but Reagan administration ignored. On TV, D’Aubuisson, using military intelligence files, denounced teachers, labor leaders, union organizers and politicians. Within days their mutilated bodies found. Washington had identified most leaders of death squads as members Salvadoran security forces with ties to D’Aubuisson. With U.S. outrage at bloodshed, U.S., via Bush, advised government slaughter must stop. Article discusses torture techniques used by security forces. Washington Post op-ed by Douglas Farah, 2/23/1992, C4

El Salvador, 1980-90. COL Nicolas Carranza, head of Treasury Police, on CIA payroll. Minnick, W. (1992). Spies and Provocateurs, p. 32

El Salvador, 1980-90. State panel found that mistakes by U.S. diplomats, particularly in probing 1981 massacre of civilians at El Mozote, undercut policy during Salvador’s civil war. Findings in 67-page study ordered by Secretary of State Christopher. Sen. Leahy said report “glosses over…the lies, half-truths and evasions that we came to expect from the State Department during that period.” Sen. Dodd said “report is sloppy, anemic and basically a whitewash…” Washington Times, 7/16/1993, A12 and Washington Post, 7/16/1993, A16

El Salvador, 1980-91. Truth Commission report says 19 of 27 Salvadoran officers implicated in 6 Jesuit murders were graduates of U.S. Army’s School of Americas in Fort Benning, Ga. Almost three quarters of Salvadoran officers accused in 7 other massacres were trained at Fort Benning. It called school for dictators. Since 46 it has trained more than 56,000 Latin soldiers. Graduates include some of region’s most despicable military strongmen. Now, when U.S. wants to build democracy, school an obstacle. Newsweek investigation turned up hundreds of less than honorable grads. At least 6 Peruvian officers linked to a military death squad that killed 9 students and a professor were graduates. Four of five senior Honduran officers accused in Americas Watch report of organizing a death squad, Battalion 316, were trained there. A coalition charged 246 Colombian officers with human rights violations; 105 were school alumni. Honored graduates include General Suarez, a brutal dictator of Bolivia; General Callejas Ycallejas, chief of Guatemalan intelligence in late 1970s and early 1980s, when thousands political opponents were assassinated; and Honduran General Garcia, a corrupt person; and, Hernandez, armed forces chief of Colombia suspected of aiding Colombian drug traffickers. Newsweek, 8/9/1993, pp. 36-7

El Salvador, 1980-92. “Secret of the Skeletons: Uncovering America’s Hidden Role in El Salvador.” Pathologists uncovered 38 small skeletons in El Mozote. In 1981 soldiers of ACRE, immediate reaction infantry battalion created by U.S., herded children into basement and blew up building. U.S. officials denied any massacre had taken place and kept on denying for years. About 800 residents killed. Armed service leaders said they conducted war on part of Reagan and Bush administrations with bi-partisan support Congress since 1984; received daily assistance from State Department, DOD and CIA. Truth Commission investigating via U.S. Government interagency committee. State and CIA not cooperating with commission. CIA not giving one document on formation of death squads, prepared in 1983 for congressional intelligence committees. Kidnap-for-profit ring against Salvadoran business community. With U.S. Encouragement, Salvadoran government arrested several members of ring. One was a death squad assassin, Rudolfo Isidro Lopez Sibrian, who implicated in deaths of 2 American labor advisers. Washington Post, 11/15/1992, C1,2

El Salvador, 1980-93. 11/5/1993 release of thousands pages of intelligence reports shows every U.S. diplomat, military officer, and intelligence operative who worked with El Salvador’s military and political leaders in 1980s knew most of those involved in organizing death squads. State Department officials lied to Congress. Intelligence reports detailed precise information on murder, kidnapping, and coup plots, and death squad funding, involving people like VP Francisco Merino and current Arena candidate Armando Calderon Sol. At least 63,000 Salvadoran civilians — equivalent of 3 million Americans were killed — most by government supported by U.S. The Nation, 11/29/1993, p. 645

El Salvador, 1980-93. Approximately 50-page article on the massacres at El Mozote. Article by Mark Danner. New Yorker, 12/6/1993

El Salvador, 1980-93. Article by Jared Toller, “Death Squads Past, Present & Future.” discusses recent cases of FMLN members being murdered by resurgent death squads. Only left is calling for full implementation of UN Truth Commission’s recommendations — purging armed forces, full investigation into death squads, etc. Truth Commission had recommended U.S. make it files available. U.S. Had refused to turn over 1983 FBI report on death squads organization in Miami. Salvadoran government is the death squads. Member of a death squad now imprisoned and seeking amnesty, Lopez Sibrian, explained participation of Arena luminaries in kidnappings, bombings and attacks on National University. He implicated the mayor of San Salvador in various acts. Link between phone service, Antel, and national intelligence police. Antel records calls of left and passes them to police. (The secret anti-communist Army, a former death squad, were regulars of now-disbanded Treasury Police). Upcoming elections may have generated increase in death squad activity. Z magazine, 1/1994, pp. 14-5

El Salvador, 1980-93. Colman McCarthy comments of UN’s Truth Commission report and the Reagan-Abrams “fabulous achievement.” Washington Post, 4/6/1993, D22

El Salvador, 1980-93. Letter to editor by Thomas Buergenthal of law school at George Washington U., who was a member of the Truth Commission for

El Salvador. He denies news story that there was a chapter in the report that dealt with the structure and finances of the groups was withheld. He bemoans the ability of the commission to thoroughly investigate all aspects. Washington Post, 11/30/1993, A24

El Salvador, 1980-93. Report of UN’s Truth Commission re enormous crime of a government that killed upwards of 70,000 civilians between 1980-92. Report refutes official statements made by Reagan and Bush administrations — when officials denied leaders of Salvadoran armed forces were using execution, rape and torture to sustain their power — reports says they were. We need a truth report on our own government per Rep. Moakley. Truth report adds growing body evidence U.S. Government officials may have participated in perpetuation of atrocities in El Salvador. In 1960s, CIA advisers helped create a nationwide informant net. In 1981, team of military advisers led by Brig. Gen. Frederick Woener sent to determine “rightist terrorism and institutional violence.” Salvadorans generally dismissed notion that terror was a bad idea. One of Colonels, Oscar Edgardo Casanova Vejar, was one covering up rape and murder of four churchwomen. Woener recommended U.S. proceed and give $300-400 million aid. U.S. officials claimed churchwomen had run a roadblock and there was no massacre at El Mozote. Neil Livingstone, a consultant who worked with Oliver North at NSC concluded, “death squads are an extremely effective tool, however odious, in combating terrorism and revolutionary challenges.” op-ed by Jefferson Morley, an Outlook editor. Washington Post, 3/28/1993, C1,5

El Salvador, 1980-93. Salvador’s ruling party moved to declare amnesty for those named in United Nations.-sponsored Truth Commission. Investigators said 85% of complaints laid to government death squads. Discusses D’Aubuisson’s implication in Archbishop Romero’s assassination. Washington Post 3/17/1993 a25

El Salvador, 1980. Ten former death squad members were ordered killed in Santiago de Maria on 27 December 1980 by Hector Antonio Regalado, who felt they knew too much. Intelligence Newsletter, 10/4/1988, p. 6

El Salvador, 1981-84. There are two versions of first page of a CIA report, “El Salvador: Dealing With Death Squads,” 1/20/1984. CIA released first version in 1987, among congressional debate over aid to El Salvador. Second version, which contradicts first, declassified by CIA in 11/1993. As recently as 10/1992, CIA continued to release censored version in response to FOIA requests. Redacted version implies death squad problem overcome — non censored version show this is not true. New York Times, 12/17/1993, A19

El Salvador, 1981-89. Salvadoran atrocity posed agonizing choice for U.S. COL Rene Ponce, chief of staff of Salvador’s armed forces, has been accused of ordering murder of six Jesuit priests, their housekeeper and her daughter at Central American University. Newly available U.S. documents show U.S. knowingly and repeatedly aligned themselves with unsavory characters during 1980s while defending them to U.S. Public. Diplomatic cables found among more than 10,000 recently declassified State, Pentagon and CIA documents, reveal extent U.S. policy makers chose to overlook Ponce’s brutality. U.S. officials long labeled Ponce a right-wing extremist tied to death squads. But documents make clear U.S. played down unsavory side of Ponce. Details from correspondence between Ambassador Walker and Baker. In 10/1983, CIA prepared a “briefing paper on right-wing terrorism in El Salvador” that described Ponce as a supporter of death squads. Impact Bush’s visit in 1984 to push for human rights was minimal. By 7/1989, CIA reported that Ponce “espouses moderate political views.” Ponce refused repeated requests to pursue those responsible for deaths of Jesuits. Washington Post, 4/5/1994, A13

El Salvador, 1981-90. Government operation at El Mozote consisted of Army, National Guard and the Treasury Police in operation rescue. By early 1992, U.S. spent more than 4 billion in civil war lasting 12 years and that left 75,000 dead. New Yorker, 12/6/1993, p. 53

El Salvador, 1981-90. In 1981 over 10,000 political murders committed by Salvadoran military and its death squads. In 1990 there were 108 such murders. Schwarz, B. (1991). American Counterinsurgency Doctrine and El Salvador, p. 23

El Salvador, 1981-92. Article “Death-Squad Refugees,” discusses case of Cesar Vielman Joya Martinez, extradited by Bush to El Salvador to face murder charges for being part of a death squad that he claims operated with knowledge of defense minister Ponce and other top officials. FOIA documents show U.S. helping prepare extradition request for Salvadoran government. Truth Commission’s report vindicates Joya. Texas Observer (magazine), 3/26/1993, pp. 9-10

El Salvador, 1981-92. Some U.S. special operations soldiers in El Salvador during civil war want Pentagon to admit they more than advisers. They say they also fought. Army memo given Newsweek says, “most personnel serving in an advisory capacity were directly engaged in hostile action.” Newsweek, 4/5/1993

El Salvador, 1981-92. Truth Commission report implicates top Salvadoran officials in ordering or covering up murders of four U.S. churchwomen and six Jesuit priests; and Salvadoran troops massacred many hundreds at El Mozote. Four Dutch journalists killed 3/17/1982 were deliberately ambushed by Salvadoran army. Denials by then top U.S. government officials now exposed. U.S. government supported war with $6 billion. The Nation, 4/12/1993, p. 475

El Salvador, 1981-93. 12 years of tortured truth on El Salvador — U.S. declarations undercut by United Nations. Commission report. For 12 years, opponents of U.S. policy in Central America accused Reagan and Bush administrations of ignoring widespread human rights abuses by the Salvadoran government and of systematically deceiving or even lying to Congress and people about the nature of an ally that would receive $6 billion in economic and military aid. A three-man United Nations.-sponsored Truth Commission released a long-awaited report on 12 years of murder, torture and disappearance in El Salvador’s civil war. Commission examined 22,000 complaints of atrocities and attributed 85 percent of a representative group of them to Salvadoran security forces or right-wing death squads. It blamed remainder on guerrilla Farabundo Marti National Liberation front (FMLN). In May 1980, for instance, when Carter was still President, security forces seized documents implicating rightist leader D’Aubuisson in the murder of Archbishop Oscar Romero. In Fall of 1981, Army Brig. Gen. Fred Woerner supervised preparation of a joint U.S.-Salvadoran internal military “Report of the El Salvador Military Strategy Assistance Team,” which noted that “the (Salvadoran) armed forces are reluctant to implement vigorous corrective actions for abuses in the use of force.” One reason so many people found it hard to believe U.S. officials could not have known more about rights abuses and acted more aggressively to curb them is that the U.S. was deeply involved in running the war, from intelligence gathering to strategy planning to training of everyone from officers to foot soldiers. By 1982, U.S.. military advisers were assigned to each of the six Salvadoran brigades, as well as each of 10 smaller detachments. The U.S. put tens of millions of dollars into developing the ultra-modern national intelligence directorate to coordinate intelligence gathering and dissemination. U.S. military and CIA officials participated in almost every important meeting. Most brigades had a U.S. intelligence officer assigned to them, as well as a U.S. liaison officer. U.S. advisers regularly doled out small amounts of money, usually less than $1,000 at a time, for intelligence work. The U.S. was not informed of arrests or captures Unless they specifically asked. “They never asked unless there was a specific request because someone in Washington was getting telegrams.” El Mozote, the report said, was work of U.S.-trained Atlacatl battalion, part of a days-long search-and-destroy sweep known as “Operation Rescue.” In fact, the report said, the soldiers massacred more than 500 people in six villages. In El Mozote, where the identified victims exceeded 200, “the men were tortured and executed, then women were executed and finally, the children” Washington Post, 3/21/1993

El Salvador, 1981-93. A discussion of the media’s treatment of the El Mozote massacres and the U.S. media’s treatment of that story. Lies of our Time, 6/1993, pp. 3-4

El Salvador, 1981-93. Thomas Enders, former Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs from 1981-83, writes op-ed defending U.S. officials’ testimony re massacre at El Mozote as now confirmed by UN’s Truth Commission report. Washington Post, op-ed 3/29/1993, A19

El Salvador, 1981-93. United Nations. Commission on Truth to release report on crimes committed against civilians in Salvador’s 12-year civil war. Defense Minister Ponce already resigned. Washington Post Outlook, 3/14/1993, C1,2

El Salvador, 1981-94. Armando Calderon Sol considered shoo-in to win Presidency in impending elections. Calderon began his political career as a member of a seven-man, neo-fascist group under D’Aubuisson’s guidance that supported death squad operations. Calderon has all worst elements of D’Abuisson without any redeeming qualities. When D’Abuisson running death squads out of his office, Calderon was his private secretary and a loyal soldier in a terrorist cell — Salvadoran National Movement (MNS). In 1981, D’Abuisson unified MNS into Arena party. Washington Post, Outlook, 4/17/1994, C1,3

El Salvador, 1981. Detailed article on “The Truth of El Mozote,” by Mark Danner. New Yorker, 12/6/1993, pages 51 and ending on page 103

El Salvador, 1981. Skeletons verify killing of Salvadoran children of El Mozote, El Salvador. Washington Times, 10/21/1992, A9 and Washington Post, 10/22/1992, A18

El Salvador, 1982-84. Significant political violence associated with Salvadoran security services including National police, National Guard, and Treasury Police. U.S. government agencies maintained official relationships with Salvadoran security establishment appearing to acquiesce in these activities. No evidence U.S. personnel participated in forcible interrogations. U.S. did pass “tactical” information to alert services of action by insurgent forces. Information on persons passed only in highly unusual cases. Senate Intelligence Committee, October 5, 1984, pp. 11-13.

El Salvador, 1982-84. “Recent Political Violence in El Salvador,” Report of Senate Intelligence Committee. Committee found ample evidence that U.S. policy was to oppose political violence. U.S. government accorded high priority to gathering intelligence on political violence. President Bush and his demarche in 1983. P8. U.S. government Relationship with Robert D’Aubuisson — bio on him. U.S. Government contact with him limited. Roberto Santivanez, director of Ansesal 1978-79. He claimed he himself had engaged in death squad activity and had a relationship with U.S. through CIA and that COL Carranza had ties to CIA. Colonel Nicolas Carranza had extensive ties to Arena and National Conciliation (PCN) parties. He involved in various activities of interest to U.S. in various positions. Senate Intelligence Committee, October 5, 1984, pp. 1-11

El Salvador, 1983-90. Former Salvadoran army intelligence agent who applied for political asylum in U.S. convicted in court of entering country illegally. Joya-Martinez’s request for political asylum still pending. Washington Post, 9/19/1990, A5

El Salvador, 1985. In 2/1985, CIA reported that behind Arena’s legitimate exterior lies a terrorist network led by D’Aubuisson using both active-duty and retired military personnel…” main death squad was “the Secret Anti-communist Army,” described by CIA as the paramilitary organization of Arena — from the National Police and other security organizations. These were funded directly from Washington. Death squads became more active as 1994, election approached. Columbia, possibly leading terrorist state in Latin America, has become leading recipient of U.S. military aid. Since 1986, more than 20,000 people have been killed for political reasons, most by Colombian authorities. More than 1,500 leaders, members and supporters of the Labor Party (UP) have been assassinated since party established in 1985. Pretext for terror operations is war against guerrillas and narcotraffickers. Former a partial truth, latter a myth concocted to replace the “communist threat.” Works hand-in-hand with drug lords, organized crime, and landlords. National Police took over as leading official killers while U.S. aid shifted to them. Targets include community leaders, human rights and health workers, union activists, students, members of religious youth organizations, and young people in shanty towns. Sale of human organs. Case of Guatemala. Shift of 1962, under Kennedy administration from hemispheric defense to “internal security:” war against the internal enemy. Doctrines expounded in counterinsurgency manuals. Internal enemy extends to labor organizations, popular movements, indigenous organizations, opposition political parties, peasant movements, intellectual sectors, religious currents, youth and student groups, neighborhood organizations, etc. From 1984 through 1992, 6,844 Colombian soldiers trained under U.S. International Military Education and Training Program (MET). Z Magazine, 5/1994, 14 pages

El Salvador, 1986-87. See article “Death Squad Update, Investigating L.A.’s Salvadoran Connection.” Los Angeles Weekly, 8/7/1987

El Salvador, 1986-89. Joya Martinez, former death squad member, who said two U.S. advisers attached to his unit and gave funds of 9500 month. Article names other Salvadoran death squad members. Unclassified, 7/1990

El Salvador, 1986. In 1986, Salvadoran authorities, with help of FBI, cracked a kidnap-for-hire ring in which death squads posing as leftist rebels kidnapped some of nation’s wealthiest businessmen. Schwarz, B. (1991). American Counterinsurgency Doctrine and El Salvador, p. 28

El Salvador, 1987-89. Jesuit labeled ardent communist two years before by Salvadoran, U.S. officials. Religious News Service, 5/9/1990, p. 1

El Salvador, 1987-89. Salvadoran woman defecting to U.S. said she worked for death squad and provided information on six people who killed. Her claims back up those of her supervisor, Cesar Joya Martinez, who linked death squad acts to U.S. funding. Boston Globe, 3/16/1990, in First Principles, 4/1990, p. 10

El Salvador, 1988-89. Joya Martinez, former member intelligence department 1st army Brigade of Salvador’s army. Said U.S. advisers funded their activity, but unaware of death squad. Washington Post, 11/19/1989, F2

El Salvador, 1988. Amnesty International report of 26 October 1988 noted “black list” are supplied to Salvadoran media by Salvadoran intelligence services. During first six months of 1988, number of murders by death squads tripled over same period of previous year. Most prominent victim was Judge Jorge Alberto Serrano Panameno who was shot in May 1988. Increase reflects rise to power of 1966 class from national military school. Class members include Colonel Rene Emilio Ponce, new chief of staff of armed forces as well as director of Treasury Police. They command five of country’s six brigades, five of seven military detachments, three security forces as well as intelligence, personnel and operations posts in high command. Intelligence Newsletter, 11/16/1988, pp. 5,6

El Salvador, 1989-91. According to confidential Salvadoran military sources, decision to murder six Jesuit priests was made at a 15 November 1989 meeting of senior commanders (CO) at the Salvadoran military school. Those allegedly present were: Colonel Benavides, CO of the school; General Juan Rafael Bustillo, then CO of Salvadoran Air Force — in 1991 assigned to embassy in Israel; General Emilio Ponce, then chief of staff — in 1991 minister of defense; and Colonel Elena Fuentes, CO of 1st brigade. Initiative for murders came from Colonel Bustillo. For a listing of direct and circumstantial evidence supporting allegation, see statement of Rep. Joe Moakley, Task Force on El Salvador, 11/18/1991

El Salvador, 1989. CIA officer visited bodies of dead priests. Officer was senior liaison with (DNI) the national intelligence directorate. U.S. probably knew Salvadoran military behind assassinations but did not say anything for seven weeks. State Department panel did not review actions of CIA or DOD. Washington Post, 7/18/1993, C1,4

El Salvador, 1989. Congressman criticized a 11/ 1987 report in which Latin American and U.S. military leaders accused Rev. Ignacio Ellacuria and several other theologians of supporting objectives of communist revolution. Father Ellacuria, Rector of Jesuit university in San Salvador, was murdered on 11/16/ 1989. Religious News Service, 5/11/1990, p. 1

El Salvador, 1989. Joya Martinez and Jesuit murders. Martinez says his unit which played major role in 12/1989 murder of Jesuit priests had U.S. government advisors. INS trying to deport Martinez. Unclassified, 9/1990, p. 6

El Salvador, 1989. Salvadoran Archbishop Rivera accused U.S. officials of subjecting a witness to the slaying of 6 Jesuit intellectuals to brainwashing and psychological torment. Washington Post, 12/11/1989, A23,24

El Salvador, 1989. U.S. military adviser Benavides told FBI, later recanted, that Salvadoran army chief of staff and others knew of plan to kill six Jesuit priests. Washington Post, 10/29/1990, A17,21

El Salvador, 1990. Amnesty International reported a significant surge in number of killings by army-supported death squads this year. 45 people killed between January and August this year, compared with 40 reported in 1989. Washington Post, 10/24/1990, A14

El Salvador, 1990. Cesar Vielman Joya-Martinez, former member Salvadoran First brigade death squad, sentenced to 6 months in jail for illegally reentering U.S. 6 years after he deported. Washington Post, 12/8/1990, A22

El Salvador, 1991. Salvadoran minister of defense and other top generals attended 1989 meeting where decision was made to murder six Jesuit priests, according to confidential sources. Allegation was made by an attorney working for Rep. Moakley (D-MA), whose task force released a six page statement directly linking Salvadoran high command to slayings. Washington Times, 11/18/1991, A2

El Salvador, 1991. Summary executions continued in El Salvador despite the presence of Onusal, the UN observer mission monitoring human rights violations. In a 1991 report, Onusal noted government made few attempts to investigate slayings. Report also accused FMLN for recruiting fifteen-year-olds. Washington Times, 12/3/1991, A8

El Salvador, 1992. Cesar Vielman Joya Martinez, former Salvadoran death squad member, to be deported. Washington Post editorial, 10/23/1992, A20

El Salvador, 1993. Right-wing death squads undermining fragile peace per UN chief in campaign for March 1994 elections. Washington Times, 11/25/1993, A15

El Salvador, Central America, 1981-1993. Salvadoran death squads set up as a consequence of Kennedy administration decisions. Killers were Treasury Police and the military who were trained in intelligence and torture by U.S. U.S. personnel staffed military and intelligence apparatus. Generals selected and trained by U.S. were most notorious killers. 1984 FBI report on death squads never released. For savage expose of School of Americas’ killers, see Father Roy Bourgeois’s School of the Americas Watch, Box 3330, Columbus Ga. 31903; (706) 682-5369. The Nation, 12/27/1993, p. 791

El Salvador, 1989-1990. Joya Martinez testified role played by U.S. officials in death squad killings carried out by U.S. trained first infantry Brigade’s intelligence unit. Two U.S. military advisers controlled intelligence department and paid for unit’s operating expenses. His unit performed 74 executions between April and July 1989. Washington Post confirmed U.S. advisers work in liaison with First brigade and CIA pays expenses for intelligence operations in the brigades. Martinez said his first brigade unit attached to U.S.-trained Atlacatl battalion, which slaughtered the Jesuit priests. Member of his unit, Oscar Mariano Amaya Grimaldi has confessed to slayings. In These Times, 8/14/1990, p. 17

Europe: Watch List

Europe, 1945-92. Operation Gladio. First scandal was discovery of assassination teams in 1952 linked to Bundes Deutscher Jugend — a right-wing political organization in Hesse, Germany. They prepared list of German politicians who [might cooperate with Soviets]. BBC (1992). Gladio — Timewatch (Transcript of 3 part program), pp. 19-20

Georgia: Watch List

Georgia, 1993. Woodruff worked for 2 months as CIA’s Tbilisi station chief posing as a State Department regional-affairs officer. He to help Guguladze upgrade Georgian intelligence service and to monitor factional struggle. Newsweek 8/23/1993, p. 18

Germany: Watch List

Germany, 1950-54. In about 1950 pacifist ideas to be eradicated. U.S. formed German youth league (Bund Deutscher Jugend (BDJ)) in Frankfurt. Psychological indoctrination given by Paul Luth. BDJ was a militant organization, a counterweight to communist-run free German youth (FDJ) run from East Berlin to infiltrate W. German youth. BDJ passed letters and brochures through Iron Curtain and pasted slogans on walls. Chancellor Adenauer wanted cold war and wanted to use the BDJ. Otto John told by State official Zinn that it had uncovered neo-Nazi unit BDJ run by Peters, that was organizing secret firing exercises and training for partisan warfare in the Odelwald. BDJ had drawn up a blacklist of left-wing socialists who were to be arrested or even murdered in event of attack from east. [early version of Gladio political and staybehind operation]. John, O. (1969). Twice Through the Lines: the Autobiography of Otto John, pp. 210-15

Germany, 1950-90. Bonn officials said government to disband secret resistance net Operation Gladio. Section consisted of former Nazi SS and Waffen-SS officers as well as members of an extreme right-wing youth group that drew up plans to assassinate leading members of Socialist Democratic Party in event of USSR-invasion. “Statewatch” compilation filed June 1994, p. 11

Germany, 1952-91. CIA’s stay-behind program caused scandal in 1952 when West German police discovered CIA working with a 2,000-member fascist youth group led by former Nazis. Group had a black list of people to be liquidated in case of conflict with the USSR. Lembke case. The Nation, 4/6/1992, p. 446

Germany, 1953. (Stay-behind operation Gladio?). In 1953 mass arrests of neo-Nazi militant organization within ranks of German youth fellowship (BDJ) discovered. Group held secret night maneuvers in Odenwald with CIA instructors. They preparing for war with East Germany and prepared lists of communists, left-wing sympathizers and pacifists who were to be arrested in case of emergency. Members encouraged to infiltrate East German youth league (FDJ). Operation exposed in press and scores of youths arrested in East Germany as spies, propagandists or provocateurs, and sentenced to terms of up to nine years of hard labor. Hagan, l. (1969). The Secret War for Europe, p. 78

Germany, 1953. U.S. Intelligence officer told Otto John, head of BFV, one of its agents in East Germany to defect with a list of East German agents in West. 35 Communist spies arrested after Easter. Later it found many of those arrested were innocent. Arrests followed with apologies. Disaster caused by over-zealous U.S. intelligence officer. West German businessmen as consequence afraid to do business with east. This a goal of U.S. Policy — was this a deliberate “mistake?” Hagan, l. (1969). The Secret War for Europe, p. 81

Greece: Watch List

Greece, 1967. After CIA-backed coup, the army and police seized almost 10,000 prisoners, mostly left-wing militants, though political leaders of all shades taken including prime minister Kanelopoulos and members of his Cabinet, trade union members, journalists, writers, etc. The lists had been provided by the sympathizers in the police and the secret service. Final lists kept up to date by COL George Ladas. Details of fate of the arrestees. Tompkins, P. (Unpublished manuscript). Strategy of Terror, pp. 13-8

Guatemala: Watch List

Guatemala, 1954. Death squads and target lists. Schlesinger, S., & Kinzer, S. (1983). Bitter Fruit 197, pp. 207-8, 221

Guatemala, 1954. Goal of CIA was apprehension of suspected communists and sympathizers. At CIA behest, Castillo Armas created committee and issued decree that established death penalty for crimes including labor union activities. Committee given authority declare anyone communist with no right of defense or appeal. By 11/21/1954 committee had some 72,000 persons on file and aiming to list 200,000. Schlesinger, S., & Kinzer, S. (1983). Bitter Fruit, p. 221

Guatemala, 1954. The U.S. Ambassador, after overthrow of Arbenz government, gave lists of radical opponents to be eliminated to Armas’s government. NACLA 2/1983, p 4. The military continued up to at least 1979 to use a list of 72,000 proscribed opponents, drawn up first in 1954. NACLA (magazine re Latin America) 2/1983, p. 13

Guatemala, 1954. After Armas made president, labor code forgotten and worker organizers began disappearing from united fruit plantations. Hersh, B. (1992). The Old Boys, p. 353

Guatemala, 1954. Department of State Secretary Dulles told Ambassador Peurifoy to have the government scour the countryside for communists and to slap them with criminal charges. A few months later the government began to persecute hundreds for vague communist crimes. The Nation, 10/28/1978, p. 444

Guatemala, 1954 U.S. Ambassador Peurifoy, after Arbenz resigned, gave Guatemalan army’s chief of staff a list of “communists” to be shot. The chief of staff declined. The Nation 6/5/1995, pp. 792-5

Guatemala, 1981-89. Israeli Knesset member General Peled said in Central America Israel is ‘dirty work’ contractor for U.S. Helped Guatemala regime when Congress blocked Reagan administration. Israeli firm Tadiran (then partly U.S.-owned) supplied Guatemalan military with computerized intelligence system to track potential subversives. Those on computer list had an excellent chance of being “disappeared.” It was “an archive and computer file on journalists, students, leaders, leftists, politicians and so on.” Computer system making up death lists. Cockburn, A. & Cockburn, L. (1991). Dangerous Liaison, p. 219

Guatemala, 1985-93. CIA collected intelligence re ties between Guatemalan insurgents and Cuba. CIA passed the information to U.S. military, which was assisting Guatemalan army extinguish opposition. Washington Post, 3/30/1995, A1,10

Guatemala, 1988-91. CIA station chief in Guatemala from 1988 to 1991 was a Cuban American. He had about 20 officers with a budget of about $5 million a year and an equal or greater sum for “liaison” with Guatemalan military. His job included placing and keeping senior Guatemalan officers on his payroll. Among them was Alpirez, who recruited for CIA. Alpirez’s intelligence unit spied on Guatemalans and is accused by human rights groups of assassinations. CIA also gave Guatemalan army information on guerrillas. New York Times, 4/2/1995, A11

Guatemala: Death Squads

Guatemala, 1953-84. For 30 years the CIA has been bankrolling a man reported to be behind right-wing terror in Central America. The CIA’s protégé, Mario Sandoval Alarcon, former Vice President Of Guatemala, now heads the National Liberation Movement (NLM) founded in 1953 by CIA as a paramilitary force to overthrow Arbenz. By mid-1960s Sandoval emerged as head of the organization. The White Hand or La Mano Blanco with close ties to the NLM was responsible for as many as 8000 deaths in the 1960s plus more in the 1970s. Sandoval a pillar of the World Anti-communist League. The CIA still funds Sandoval. Jack Anderson, Washington Post, 1/30/1984

Guatemala, 1954-76. Effect of CIA coup organized labor all but wiped out. Union membership dropped 100,000 to 27,000 immediately and continued decline thereafter, in part due to death squad activity. Barry, T., and Preusch, D. (1986). AIFLD in Central America, p. 21

Guatemala. Police trained by AID public safety program murdered or disappeared 15,000 people. Lernoux, P. (1982). Cry of the People, p. 186

Guatemala, 1954-84. See Jack Anderson column “Links Reported Among Latin Death Squads.” Washington Post, 1/12/1984, N. VA., p. 15

Guatemala, 1970-72. Under Arana presidency, with Mario Sandoval Alarcon and others involved in right-wing terrorism, Arana unleashed one of the most gruesome slaughters in recent Latin American history (only in Chile, following the coup against Allende was the degree of violence greater). The New York Times reported in June 1971 that at least 2000 Guatemalans were assassinated between 11/1970 and 5/1971; most corpses showed signs of torture. Most of killing attributed to the officially supported terrorist organizations Ojo Por Ojo (an eye for an eye) and Mano Blanca. Jones, S., and Tobis, D. (Eds.). (1974). Guatemala, pp. 202-3

Guatemala, 1970-87. Violence by security forces organized by CIA, trained in torture by advisors from Argentina, Chile. Supported by weapon, computer experts from Israel. Marshall, J., Scott P.D., and Hunter, J. (1987). The Iran-Contra Connection, p. 133

Guatemala. 1960-82. Trained military death squads who used “terror tactics” from killing to indiscriminate napalming of villages. Special Forces almost certainly participated in operations despite Congressional prohibition. Marshall, J., Scott P.D., and Hunter, J. (1987). The Iran-Contra Connection, p. 193

Guatemala, 1954. The U.S. ambassador, after overthrow of Arbenz government, gave lists to Armas of radical opponents to be eliminated. NACLA (magazine re Latin America) 2/1983, p. 4

Guatemala, 1985. The World Anti-communist League’s point man, Mario Sandoval Alarcon, remains a League member even after exposed as a death squad patriarch who was on the CIA payroll. Jack Anderson, Washington Post, 8/9/1986

Guatemala, 1989. Climate of terror grips Guatemala. Killers, bombers said to target civilian rule. Washington Post, 9/29/1989, A 45

Guatemala, circa 1968-70. U.S. counterinsurgency program turned area into bloody war zone taking the lives of thousands of peasants. Formed Mano Blanca or White Hand. Plan used through out country in 1970. NACLA (magazine re Latin America), 3/74, p. 19

Guatemala. Article by Gary Bass and Babette Grunow on the Guatemalan counterinsurgency forces. Lies of our Time, 6/1993, pp. 11-13

Guatemala. At least three of recent G-2 chiefs were paid by CIA. Crimes are merely examples of a vast, systematic pattern; [the guilty] are only cogs in a large U.S. government apparatus. Colonel Hooker, former DIA chief for Guatemala, says, “it would be an embarrassing situation if you ever had a roll call of everybody in Guatemalan army who ever collected a CIA paycheck.” Hooker says CIA payroll is so large that it encompasses most of Army’s top decision-makers. Top commanders paid by CIA include General Roberto Matta Galvez, former army chief of staff, head of presidential General Staff and commander of massacres in El Quiche department; and General Gramajo, defense minister during the armed forces’ abduction, rape and torture of Dianna Ortiz, an American nun. Hooker says he once brought Gramajo on a tour of U.S. Three recent Guatemalan heads of state confirm CIA works closely with G-2. Gen. Oscar Humberto Mejia Victores (military dictator from 1983 to 1986) how death squads had originated, he said they started “in the 1960s by CIA.” General Efrain Rios Montt (dictator from 1982 to 1983 and the current congress president), who ordered main high-land massacres (662 villages destroyed, by army’s own count), said CIA had agents in the G-2. CIA death squads by Allan Nairn. The Nation, 4/17/1995

Guatemala. CIA works inside a Guatemalan army unit that maintains a network of torture centers and has killed thousands of Guatemalan civilians. G-2, since at least 60s, has been advised, trained, armed and equipped by U.S. undercover agents. One of American agents who works with G-2, is Randy Capister. He has been involved in similar operations with army of neighboring El Salvador. A weapons expert known as Joe Jacarino, has operated through out Caribbean, and has accompanied G-2 units on missions into rural zones. Jacarino [possibly a CIA officer]. Celerino Castillo, a former agent of DEA who dealt with G-2 and CIA in Guatemala, says he worked with Capister as well as with Jacarino. Colonel Alpirez at La Aurora base in Guatemala Denied involvement in deaths of Bamaca and Devine. He said CIA advises and helps run G-2. He praised CIA for “professionalism” and close rapport with Guatemalan officers. He said that agency operatives often come to Guatemala on temporary duty, and train G-2. CIA gives sessions at G-2 bases on “contra-subversion” tactics and “how to manage factors of power” to “fortify democracy.” During mid-1980s G-2 officers were paid by Jack McCavitt, then CIA station chief. CIA “technical assistance” includes communications gear, computers and special firearms, as well as collaborative use of CIA-owned helicopters that are flown out of piper hangar at La Aurora civilian airport and from a separate U.S. Air facility. Guatemalan army has, since 1978, killed more than 110,000 civilians. G-2 and a smaller, affiliated unit called Archivo have long been openly known in Guatemala as the brain of the terror state. With a contingent of more than 2,000 agents and with sub-units in local army bases, G-2 coordinates torture, assassination and disappearance of dissidents. CIA Death Squads by Allan Nairn. The Nation, 4/17/1995

Guatemala, 1954-95. For at least five years, Colonel Alpirez was also a well-paid agent for CIA and a murderer, a U.S. Congressman says. Alpirez has been linked to the murder of Michael Devine, an American innkeeper who lived and worked in the Guatemalan jungle, and the torture and killing of Efrain Bamaca Velasquez, a leftist guerrilla who was the husband of Jennifer Harbury. CIA ties began in 1954, when Alpirez was about five years old. The CIA engineered a coup in Guatemala that overthrew a leftist president and installed a right-wing military regime. CIA’s station in Guatemala began recruiting young and promising military officers who would provide information on the left-wing guerrillas, the internal workings of Guatemala’s intertwined military and political leadership, union members, opposition politicians and others. Alpirez was sent in 1970 to School of the Americas (SOA), an elite and recently much-criticized U.S. Army academy at Fort Benning, Ga. Human-rights groups and members of congress point out that SOA’s graduates include Roberto D’Aubuisson, leader of death squads in El Salvador; 19 Salvadoran soldiers named in the 1989 assassination of six Jesuit priests and three soldiers accused of the 1980 rape and murder of four U.S. church workers; Lt. Gen. Raoul Cedars and other leaders of the military junta that ran Haiti from 1991 to 1994; General Hugo Banzer, dictator of Bolivia from 1971 to 1978, and General Manuel Antonio Noriega of Panama, now imprisoned in U.S. In 1970s Alpirez was an officer in a counterinsurgency unit known as Kaibiles. Kaibiles became notorious in the early 1980s, known as scorched earth years, when tens of thousands of Indians were killed as military swept across rural Guatemala, systematically destroying villages. Guatemalan government’s own count, campaign left 40,000 widows and 150,000 orphans. In late 1980s, Alpirez served as a senior official of an intelligence unit hidden within the general staff and became a paid agent of CIA who paid him tens of thousands of dollars a year. Intelligence unit, known as “Archivo,” or archives, stands accused of assassination, infiltration of civilian agencies and spying on Guatemalans in violation of the nation’s Constitution. Archivo works like the CIA. “It was also working as a death squad.” New York Times, 3/25/1995

Guatemala, 1954-95. U.S. Undercover agents have worked for decades inside a Guatemalan army unit that has tortured and killed thousands of Guatemalan citizens, per the Nation weekly magazine. “working out of the U.S. Embassy and living in safe houses and hotels, agents work through an elite group of Guatemalan officers who are secretly paid by CIA and implicated personally in numerous political crimes and assassinations ”unit known as G-2 and its secret collaboration with CIA were described by U.S. and Guatemalan operatives and confirmed by three former Guatemalan heads of state. Colonel Julio Roberto Alpirez, Guatemalan officer implicated in murders of guerrilla leader Efrain Bamaca Velasquez — husband of an American lawyer — and rancher Michael Devine discussed in an interview how intelligence agency advises and helps run G-2. He said agents came to Central American country often to train G-2 men and he described attending CIA sessions at G-2 bases on “contra-subversion” tactics and “how to manage factors of power” to “fortify democracy” the Nation quoted U.S. and Guatemalan intelligence sources as saying at least three recent G-2 chiefs have been on CIA payroll — General Edgar Godoy Gatan, Colonel Otto Perez Molina and General Francisco Ortega Menaldo. `It would be embarrassing if you ever had a roll call of everybody in Guatemalan army who ever collected a CIA paycheck,” report quoted Colonel George Hooker, U.S. DIA chief in Guatemala from 1985 to 1989, as saying. Human rights group Amnesty International has said Guatemalan army killed more than 110,000 civilians since 1978 with G-2 and another unit called Archivo known as main death squads. Reuters, 3/30/1995

Guatemala, 1960-90. Human rights groups say at least 40,000 Guatemalans “disappeared” in last three decades. Most were poor Indians. Anthropologists, led by Clyde Snow, dug away at a village site. Maria Lopez had a husband and a son in one grave. She said on morning of Valentine’s Day 1982, members of anti-guerrilla militia took her husband and others. They had refused to join militias known as civil self-defense patrols and were killed. Six unknown clandestine graves in San Jose Pacho. Human rights groups blame most disappearances on army-run civil self-defense patrols set up under presidencies of General Lucas Garcia and Brig. Gen. Rios Montt. There are hundreds of clandestine graves filled with victims of the militias, right-wing death squads and brutal counterinsurgency campaigns. Washington Times, 8/5/1992, p. A9

Guatemala, 1970-95. Jennifer Harbury’s story. Time, 4/3/1995, p. 48

Guatemala, 1981-95. DIA reports re MLN particularly disturbing, as they raise grave questions about extent of U.S. knowledge of MLN activities in earlier years when MLN leader Mario Sandoval Alarcon was tied to Reagan Administration’s efforts to support Contras. Having come to power in 1954 with the CIA-backed overthrow of Colonel Jacobo Arbenze, MLN leader Sandoval was accused in 1980 by Elias Barahona, former press secretary to the Guatemalan Interior Minister, of having worked for CIA. Head of National Congress from 1970 to 1974, at which time he was made vice president, a position he kept until his term expired in 1978, Sandoval is widely regarded as father of Latin America’s “death squads.” In 1970’s, he had a close relationship with Roberto D’Aubuisson, deputy chief of El Salvador’s national security agency (Anseal). D’Aubuisson reportedly was behind El Salvador’s death squads. Sandoval was so close to Reagan administration that he was one of only two Guatemalans invited to attend Reagan’s inauguration. Intelligence — a computerized intelligence newsletter published in France, 4/24/1995, p. 1

Guatemala, 1984-95. Article, “Murder as Policy.” Washington was supporting Guatemalan army in a number of ways: green berets trained Kaibul massacre force, the army’s self-proclaimed “messengers of death.” U.S. openly sold weapons to Guatemala — used in massacre in Santiago Atitlan. Hundreds of U.S. troops (mostly National Guard) helped civic action and road building in massacre zones. The Nation, 4/24/1995, pp. 547-8

Guatemala, 1985-93. CIA collected intelligence re ties between Guatemalan insurgents and Cuba — CIA passed the information to U.S. military, which was assisting Guatemalan army extinguish opposition. Washington Post, 3/30/1995, A1,10

Guatemala, 1985-95. Bombings against military-reformist Christian Democratic Party (DCG) of then President Vinicio Cerezo to topple Cerezo, who perceived as being too soft on rebels. A 10/1988 DIA intelligence report alerted American authorities that MLN, which was involved in “plotting a coup against Cerezo in the past,” is “now apparently prepared to use violent tactics to undermine DCG government.” MLN “is reportedly planning a bombing campaign directed against members of ruling DCG. MLN intends to use recently obtained explosives to target personal vehicles of DCG Congressional representatives in order to frighten them. After assessing their impact, MLN will consider initiating a second stage of its anti-DCG campaign that will include killing of various individuals. MLN has selected potential targets in Guatemala city. U.S. Army and DIA, getting regular, high-level intelligence from senior Guatemalan army officers and other sources about crimes, notably murder, being committed by Guatemalan army personnel. Source and depth of intelligence raises questions about what U.S. Government actually knew about Guatemalan army complicity in civilian murders in that country throughout the 1980s, including alleged involvement of Guatemalan Colonel Julio Roberto Alpirez, then a CIA agent, in 1990 and 1992 murders of American innkeeper Michael Devine and guerrilla fighter Efrain Bamaco Velazquez, husband of an American, Jennifer Harbury.” Intelligence — a computerized intelligence newsletter published in France, 4/24/1995, p. 1

Guatemala, 1988-91. CIA station chief in Guatemala from 1988 to 1991 was a Cuban American. He had about 20 officers with a budget of about $5 million a year and an equal or greater sum for “liaison” with Guatemalan military. His job included placing and keeping senior Guatemalan officers on his payroll. Among them was Alpirez, who recruited others for CIA. Alpirez’s intelligence unit spied on Guatemalans and is accused by human rights groups of assassinations. CIA also gave Guatemalan army information on the guerrillas. New York Times, 4/2/1995, A11

Guatemala, 1989. 25 students in two years killed by squads. Entire university student association has been silenced. U.S. backed governments in virtual genocide have more than 150,000 victims. AI called this genocide a “government program of political murder.” The Nation, 3/5/1990, cover, p. 308

Guatemala, 1990-95. Member of House Intelligence Committee, Robert G. Torricelli (D- NJ.) said, in letter to President Clinton, that a Guatemalan military officer who ordered killings of an American citizen and a guerrilla leader married to a North American lawyer was a paid agent of CIA. CIA knew of killings, but concealed its knowledge for years. Another member of House Intelligence Committee confirmed Torricelli’s claims. Torricelli wrote in letter to President that the “Direct involvement of CIA in the murder of these individuals leads me to the extraordinary conclusion that the agency is simply out of control and that it contains what can only be labeled a criminal element.” Colonel Julio Roberto Alpirez, Bamaca, and Michael Devine. Tim Weiner, New York Times, 3/23/1995

Guatemala, 1990-95. Article, El Buki’s Tale — Murder of Michael Devine. Covert Action Information Bulletin (Quarterly), Summer 1995, pp. 32-37

Guatemala, 1990-95. Article, The Agency, Off Target. Two Deaths, a Rogue CIA Informant and a Big Pot of Trouble. Re deaths of Michael Devine and Efrain Bamaca Velasquez — Harbury’s husband. CIA paid Colonel Alpirez $43,000 after it learned of cover up of deaths. U.S. News & World Report, 4/10/1995, p. 46

Guatemala, 1990-95. Assassin of Michael Devine and of the husband of Jennifer Harbury, Colonel Julio Roberto Alpirez, was on CIA’s payroll and had attended School of Americas (SOA) on two separate occasions. In January 1995 when State and NSC pieced together what CIA knew, the ambassador demanded removal of CIA’s station chief. CIA fought to stop disclosure of its relationship with the Colonel. Administration officials began to mistrust what CIA was saying about the case. The Colonel first came to U.S. In 1970 as an army cadet at SOA. He returned to SOA in 1989, to take year long Command and General Staff course when he was already on CIA payroll. In 1990, Michael Devine, who ran a hotel, apparently stumbled on a smuggling operation involving Guatemalan military. He was killed. New York Times, 3/24/1995, A3

Guatemala, 1990-95. CIA last month removed its station chief in Guatemala for failing to report promptly information linking a paid CIA informer to the slaying of a Guatemalan guerrilla fighter married to Jennifer Harbury. Guatemalan army Colonel Julio Roberto Alpirez, was paid $44,000 by CIA in 1992 for secretly supplying intelligence on the civil war. At time of payment CIA had evidence linking him to the slaying of U.S. citizen Michael Devine (after he found about a military smuggling operation or because he had a weapon). Washington Post, 3/25/1995, A1,20

Guatemala, 1990-95. Clinton has threatened to fire anyone in CIA who withheld information from him about activities of its informant in Guatemala, Colonel Julio Roberto Alpirez. What is more likely to be agency’s undoing is its failure to tell congress that only six months after he graduated from command-level courses at School of Americas Colonel Alpirez, a member of military intelligence on agency’s payroll, ordered murder of a U.S. citizen, William Devine, and then torture-murder of husband of an American woman. White House officials, and President Clinton in particular, were very angry about Guatemalan affair but NSC Anthony lake was arguing that there is no evidence that CIA tried to deceive president. Los Angeles Times reported that late last year State Department found information about Devine murder in its files that appeared to have originated with CIA and had not been passed on to White House. This discovery prompted State Department and White House to ask CIA for more information. State initially asked CIA for information on rebel Commandante Efrain Bamaca Velasquez and received a few modest files. Several weeks later, State again asked CIA for information but this time on “Commandante Everardo,” which was Commandante Bamaca’s well-known nom de guerre. Only then did CIA produced incriminating data that it held solely under that name. CIA has tried to ease situation with a rare “leak” about itself to press. On 3/24, Los Angeles Times quoted “CIA sources” as saying Agency was only told after the fact that its Guatemalan informant, Colonel Alpirez, was present at killing in 1990 of Devine, a U.S. citizen who ran a popular tourist resort in Guatemala. CIA insisted to the paper that it cut ties with Colonel at that point, but, significantly, sources did not put a date on rupture. That gave it “wiggle room” to say it didn’t find out about Colonel’s involvement in March 1992 torture-murder of Bamaca until early this year. CIA gave Colonel Alpirez a “final payment” of $44,000 at about time of Bamaca’s murder. Per National public radio commentator Daniel Schorr, CIA station chief in Guatemala has been fired for failing to relay information. But New York Times says he was reassigned to Langley in January, after U.S. Ambassador to Guatemala accused him of withholding information. CIA has assigned its inspector General, Fred Hitz, to investigate. CIA station chief in Switzerland, who held a top position at Department of Operations (DO) Latin American Division from 1990 to 1992, is now being questioned, as is Jack Devine, who headed division from January 1983 until last October. He was appointed Associate Deputy Director of Operations in October after John MacGaffin was removed from that post for secretly giving an award to a senior operative who had just been disciplined in Ames case. Devine’s successor is a woman, first to direct a DO division. She is in her 50s, was previously station chief in El Salvador, and is said by officials outside CIA to be very forthcoming about case. Intelligence — a computerized intelligence newsletter published in France, 3/27/1995, p. 30

Guatemala, 1990-95. Guatemalan soldiers killed Michael Devine under orders from Colonel Mario Garcia Catalan, per convicted soldier, Solbal. He killed as the army convinced he had bought a stolen rifle. They tortured him before killing him. Solbal says Colonel Alpirez gave food and shelter to the killers. Washington Times, 5/15/1995, A13

Guatemala, 1990-95. Letter from Congressman Torricelli to President Clinton about involvement of CIA in two murders in Guatemala. 3/22/1995

Guatemala, 1990-95. Rep. Robert Torricelli, D-NJ., who is on the HPSCI, has requested an investigation from the Justice Department on role of the CIA in the murder of Michael Devine and Efrain Bamaca Velasquez. Request was made in a letter to President Clinton. Guatemalan intelligence officer who ordered the murders, Colonel Julio Roberto Alpirez, was a paid agent of the CIA. Torricelli claims that the NSA, CIA, State Department., and NSC covered up the involvement of a paid agent in the murders. Devine, who was killed in 1990, was an American citizen and Velasquez, who was killed in 1992, was married to an U.S. Citizen. CNN Headline News, 3/23/1995 and AP, 3/23/1995

Guatemala, 1990-95. Revelations about a CIA informer linked to two murders (Devine and Bamaca) in Guatemala helped exhume embarrassing relationship between U.S. military and intelligence personnel and a Central American regime notorious for human rights violations. Washington Post, 4/2/1995, A29

Guatemala, 1990-95. Tim Weiner article “A Guatemalan Officer and the CIA.” Colonel is recalled as a “good soldier” and a murdering spy. New York Times, 3/26/1995

Guatemala, 1990-95. Two colonels suspended in Guatemala for covering up 1990 killing of Michael Devine. One was a paid CIA informant at time of killing. Colonel Mario Garcia Catalan also suspended. Washington Post, 4/27/1995, A29

Guatemala, 1990-95. Wife of Michael Devine discusses slaying of her husband. New York Times, 3/28/1995, A1,6

Guatemala, 1991-94. State Department reported in 1991, that “military, civil patrols and police continued to commit a majority of major human rights abuses, including extrajuridicial killings torture and disappearances.” Guatemalan counterinsurgency campaign devised by U.S. counterinsurgency experts Caesar Sereseres and Colonel George Minas. Former served as a consultant to RAND Corporation and State Department’s Office of Policy Planning. Minas served as military attache in Guatemala in early 1980s. Both encouraged population control such as Vietnam-style military-controlled strategic hamlets and civilian defense patrols. Today Guatemala is largest warehouse for cocaine transshipments to U.S. Drug trade run by military which tries to blame the leftists. Covert Action Information Bulletin (Quarterly), Spring 1994, pp. 28-33

Guatemala, 1991-95. U.S. Had information in 10/1991 linking a paid CIA informer in slaying of a U.S. citizen. Colonel Roberto Alpirez was dropped from CIA’s payroll but remained a contact through 7/1992 — when he allegedly ordered another killing of Efrain Bamaca Velasquez — husband of Jennifer Harbury. Washington Post, 3/24/1995, A1,27

Guatemala, 1992. Rights abuses in Guatemala continue, paramilitary civilian patrols — self defense patrols — accused of campaign of terror, control rural areas. Patrols answer to military. Washington Post, 10/4/1992, A35

Guatemala, 1995. President Clinton said he would dismiss any CIA official who withheld information on death of Jennifer Harbury’s husband. Rep Torricelli said CIA withheld information for years. Washington Times, 3/25/1995, A3

Guatemala, 1970-95. Discussion of Torricelli, Harbury, Devine, Bamaco, etc. The death of husband of Harbury not a rogue operation. This was standard operating procedure in El Salvador and Guatemala and elsewhere around the globe. CIA organized death squads, financed them, equipped them, trained them, etc. That’s what the CIA does. Once in a decade the U.S. public hears about this. CIA should be abolished. The CIA mislead Congress about the Devine case. Getting rid of CIA is not enough — the CIA did not act alone. The National Security Agency and the Army may have been involved in Guatemala. The Progressive, 5/1995, pp. 8,9

Haiti: Watch List

Haiti, 1986-93. In 1986 the CIA funded the national intelligence service (SIN) under guise of fighting narcotics — but SIN never produced drug intelligence and used CIA money for political operations. Sin involved in spying on so-called subversive groups…they doing nothing but political repression…they targeted people who were for change. CIA used distorted data to discredit Aristide. NACLA (Magazine re Latin America), 2/1994, p. 35

Haiti, 1990-94. Emannuel Constant, leader of Haiti’s FRAPH hit squad, worked for CIA and U.S. intelligence helped launch FRAPH. Haiti’s dreaded attaches paid for by a U.S. Government-funded project that maintains sensitive files on Haiti’s poor. The Nation, 10/24/1994, 458

Haiti, 1990-94. U.S. officials involved in refugee policy have backgrounds suggestive of Phoenix-like program activities. Luis Moreno, State Department, has background in counterterrorism. Gunther Wagner, senior intelligence officer at INS’s southwest regional office, assigned to investigate repression against repatriated refugees. Wagner had served as public safety adviser to Vietnamese National Special Branch for 5 years and later advised Somoza’s National Guard. INS database on all asylum interviews at Guantanamo. INS, on demand, gave State Department unrestricted access to all interview files. U.S. Officers hand Haitian authorities computer print-outs of names of all Haitians being repatriated. CIA funded service intelligence nacionale (SIN), who’s de facto primary function was a war against popular movement — including torture and assassination — a fact admitted by a CIA officer to an official in Aristide’s government. U.S. shares “anti-narcotics intelligence” with Haitian military. The Progressive, 4/1994, p. 21

Haiti, 1991-94. Asylum-promoting project gets family information that fed into a computer project that could be used to target for repression. The Progressive, 9/1994, pp. 19-26

Haiti, 1991-94. Seven chief attaches arranged killings and brought victims to houses. Four of the seven worked for Centers for Development and Health (CDS), funded by U.S. AID. One was Gros Sergo, and other was Fritz Joseph who chief FRAPH recruiter in Cite Soleil. Two others are Marc Arthur and Gors Fanfan. CDS files track every family in Cite Soleil. The Nation, 10/24/1994, p. 461

Haiti, 1994. AID programs for Haitian popular groups; Immigration and Naturalization service, with computerized files on 58,000 political-asylum applicants and army intelligence S-2 section of 96th Civil Affairs Battalion assigned to monitor refugees at Guantanamo Bay. Per Capt. James Vick, unit develops networks of informants and works with marine corps counterintelligence in “identifying ringleaders of unrest and in weeding out troublemakers.” 96th’s files enter military intelligence system. Gunther Wagner, a former Nazi, served with U.S. In Phoenix operation in Vietnam, and in Nicaragua — now heads State Department’s Cuba-Haiti task force. Pentagon’s Atlantic command commissioned Booz, Allen, Hamilton, to devise a computer model of Haitian society. Results of study given. Priority of study to build an “organized information bank….” no change expected in ruling clique of Haiti. Article by Allan Nairn. The Nation, 10/3/1994, pp. 344-48

Haiti: Death Squads

Haiti. CIA officer assigned 1973-75 Coordination with Ton-Ton Macoute, “Baby Doc” Duvalier’s private death squad. Covert Action Information Bulletin (Quarterly), 9/1980, p. 16

Haiti, 1985-93. CIA created an intelligence service in Haiti: National Intelligence Service, (SIN) from its initials in French, to fight cocaine trade, but unit became instrument of political terror whose officers engaged in drug traffic, killings and torture. Unit produced little drug intelligence. U.S. cut ties to group after 1991 military coup. New York Times, 11/14/1993 pp. 1,12

Haiti, 1986-93 INS database on all asylum interviews at Guantanamo. INS, on demand, gave State Department unrestricted access to all interview files. U.S. officers hand Haitian authorities computer print-outs of names of all Haitians being repatriated. CIA funded service intelligence nacionale (SIN), who’s de facto primary function was a war against popular movement — including torture and assassination — a fact admitted by a CIA officer to an official in Aristide’s government. U.S. shares “anti-narcotics intelligence” with Haitian military. The Progressive, 4/1994, p. 21

Haiti, 1990-94. Clinton administration denied report CIA helped set up Haiti’s pro-army Militia — FRAPH. Officials refused to comment whether FRAPH leader Emmanuel Constant was a paid CIA informant. “Nation” article said Constant worked for both the CIA and the DIA. Colonel Collins of DIA and Donald Terry of CIA were his contacts. Collins urged Constant to set up FRAPH. Mr. Constant, per Washington Times, was a paid U.S. Informant on Haitian political activities and assisting anti-drug efforts. Relationship broken off early this year. FRAPH has been linked to murders, public beatings and arson. CIA officers in past worked with Haiti’s national intelligence service. Washington Times, 10/7/1994, A16

Haiti, 1990-94. Emannuel Constant, leader of Haiti’s FRAPH hit squad, worked for CIA and U.S. Intelligence helped launch FRAPH. Haiti’s dreaded attaches paid for by a U.S. Government-funded project that maintains sensitive files on Haiti’s poor. In 10/3/1994, issue of Nation carried Nairn’s article “The Eagle is Landing,” he quoted a U.S. official praising Constant as a young republican that U.S. Intelligence had encouraged to form FRAPH. Constant confirmed that account. He first said his handler was Colonel Patrick Collins, DIA attache in Haiti, and later claimed another U. S. official urged him to form FRAPH. Collins first approached Constant while he taught a course at HQs of CIA-run national intelligence service (SIN) and built up a computer data base at Bureau of Information and Coordination. FRAPH originally was called Haitian Resistance League. Constant was working for the CIA at SIN while it attacked the poor. The Nation, 10/24/1994, p. 458

Haiti, 1991-94. Emmanuel Constant (son of a Duvalier general), who had been on the CIA payroll since the mid-‘1980s. With U.S. intelligence advice, formed FRAPH, a political front and paramilitary death squad offshoot of the Haitian army, that began to systematically target democratic militants and hold the country hostage with several armed strikes. On 10/11/1993, day U.S.S. Harlan County and U.S. and Canadian soldiers were to land, even though CIA had been tipped off, FRAPH organized a dockside demonstration of several dozen armed thugs. Ship turned around. U.S. asylum processing program hand-picked and exported almost 2,000 grassroots leaders. In three years after coup, 7,000-man army and its paramilitary assistants killed at least 3,000 and probably over 4,000 people, tortured thousands, and created tens of thousands of refugees and 300,000 internally displaced people. Covert Action Information Bulletin (Quarterly), Winter 1994/1995, pp. 7-13

Haiti, 1991-94. Haitian paramilitary chief spied for CIA. Emmanuel “Toto” Constant, head of Haiti’s notorious FRAPH, secretly provided information to U.S. intelligence while his group killed people. Constant paid by CIA for giving intelligence officers information about Aristide beginning shortly after Aristide ousted in 9/1991 coup. CIA dropped him last Spring. Constant’s organization blamed for killing hundreds of supporters of Aristide — and organizing demonstration that drove off U.S. troop-carrying Harlan County last October. In “Nation” article, U.S. Defense Attache, Colonel Patrick Collins, had encouraged Constant to form FRAPH. U.S. intelligence agencies had extensive penetration of Haitian military and paramilitary groups. Using Constant as source may explain why CIA’s reporting on Aristide was skewed. FRAPH not formed until 8/1993, 9 months after Collins left Haiti. Washington Post, 10/9/1994, A1,30

Haiti, 1993. Young men kidnapped by armed thugs seldom reappear. Under de facto government, as many as 3000 may have been killed. Aristide negotiating his return with UN. The Nation, 5/3/1993, p. 580

Haiti, 1995. Interview with Allan Nairn, April 1995 “Criminal Habits.” Z Magazine 6/1995, pp. 22-9

Honduras: Death Squads

Honduras, 1981-87. Florencio Caballero, who served as a torturer and a member of a death squad, said he was trained in Texas by the CIA. He said he was responsible for the torture and slaying of 120 Honduran and other Latin American citizens. The CIA taught him and 24 other people in a army intelligence unit for 6 months in interrogation. psychological methods — to study fears and weaknesses of a prisoner, make him stand up, don’t let him sleep, keep him naked and isolated, put rats and cockroaches in his cell, give him bad food, throw cold water on him, change the temperature. Washington Post, 6/8/1988, B3

Honduras, circa 1982-87. Army Battalion 3/16, a special counterinsurgency force which many considered a kind of death squad, was formed in 1980. Florencio Caballero, a former battalion member, described a clandestine paramilitary structure for repressing leftists. Caballero, who studied interrogation techniques in Houston, said the CIA was extensively involved in training squad members. NACLA 2/1988, p. 15, from New York Times, 5/2/1987

Honduras, March 1986. Apart from CIA training of a battalion implicated in death squad activities and torture, Honduran army defector said CIA arranged a fabricated forced “confession” by kidnapped prisoner that he headed a guerrilla front and had planned attacks against U.S. installations. This in operation truth. Chomsky, N. (1988). The Culture of Terrorism, p. 239

Honduras. General G. Alvarez Martinez, CIA-Contra point man in Honduras, had death squad operation run by Ricardo Lau. Alvarez godfather to new CIA Chief of Station’s daughter. Marshall, J., Scott P.D., and Hunter, J. (1987). The Iran-Contra Connection, pp. 78-9

Honduras, 1982-86. Zuniga told congressional staffers about the 316 Battalion established with the knowledge and assistance of the U.S. Embassy. By 1984 more than 200 Honduran teachers, students, labor leaders, and opposition politicians had been murdered. The CIA had knowledge of the killings. Zuniga killed in 9/1985. Mother Jones, 4/1987, p. 48

Honduras. Capt. Alexander Hernandez, a graduate of U.S. International Police services training program, has played a central role in Honduran death squad activities and the war in Nicaragua. Early 1986 New York Times reports that CIA was providing “training and advice in intelligence collection” to Hernandez’ unit “as part of a program to cut off arms shipments from Nicaragua to leftist rebels in Honduras and El Salvador.” New York Times also says that CIA knew of the assassinations but “looked the other way.” The Nation, 6/7/1986, p. 793

Honduras, circa 1981-84. Honduran government established a secret unit that seized, interrogated, tortured, and murdered more than 130 people between 1981-84. Unit named Battalion 316. Unit operated with CIA supervision and training and received U.S. instruction in interrogation, surveillance and hostage rescue. Commander of unit in first years was a graduate of International Police Academy. NA, 2/20/1988, pp. 224-5 The clandestine houses and command post of 316 were visited by CIA agents. NA, 1/23/1988, p. 85

Honduras, Nicaragua, 1982. A Contra commander with the FDN admitted he helped organize a death squad in Honduras with the approval and cooperation of the CIA. Honduran government agreed to host the death squad and provide it with cover, since the group would kill Honduran dissidents at the government’s request. The commander admitted he participated in assassinations. CIA “Colonel Raymond” congratulated the squad. The Progressive, 8/1986, p. 25

Honduras, Nicaragua, 1984-85. Honduran army investigators report that Contras have been involved in death-squad killings in Honduras. At least 18 Hondurans and an unknown number of Salvadorans and Nicaraguans have been killed by the Contras. Washington Post, 1/15/1985, A12

Honduras, 1980-83. Agents of Battalion 316, a Honduran death squad, received interrogation training in Texas from CIA in 1980. CIA agents maintained contact with unit in early 1980’s, visiting detention centers during interrogation and obtaining intelligence gleaned from torture victims. See Americas Watch “Human Rights in Honduras” (May 1987). Dillon, S. (1991). Commandos, p. 101

Honduras, 1980-83. Gustavo Alvarez, formerly head of police, in 1981 a general running entire armed forces. Worked closely with U.S. on Contras. Alvarez had organized military intelligence Battalion 316 — first Honduran death squad. Argentines sent 15-20 officers to work with Alvarez on Contras. Senior officer Osvaldo Riveiro. Garvin, G. (1992). Everybody Has His Own Gringo, p. 41

Honduras, 1980-89. CIA and State Department worked with a Honduran military unit called Battalion 316 during the 1980s. Unit was responsible for cracking down on dissidents. AP, 6/12/1995. Honduran special prosecutor for human rights asking the U.S. to turn over classified information on Ambassadors John Negroponte and Chris Arcos and several CIA agents connected to the disappearance of dissidents in the 1980s. AP, 6/13/1995

Honduras, 1980-89. Colonel Gustavo Alvarez Martinez shot to death in 1989. Alvarez spent years networking with fascists and ultra right terrorists who in World Anti-communist League and its sister organization, the Latin American Anti-communist Confederation, or CAL. He most famous for streamlining Honduras’s death squads and uniting them under his control. Alvarez gathered together the National Front for the Defense of Democracy, the Honduran Anti-communist Movement (MACHO), and the Anti-communist Combat Army — death squads all — and combined them with several governmental forces, including the Fuerzas de Seguridad Publica (FUSEP), Departmento Nacional de Investigaciones (DIN), and Tropas Especiales Para Selva y Nocturnas (TESON). With Director of Central Intelligence Casey, Alvarez and Negroponte turned Honduras into a staging ground for Contra incursions into Nicaragua. Honduran Congress issued Decree 33, which declared terrorist anyone who distributed political literature, associated with foreigners, joined groups deemed subversive by the government, damaged property, or destroyed documents. Alvarez’s forces murdered upwards of 500 people. He ousted as Honduras’s dictator in 1984 and became special consultant to RAND Corporation. Lies of our Time, 3/1994, pp. 3-5

Honduras, 1980-89. Eleven senior officers who are believed to have been involved with Battalion 316 have been convicted on charges of kidnapping, torturing and attempting to murder six students in 1982. Officers include one general, nine colonels, and one captain. AP, 7/25/1995

Honduras, 1980-89. See entry in Liaison from Baltimore Sun, 6/11-18/1995

Honduras, 1980-93. CIA-trained death squad issue in presidential campaign. In early 1980s, Battalion 3-16, of Honduran military whose members instructed by and worked with CIA “disappeared” scores of activists. Both candidates accusing other of connections to Battalion 3-16. In 1980 25-Honduran officers to U.S. for training per sworn testimony in International Court by Honduran intelligence officer who participated — Florencio Caballero. Group trained in interrogation by a team from FBI and CIA. Training continued in Honduras. U.S. Trainers joined by instructors from Argentina and Chile — sessions focused on surveillance and rescuing kidnap victims. Battalion 3-16 engaged in a program of systematic disappearances and murder from 1981 to 1984. By March 1984, 100-150 students, teachers, unionists and travelers picked up and secretly executed. Squads, according to Inter-American Court of Human Rights, belonged to 3-16. Squads modus operandi included weeks of surveillance of suspects followed by capture by disguised agents using vehicles with stolen license plates, interrogation, torture in secret jails followed by execution and secret burial. CIA’s connection to 3-16 confirmed by General Alvarez, who created and commanded squad from 1980 through 1984. He later became chief of police and then head of the armed forces. Alvarez said CIA “gave good training, lie detectors, phone-tapping devices and electronic equipment to analyze intelligence.” CIA men informed when 3-16 abducted suspected leftists. When bodies found, 3-16 put out story they killed by guerrillas. CIA looked other way. Ambassador Negroponte in 1982 denied existence of death squads. State Department was attacking as communist, anti-democratic and a terrorist group, Committee for Defense of Human Rights in Honduras that was exposing 3-16. In a barracks coup, Alvarez forced into exile in Miami and became paid consultant to Pentagon writing study on low-intensity conflict. Members of 3-16 still in positions of power in government. Congressional intelligence committee in 1988 looked into CIA’s role with 3-16, but findings never published. Op-ed by Anne Manuel. Washington Post, 11/28/1993, C5

Honduras, 1982-83. Ex-guard Benito “Mack” Bravo reportedly killed dozens of Contra recruits at his La Ladosa training base near El Paraiso. Mack suspected many were Sandinista infiltrators. In one case, FDN ordered four ex-guardsmen executed for insubordination and allegedly selling arms to El Salvador’s FMLN. They also had been accused of killing recruits. Honduran military participated in the execution. Dillon, S. (1991). Commandos, pp. 118-124

Honduras, 1988. Director human rights commission in Honduras and associate killed by assassins. The Progressive, 2/1990, p. 46

Honduras, 1988. Honduran human rights leader Ramon Custodio Lopez accused Battalion 3-16 of murdering a politician and a teacher on 14 January 1988. Custodio relied on testimony by former battalion member sergeant Fausto Caballero. In 11/30/1988. Honduras was condemned by Inter-American Court of Human Rights in 1988 for disappearance of Angel Manfredo Velazquez. Battalion 3-16, along with DNI (Directorate of National Intelligence), and FUSEP (National Police) were implicated, all of which have received training from CIA. Intelligence Parapolitics, 9/1988, p. 8

Honduras, 1988. Jose Isaias Vilorio, an intelligence officer and former death squad member, was shot dead on 1 January 1988. Isaias was to testify before Inter-American Court on Human Rights (New York Times, 20 January 1988). Human rights leader and legislator Miguel Pavon was killed on 14 January 1988 after testifying before Inter-American Court. Also killed was Moises Landaverde, a teacher who was riding in Pavon’s car at the time of attack. Intelligence Parapolitics, 3/1988, p. 12

Honduras, Argentina, 1980-89. A survivor tells her story: treatment for a leftist — kicks and freezing water and electric shocks. In between, a visitor from CIA. CIA worked closely with the Honduran military while the military tortured and killed dissidents during the 1980s, human rights groups said. A government official also said Argentine military advisers, with U.S. support, were brought in to help monitor leftist activism.

“At least nine Argentine military (officers), supported by the CIA, trained many Honduran officers to prevent communism from entering Honduras,” said Leo Valladares of the government’s human rights commission. Bertha Oliva, head of committee of relatives of the disappeared, claimed CIA knew of disappearances by Honduran security forces and that “the U.S. Embassy had absolute power in this country.” in the first of a series of four articles, the Baltimore Sun reported Sunday that CIA and the State Department collaborated with a secret Honduran military unit known as Battalion 316 in the 1980s in cracking down on Honduras dissidents. Following a 14-month investigation. In order to keep up public support for Reagan administration’s war efforts in Central America, U.S. officials misled congress and the public about Honduran military abuses.

Collaboration was revealed in classified documents and in interviews with U.S. and Honduran participants. Among those interviewed by the Sun were three former Battalion 316 torturers who acknowledged their crimes and detailed the battalion’s close relationship with CIA. Ramon Custodio, president of non-government human rights commission, said a former member of Battalion 316, Florencio Caballero, disclosed that CIA in early 1980s took 24 soldiers to the U.S. for training in anti-subversive techniques. At the time, Custodio said, “Honduras’ policy was oriented to detaining and summarily executing those who did not please the government or the military.” Battalion 316 was created in 1984 and its first commander was General Luis Alonso Discua, current armed forces chief. A government report subsequently blamed it in the cases of 184 missing people. Baltimore Sun, 6/15/1995

Honduras, Israel. During Contra war Honduran military intelligence officers on double salary from CIA and Colombian drug cartels, who saw advantage of using Honduran airstrips for transiting cocaine under cover of war effort. Israelis also trained Honduran death squads. Cockburn, A. and Cockburn, L. (1991). Dangerous Liaison, p. 225

Honduras, Assassinations, 1980-84. CIA and Contras accused of running Honduran death squads, killing over 200. CIA officials “looked the other way” when people disappeared. Violence tapered off after ouster of CIA backed military commander Alvarez. Ricardo Lau running Contra intelligence, also death squads. Accused arranging assassination Archbishop Romero in El Salvador. Marshall, J., Scott P.D., and Hunter, J. (1987). The Iran-Contra Connection, pp. 132-3

Indonesia: Watch List

Indonesia, 1963-65. U.S. trained unionist spies laid groundwork for post 1965 coup gestapu massacre of leftists by gathering intelligence on leftist unionists. Counterspy, Winter 1979, p. 27

Indonesia, 1965-66. “U.S. officials’ lists aided Indonesian blood bath in ’60s.” U.S. officials supplied the names of thousands of members of Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) to the army that was hunting them down and killing them in a crackdown branded as one of the century’s worst massacres, former U.S. Diplomats and CIA officials say. Robert J. Martens, Former member of embassy’s political section said, “it really was a big help to the army…. They probably killed a lot of people…” Martens said. He headed an embassy group of state Department and CIA officials that spent two years compiling the lists. He said he delivered them to an army intermediary. The lists were a detailed who’s who of the leadership of the PKI that included names of provincial, city and other local PKI members and leaders of mass organizations. Ambassador Marshall Green, his deputy Jack Lydman, and political section chief Edward Masters admitted approving the release of the names. Army intermediary was an aide to Adam Malik. The aide, Tirta Kentjana Adhyatman, confirmed that he had met with Martens and received lists of thousands of names…given to Sukarno’s HQs. Information on who captured and killed came to Americans from Suharto’s HQs, according to former CIA deputy chief of station Joseph Lazarsky. Lazarsky said “we were getting a good account in Jakarta of who was being picked up,”…”the army had a ‘shooting list’ of about 4,000 to 5,000 people.” Lazarsky said the check-off work was also carried out at CIA’s intelligence directorate in D.C. By end of January 1966, “the checked off names were so numerous the CIA analysts in Washington concluded the PKI leadership had been destroyed.” Washington Post, 5/21/1990, A5

Indonesia, 1965-66. In response to Kathy Kadane’s May 21 article in Washington Post, Robert J. Martens responds “it is true I passed names of PKI leaders and senior cadre system to non-communist forces during the six months of chaos between the so-called coup and the ultimate downfall of Sukarno. The names I gave were based entirely on Indonesian communist press and were available to everyone. This was senior cadre system of the PKI few thousand at most out of the 3.5 millions claimed party members. I categorically deny that I headed an embassy group that spent two years compiling the lists.” Washington Post, 6/2/1990, A18

Indonesia, 1985. Indonesia: years of living dangerously. CIA’s role in bloody coup in Indonesia in 1965. Utne Reader. 2/1991, p. 38, two pages

Indonesia: Death Squads

Indonesia, 1965-66 Indonesian generals approached U.S. for equipment “to arm Moslem and nationalist youths for use in central Java against the PKI.” Washington responded by supplying covert aid, dispatched as “medicines.” Washington Post, 6/13/1990, A 22

Indonesia, 1965-66. Kathy Kadane’s story for States News Service disclosed part played by CIA and State Department officials in 1965-66 blood bath in Indonesia. Kadane reported that U.S. officials in Jakarta furnished names of about 5,000 communist activists to the Indonesian army and then checked off the names as the army reported the individuals had been killed or captured. The Nation, 7/9/1990, p. 43

Indonesia, 1965. CIA and State Department officials provided name lists to Indonesian army that killed 250,000. The Progressive, 7/10/1990, p. 9

Indonesia, 1965. Ex-agents say CIA compiled death lists for Indonesians. San Francisco Examiner, 5/20/1990

Indonesia, 1965-66. Article by Michael Vatikiotis and Mike Fonte; Rustle of Ghosts. (1965 Indonesian coup). Far Eastern Economic Review, 8/2/1990, 2 pages

Indonesia, 1965-85. Death squads roam at will, killing subversives, suspected criminals by thousands. Blum, W. (1986). The CIA A Forgotten History, p. 221

Iran: Watch List

Iran, 1953-54. CIA gave Shah intelligence on Tudeh party facilitate anti-Tudeh Campaign. Gasiorowski, M.J. (1990). “Security Relations Between the United States and Iran, 1953-1978,” p. 150

Iran, 1953-64. CIA station chiefs in regular contact with Shah and working level liaison relationship with SAVAK established by 5-man training team and smaller unit in SAVAK HQs for several years after training team left. CIA and SAVAK exchanged intelligence including information on Tudeh party. Gasiorowski, M.J. (1990). “Security relations between the United States and Iran, 1953-1978,” pp. 255-56

Iran, 1953. CIA prepared an arrest list for the overthrow operation. Copeland, M. (1989). The Game Player, p. 190

Iran, 1953. U.S. Army colonel working for CIA under cover of military attache worked to organize and train intelligence organization for Shah. Trained on domestic security, interrogation. Primary purpose of (Bakhtiar’s intelligence unit later to become SAVAK) to eliminate threats to Shah. Gasiorowski, M.J. (1990). “Security Relations Between the United States and Iran, 1953-1978″ p. 150

Iran, 1954. Year after coup American cryptographic experts and CIA agent played important part in rooting out conspiracy army officers linked to Tudeh Party. Kwitny, J. (1984). Endless Enemies, p. 165

Iran. During Shah’s reign, thousands people killed. Many killed at Shah’s directive. Rafizadeh, M. (1987). Witness, p. 134

Iran, 1983. CIA identifies to Iranian government 200 leftists who were then executed. The Nation, 12/13/1986, p. 660

Iran, 1983. In 1983, when the Tudeh party was closed down, the CIA gave the Khomeni government a list of USSR KGB agents operating in Iran. Two hundred suspects were executed, 18 USSR diplomats expelled and Tudeh party leaders imprisoned. Washington Post, 1/13/1987, A1,8

Iran, 1983. To curry favor with Khomeni, the CIA gave his government a list of USSR KGB agents and collaborators operating in Iran. The Khomeni regime then executed 200 suspects and closed down the communist Tudeh party. Khomeni then expelled 18 USSR diplomats, and imprisoned the Tudeh leaders. Washington Post, 11/19/1986, A28

Iraq: Watch List

Iraq, 1963. CIA supplied lists of communists to Baath party group that led coup so that communists could be rounded up and eliminated. Cockburn,
A. and Cockburn, L. (1991). Dangerous Liaison, p. 130

Israel: Death Squads

Israel. Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir headed a special hit squad during his ten years in Mossad. Shamir headed the assassination unit from 1955-64 that carried out attacks on perceived enemies and suspected Nazi war criminals. Shamir recruited former members of the Stern Gang. Washington Times, 7/4/1992, A8

Israel, 1992. Article, “How Israeli Commandos Are Waging an Undercover War In Occupied Territories.” In January 1992, Israeli army launched all-out offensive to end “Red Intifadeh.” Undercover units “Arabized” produced a rash of deaths under controversial circumstances leading to claims commando units are death squads. Since Intifadeh began in 1987, 775 Palestinians killed; 680 more slain by their brethren mostly for collaboration. Human-rights organizations contend Sayarot shoot first and ask questions later. Time 8/31/1992, pp. 49-50

Israel, 1992. Israel’s assassination squad, Duvdevan or Cherry has killed one of its own by mistake. Intelligence Newsletter, 7/23/1992, p. 5

Israel, 1992. Israeli army had discharged commander of undercover unit for issuing orders to shoot at Palestine activists. Unit code-named Samson has had three commanders fired or placed on trial within three years. More than 30 Palestinians killed this year by undercover troops, who usually dress as Arabs. Washington Post, 8/26/1992, A14

Israel, Honduras, 1981-89. In 1981 Leo Gleser, “co-owner” of International Security and Defense Systems (ISDS) — a leading Israeli “security” firm (Israeli Foreign Affairs 2/1987, 5/1987, /1987, 2/1988, 3/1989) identified repeatedly as an Israeli entity — began building Battalion 316, a unit of Honduran military intelligence which disappeared, tortured, then killed its victims. Honduran General Walter Lopez Reyes who C-I-C Honduran armed forces 1984-86, said “we had Israeli advisers in Special Forces. They seconded to Special Forces by Israeli mod, although they came officially as non-governmental.” Their front [was] they [were] training security groups but [they really gave] special operations courses on how take over buildings, planes, hostages…Contras also taking courses… coordination between them and CIA. Israeli Foreign Affairs, 4/1989, p. 1,4

Israel, South Africa, 1986-91. Israel trained members of Inkatha hit squads aimed at African National Congress, a disillusioned former leader of Zulu organization has revealed. Israeli Foreign Affairs, 2/20/1992, p. 3

Israel. Ranks as fifth largest exporter of arms in world, according CIA estimates, and has become essential element global counterinsurgency business. “Hit lists” used by death squads in Guatemala have been computerized with Israeli assistance and Uzi machine guns the standard weapon of death squads. Covert Action Information Bulletin (Quarterly), Summer 1988, p. 5

Italy: Watch List

Italy, 1950-59. All Italian “SIFAR” counterespionage officers collected biographies on every deputy and senator. List increased to include Ecclesiastics: 45,000 dossiers on them alone, 157,000 altogether, 30,000 dealing with Italians in world of business and industry. Drop copies went to CIA. De Lorenzo’s outfit to become a tool for CIA. Tompkins, P. (Unpublished manuscript). Strategy of Terror, pp. 8-12

Italy, 1959-67. Carabinieri drew up plan Piano Solo — for paramilitary to intervene in order to restore public order. Secret services had massive program of surveillance of Italian political and business figures. This partly intended to identify left-wing suspects who would be rounded up and imprisoned in concentration camps on Sardinia. Investigation revealed creation of personal intelligence dossiers began in 1959 and 157,000 files amassed. SIFAR (military intelligence) dossiers emphasized unfavorable significance. SIFAR dossiers routinely deposited at CIA HQs. SIFAR planed microphones in Papal apartments and President’s Rome residence. Operation ordered by de Lorenzo at request of CIA station chief Colby. Some years earlier Rome CIA station chief Thomas Karamessines had asked General de Lorenzo, then head of SIFAR, for dossiers on [left-leaning] politicians and in particular for Moro’s circle of collaborators. Willan, P. (1991). Puppetmasters, pp. 35-7

Italy, 1960-70. General de Lorenzo, whose SIFAR became SID, implemented new Gladio project to neutralize subversive elements. Known as parallel SID, it reached into nearly every institution. Group set up at request of Americans and NATO. Knights of Malta, as well as freemasonry, and its most notorious lodge — Propaganda Due, or P-2, far more influential. Licio Gelli, a knight. Joined U.S. Army’s CIC. To ferret out dissidents, they prepared watch lists on thousands. 157,000 files found in Ministry of Interior. CIA obtained duplicates. Covert Action Information Bulletin (Quarterly), Summer 1994, p. 24

Italy, 1960-70. Operation Solo — a planned coup against a leftist government did not occur — but it was based on Operation Gladio. Giovanni de Lorenzo, as chief of secret services, compiled dossiers, including tapes and photos, on some 150,000 people — priests, politicians and unionists. He drew up plan to arrest many politicians, take over radio and TV, seize offices and newspapers of left-wing parties. De Lorenzo was organizing a duplicate of Operation Gladio in case left gained too much power. “Statewatch” compilation, filed June 1994

Latin America: Death Squads

Latin America, labor. AIFLD collected detailed information about Latin American labor leaders under pretext surveys necessary for AID-financed worker’s housing projects. AIFLD able obtain personal and political history union members, with address and photos. Given CIA role in Chile, Uruguay and Brazil coups, among others, it probable this information passed to military regimes and their secret police. DL p. 238 from Lernoux, P. (1982). Cry of the People. pp. 212, 220

Liaison, 1960. Target lists maintained by all Western Hemisphere division stations. Maintain in case local government asks for assistance in preventive detention of dangerous persons. Agee, P. (1975). Inside the Company: CIA Diary, p. 114

Latin America. CIA organizes right wing terrorist organizations that attack and assassinate leftist politicians and others without implicating foreign governments. Groups include “La Mano Blanco” and “Ojo Por Ojo” (Guatemala), “La Banda” (Dominican republic), and “Death Squad” (Brazil). Counterspy, 3/1973, p. 4

Latin America. CIA trained assassination groups such as Halcones in Mexico, the Mano Blanca in Guatemala, and the Escuadron de la Muerte in Brazil. NACLA (magazine re Latin America) 8/1974, p. 11

Latin America, 1953-84. The activities of the death squads, formed under CIA sponsorship in 1954 Are loosely controlled by an international organization known as La Mano Blanco (the White Hand). The front group is the CAL, Latin American Anti-communist Federation, the Latin American affiliate of the World Anti-communist League. Jack Anderson, Washington Post, 1/13/1984

Latin America. Terrorist groups created in most countries. Groups such as “La Mano Blanco” attack and assassinate leftist politicians and others feared by military governments, doing so without implicating police or military. CIA implicated in attempts to organize the right into terrorist organizations. Counterspy, __/1973, p. 4

Latin America, 1960-95. Colonel Alpirez accused killer of American innkeeper and guerrilla leader, graduated from School of Americas in 1989. Other notable alumni include: Manuel Noriega and Omar Torrijos, former Panamanian strongmen; Roberto D’Aubuisson, leader of Salvadoran death squads; Roberto Viola and Leopoldo Galtieri, leaders of argentine dirty war; Michael Francois, former Haitian police chief; 19 of 27 Salvadoran officers cited for murder of six Jesuit priests; 10 of 12 Salvadoran officers involved in El Mozote massacre; 105 of 247 Colombian officers cited for human rights violations in 1992; and, former dictators of Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. Time. 4/10/1995, p. 20

Latin America, 1976. An Argentinean told Scherrer, legal attache (FBI) Santiago, that Operation Condor, a nascent program among military intelligence services of some Latin American countries designed to locate and eliminate one another’s fugitive terrorists and exiled dissidents. Ambitious leader of Chilean DINA trying to institutionalize process. Branch, T. and Proper, E. (1983). Labyrinth, p. 123

Latin America, Operation Condor, Paraguay, 1970-92. 12/1992 a Paraguayan judge in a police station found documentary history of decades of repression and U.S. intelligence cooperation with Paraguay and other regional dictatorships. Archives detail fates of hundreds, possibly thousands, of Latin Americans secretly kidnapped by right-wing regimes of the 1970s. Paper trail revealing elusive conspiracy among security services of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay to eliminate foes without regard to borders. Sketchy outlines of Operation Condor, can be partially filled in. Some of documents already disappeared. Finders had unearthed jumbled mountain of papers outlining police and military intelligence activities during recently overthrown Stroessner regime. HQs of Paraguayan technical police revealed more documents. 4 tons records. Data confirmed arrest and killing of politicians and exchange of prisoners with Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. Discovered documents a bombshell that led to arrest of some of Stroessner’s old regime. Southern Cone repression killed 50,000, disappeared 30,000 — the majority in Argentina and 400,000 imprisoned. U.S. gave inspiration, financing and technical assistance for repression. CIA’s technical services division (TSD), provided electrical torture equipment. Covert Action Information Bulletin (Quarterly), Fall 1994, pp. 7-13

Latin America, 1993. James Carroll wrote editorial about U.S. Army’s School of Americas in Fort Benning. It is “the U.S. school that teaches militaries how to torture.” Among renowned alumni are various Latin American strongmen, including dictators in Bolivia, Argentina, El Salvador and Panama. In Peru 6 of army officers charged with recent murders of 9 students were School of Americas alumni. In Honduras, 4 of the high-ranking officers who helped create “Battalion 316″ death squad graduated from the school. In Columbia, the list of officers designated by human rights organizations as worst offenders reads like an honor roll from Fort Benning. In El Salvador, 2 of 3 officers cited for the assassination of Archbishop Romero, 3 of 5 convicted of killing 3 Maryknoll nuns and their lay associate, and 19 of the 26 officers implicated by United Nations. “Truth Commission” investigation of murder of Jesuits, were graduates. “For decades alumni of the School of Americas have helped fill morgues and mass graves of an entire continent.” Colonel Louis Michel Francois has been most closely linked to Haiti death squads, and he is an alumni of the school just as is General Raoul Cedars one of those CIA agents. Z Magazine, 2/1994, p. 24

Mexico: Death Squads

Mexico, 1957-89. The Mexican DFS (Federal Security Directorate) like many Western-hemisphere intelligence organizations was creation of CIA. DFS has state of the art computer and records systems. Through DFS CIA able to keep tabs on all embassies in Mexico City. DFS works closely with U.S. In the suppression of leftists and political parties. In early 1970s, Nazar created the Brigada Blanca, a right-wing death squad that killed hundreds, probably thousands of Mexican students and political activists. Zacaris Osorio Cruz, a member of death squad, testified in Canada that, between 1977-82, he part of team that killed between 60-150 people. Penthouse, 12/1989

Mexico, 1977-89. U.S. looked the other way when Nazar, head of DFS used his infallible (interrogation) techniques on behalf American agencies while he carried out hundreds, perhaps thousands of political executions of Mexican leftists and political dissidents. DFS (Federal Security Directorate) administering drug traffic. Penthouse, 12/1989

Nicaragua: Watch List

Joseph Adams, a former Marine intelligence officer, who served as chief of security for Aldolfo Calero, helped maintain a list of civilians marked for assassination when Contra forces entered Nicaragua. The Progressive, 3/1987, p. 24

Nicaragua: Death Squads

Nicaragua, 1983-89. Enrique Bermudez, a Contra leader, said in Contra raids on economic targets in northern Nicaragua, particularly coffee plantations and farming cooperatives, any resistance brought brutal retribution. Commandantes in field authorized to select those to die. Bermudez ordered prisoners to have throats cut rather than waste bullets. Terrell, J., and Martz, R. (1992). Disposable Patriot, p. 149
Nicaragua, 1985-89. “Death squad” reports re Sandinistas first circulated by the CIA-funded Puebla Institute in 1991 as coming from the UN and OAS. When checked out, this proved to be not true. Unclassified, 9/1992, p. 14

Nicaragua, circa 1940-79. Under name Anti-Communist League Nicaragua. Conservative estimates say 30,000 died four decades prior 1978-79 civil war. Lernoux, P. (1982). Cry of the People. pp. 81, 94

Norway: Watch List

Norway, 1947-90. Operation Gladio, formed in 1947, kept track of communists and became part of intelligence service in 1948. Norwegian branch exposed in 1978, when an arms cache discovered. “Statewatch” compilation filed June 1994, p. 12

Panama: Watch List

Panama, 1989-90. U.S. says 90 prisoners now held in Panama. Most of those detained had been picked up by U.S. Forces based on wanted lists compiled by U.S. and Panamanian authorities. Washington Post, 1/19/1990, A16

Panama, 1989. Several hundred people on list Endarra government seeks to detain. They arrested by U.S. troops. Most political activists and labor leaders were wanted. The Nation, 1/29/1990, p. 115

Paraguay: Watch List

Paraguay, 1972-83. The Paraguayan government expelled an author and released a document supplied by the U.S. Embassy. The document, marked secret, includes the author among a list of Paraguayans said to have visited the USSR bloc. Washington Post 2/5/1983, A1,21

Philippines: Death Squads

Philippines. Article “Death Squads in the Philippines,” by Doug Cunningham. Covert Action Information Bulletin (Quarterly), Winter 1988 pp. 22-3

Philippines. Military used hunter killer unit called scout rangers to find enemy and either attack or report back to battalion combat teams. Blaufarb, D.S. (1977). The Counterinsurgency Era, p. 28

Philippines. Probable U.S. support for vigilante death squads in the Philippines. Used in coordination with other programs making up a total low intensity conflict profile. National Reporter, Fall 1987, pp. 24-30

Philippines, 1950-54. Military man who helped Lansdale was Charles Bohannan and Lansdale’s chief Filipino associate was Colonel Napoleon Valeriano whose “skull squadrons” beheaded suspected Huks. Karnow, S. (1989). In Our Image, p. 350

Philippines, 1969-83. Marcos’ land reform failed and he approved creation of “Monkees” a group used to intimidate and even murder Marcos’ rivals. Karnow, S. (1989). In Our Image. p.378

Philippines, 1973-83. In Philippines 1,166 persons were killed from 1972-83. Human rights groups say most of victims were opponents of President Marcos. Washington Post, 4/12/1984, A21

Philippines, 1986-87. “Vigilante Terror” a report of CIA-inspired death squads in the Philippines. National Reporter, Fall 1987, pp. 24-31

Philippines, 1986. See chapter “Direct U.S. Role in Counterinsurgency.” includes psywar operations, vigilante and death squads. USIA anti-communist campaign of distributing films and written materials. Film “Amerika” shown. Use of Asian-American Free Labor Institute Operations. In 1985, AAFLI spent up to $4 million on organizational efforts, the money coming from the National Endowment for Democracy (NED). Bello, W. (1987). U.S. Sponsored Low Intensity Conflict in the Philippines

Philippines, March 1986. Reagan signs finding increasing CIA involvement in Philippine counterinsurgency operations. New Aquino government is allegedly perpetrating a purge of opposition, carried out by more than 50 death squads. Ramsey Clark, who investigated death squad activity in 1987, wrote in June that “the victims of vigilante violence are overwhelmingly poor farmers, workers, slum dwellers, and others who are pushing for significant land reform, wage increases and protection workers’ rights, as well as those who oppose U.S. military bases.” Upsurge in death squad activities are coincident with increased CIA aid and was preceded by visit to Philippines by Maj. Gen. John Singlaub. The Nation, 9/19/1987, pp. 259-60

Puerto Rico: Watch List

Puerto Rico. FBI has institutionalized repression. It created “subversive” lists with names of more than 150,000 “independentistas” who often find themselves thrown out of work. FBI agents organized and trained death squads within the Puerto Rican police department NACLA (magazine re Latin America), 8/1990, p. 5

Puerto Rico: Death Squads

Puerto Rico, 1978. “Puerto Rico’s Death Squad Requiem on Cerro Maravilla: the Police Murders in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Government Cover-up.” A book by Manuel Suarez reviewed in the Progressive, 12/1988, pp. 40-42
Russia: Watch List

Russia, 1994. FBI to open Moscow office with an eye on nuclear trafficking. FBI has about 20 posts abroad at U.S. Embassies with its agents serving as legal attaches. They range in size from one agent to as many as eight, plus support staff. FBI director Freeh said the FBI working to set up joint police/intelligence data base with authorities in Russia and Germany. Washington Times, 5/26/1994, A3
South Africa: Watch List

South Africa, 1962. A tip from a paid CIA informant led to 1962 arrest of Nelson Mandela leader of the African National Congress. A CIA officer claimed “we have turned Mandela over to the South African security branch.” Washington Post, 6/11/1990, A18
South Africa: Death Squads

South Africa. Article, “South African Death Squad Plot: A Missing Piece to a Puzzle the Media Won’t Solve,” by Jane Hunter. Extra, 11/1992, p. 26 South Africa. See article “South African Death Squads.” Covert Action Information bulletin (Quarterly) Summer 1990, pp. 63-66
South Africa, 1980-89. Details of South Africa’s death squads by a former police Captain Dirk Coetzee. Group tracked and killed ANC activists in Swaziland, Botswana and Lesotho. Newsweek, 11/27/1989, p. 56

South Africa, 1980-90. Apartheid’s fiercest warriors in 1980s were South Africa’s army special forces, police force known as Koevoet (crowbar), and Portuguese-speaking “buffalo” battalion who ran a campaign of assassination and sabotage against the African National Congress. Newsweek, 9/14/1992, p. 45

South Africa, 1991-92. 75 COSATU (labor union) members killed during past two years by security forces. Many other attacks. Briarpatch magazine (Canada), 10/1992, pp. 55-6

South Africa, 1992. Slaughter in South Africa. Newsweek 9/21/1992, p. 57

South America: Watch List

South America, 1970-79. U.S. Legal attache Buenos Aires, FBI agent Robert Scherrer, sent cable to D.C. Describing operation. Operation Condor the code-name for collection, exchange and storage intelligence re leftists, communists and Marxists. Established between cooperating intelligence services in South America to eliminate Marxist activities. Operation provided for joint operation against targets in member countries…third and secret phase of operation involves formation of special teams from member countries who travel anywhere in world to carry out sanctions up to assassination against terrorists from member countries. Special team from Operation Condor could be sent to locate and surveil target. When located, a second team would be sent to carry out sanction. 1979 Senate Report, based on CIA files, says “such a phase three operation planned in 1974 and planned on killing 3 European leftists” — one Carlos. Plot foiled when CIA discovered it and warned host countries — France and Portugal. U.S. military officers sent under auspices of AID oversaw formation of technical police. One folder of archives has correspondence between Paraguayan ministers and U.S. Army Colonel Robert Thierry, who was serving as “public administration adviser,” who supervised formation of the technical police. Letters from FBI agent Scherrer advising Paraguayan police re targets. CIA also worked with Paraguayans. Deputy DCI, Vernon Walters, visited country in 1976 who apparently approved abortive effort to get false passports for 2 Chilean DINA agents — Armando Fernandez and Michael Townley — who en route to U.S. To assassinate Orlando Letelier. The case of Eugenio Berios. Covert Action Information Bulletin (Quarterly) 12, 57, 8, 9

South America: Death Squads

South America, 1976. Letelier killed by right wing Cuban exiles called “Gusanos” who are paid and trained by CIA and “Chilean Gestapo” DINA. Gusanos regularly engage in terrorism against Cuba and Latin American and Caribbean countries. Tactics include blowing up airplanes, embassies, fishing boats, and kidnappings. Gusanos connected with police of other right wing governments such as Venezuela. Certain gusano operations directed by CIA; Other unilateral operations of DINA. Counterspy, 12/1976, p. 10

Syria: Watch List

Syria, 1949. Following CIA coup of March 1949 CIA officer reported over “400 Commies” arrested. Middle East Journal 57

Syria, 1949. The Husni Za’im coup of 30 March result of guarantee CIA that once firmly in power, the U.S. would give de facto recognition with de jure to follow in a few days and pointed out targets to be seized. Gave him a list of all politicians who might be able to rally resistance. Copeland, M. (1989). The Game Player, p. 94

Thailand: Death Squads

Thailand, 1965. Death squads. Lobe, T. (1977). United States national security policy and aid to the Thailand police 67-70

Thailand, 1973-76. General Saiyut Koedphon, deputy head of CSOC and close ally of CIA, admitted that CIA was collaborating with a variety of Thai security agencies, including CSOC. Similarly, deputy director of police, Withun Yasawat, said he was receiving CIA advice and reports as late as 1974. American indoctrination of CSOC and border patrol police during 1960’s produced U.S. desired objectives. “Nawaophon” created ISOC officers who in turn has close contacts with CIA, employed covert tactics to search out “subversive elements” within the Thai population. Counterspy, Summer 1980, p. 14

Thailand, 1973-76. The Krathin Daeng (Red Guars), were groups of rightist students with police support that had over 100,000 members including government employees, soldiers, policemen, etc. Group received support and assistance from the internal security command (where CIA had a presence) and the Thai Santiban aka Special Branch. The Red Guars implicated in numerous bombings, killings, shooting and harassment of labor leaders, peasant leaders, etc. Indochina Resource Center Study, 1/1977

Thailand, 1976. A high-ranking official of Seni Pramoj government told a foreign visitor few weeks before October 6 coup, both Nawapon and the Red Gaurs were being financed by CIA. Counterspy, 12/1976, p. 52

Thailand, 1976. Over 10,000 students, professors, political figures, labor and farm leaders arrested since coup. U.S. military aid increased. New junta used CIA-trained forces to crush student demonstrators during coup. 2 right-wing terrorist squads suspected for assassinations tied directly to CIA operations. Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, v9 #3, 9/1977, p. 2

Thailand, 1976. Red Gaurs, an organization of the extreme right, staged provocations against progressive students and assassinations of activists of farmers’ federation of Thailand. The number of assassinations by right wingers soared in April 1976 during parliamentary elections. Defense minister Pramarn Adireksan, leader of right wing Thai National party, openly proclaimed the slogan “the right kill the left.” Syrokonski. (1983). International Terrorism and the CIA, p. 117-118

Thailand, 1976. Thai border police, element of police most involved in counterinsurgency and which CIA concentrated most of its efforts, carried out an assault by fire against essentially unarmed students, killing at least 100. Counterspy, 12/1976, p. 52

Turkey: Watch List

Turkey, 1971. Coup carried out by counter-guerrilla, the CIA, the Turkey military and Turkish military intelligence (MIT). CIA solely interested in protecting American interests. CIA assisted MIT in 1960-69 in drafting plans for mass arrests of opposition figures similar to the pattern followed in Thailand, Indonesia and Greece. In single night generals ordered 4000 professors, students, teachers and retired officers arrested. They tortured. Counterspy, 4/1982, p. 25

Uruguay: Watch List

Uruguay. CIA agent associated with death squads. Every CIA station maintained subversive control watch list of most important left wing activists. Gave names families and friends. Frankovich, A. (1980). On Company Business. TV transcript, 5/9/1980, pp. 51-3

Uruguay, liaison, 1964. Biographical data and photos. Uruguay has national voter registration that effective identity card system. From liaison service CIA station gets full name, date and place of birth, parents names, address, place of work, etc. and id photos. Information invaluable for surveillance operations, for subversive control watch list and for a variety of other purposes. CID-361

Uruguay: Death Squads

Uruguay, 1970-72. CIA operations officer used cover of AID public safety advisor to help set up Department of Information and Intelligence (DII). DII served as a cover for death squad. Counterspy, 5/1979, p. 10

USSR: Watch List

USSR, 1990 KGB Chairman Vladimir Kryuchkov said KGB to protect against anti-Communist forces. Said western intelligence exploiting current instability in USSR. Certain radical movements being masterminded by foreign support. Certain groups had written “blacklists” of people who must be neutralized. Washington Post, 12/12/1990, A18,20

USSR, 1990. KGB’s Kryuchkov accuses CIA and other western intelligence agencies of gathering information on workers’ movements. Washington Post, 12/23/1990, A1,22

USSR, East Germany, 1949-57. League of Free Jurists (UFJ) kept a blacklist of offenders against justice — particularly lawyers and police — and published their activities. Named were marked men, whether they came to West as refugees or as accredited representatives of East Germans. Hagan, L. (1969). The Secret War for Europe, p. 200

USSR, Iran, 1982. Vladimir Kuzichkin, a senior KGB officer in Tehran, defected to the British. CIA had a sharing agreement with MI6 and became privy to contents of two trunks full of documents. From those documents CIA prepared name lists of more than one hundred people, mostly Iranians, working as secret agents in Iran for the USSR. Casey allowed this list be handed to the Iranians — who executed them. Persico, J. (1991). Casey, p. 301

Vietnam: Watch List

Vietnam, 1965-68. U.S./Government of Vietnam create list of active NLF for assassination. After 1968 Tet offensive, names centralized to Phoenix coordinators. Collect names of tens of thousands NLF suspects. Military operations such as My Lai use Phoenix intelligence. By 1973, Phoenix generates 300,000 political prisoners in South Vietnam. Counterspy, May 1973, p. 22

Vietnam, 1965-70. Details re Vietnam. From 1965-68 U.S. and Saigon intelligence services maintained an active list of Viet Cong cadre marked for assassination. Phoenix program for 1969 called for “neutralizing” 1800 a month. About one third of Viet Cong targeted for arrest had been summarily killed. Security committees established in provincial interrogation centers to determine fate of Viet Cong suspects, outside of judicial controls. Green Berets and Navy Seals most common recruits for Phoenix program. Green Beret Detachment B-57 provided administrative cover for other intelligence units. One was Project Cherry, tasked to assassinate Cambodian officials suspected of collaborating with North Vietnamese, KGB. Another was Project Oak targeted against South Vietnamese suspected collaborators. They controlled by Special Assistant for Counterinsurgency and Special Activities, which worked with CIA outside of General Abrams’s control. Stein. J. (1992). A Murder In Wartime, pp. 360-1

Vietnam, 1967-73 CIA developed Phoenix program in 1967 to neutralize: kill, capture or make defect Viet Cong infrastructure. Viet Cong infrastructure means civilians suspected of supporting Communists. Targeted civilians not soldiers. Phoenix also called Phung Hoang by Vietnamese. Due process totally nonexistent. South Vietnamese who appeared on black lists could be tortured, detained for 2 years without trial or killed. Valentine, D. (1990). The Phoenix Program, p. 13

Vietnam, 1967-73 District Intelligence Operations Coordination Center (DIOCC). Dien Ban center a model for all of Phoenix. Bldg 10′ x 40′. Manned by two U.S. Soldiers, 2 Census Grievance, one Rural Development cadre, and one Special Branch. DIOCC intelligence clearinghouse to review, collate, and disseminate information. Immediate local reaction. Americans kept files of sources, Viet Cong infrastructure and order of battle. Reaction forces 100 police, 1 PRU unit, guides from census grievance. Marines screened civilian detainees using informants and DIOCC’s blacklist. Valentine, D. (1990). The Phoenix Program, p.126

Vietnam, 1968-69. Until late 1968, Saigon had run a program under which 500,000 ID cards were issued. Viet Cong made fake ones and many stolen. Viet Cong during Tet assigned teams to go door-to-door to collect them. Saigon reissued cards in 10/1968. By 1 May 1969, number of cards issued was 1.5 million. Adams, S. (1994). War of Numbers, p. 181

Vietnam, 1968. Phoenix program quota of 1800 neutralizations per month. Viet Cong Infrastructure System (VCIS) fed 3000 names Viet Cong infrastructure into computer at Combined Intelligence Center political order of battle section. Beginning of computerized blacklist. In Saigon DIA, FBI and CIA used computers. Until 1970 computerized blacklist a unilateral American operation. Valentine, D. (1990). The Phoenix Program, 259

Vietnam, 1968. U.S. advisors worked with Government of Vietnam counterparts to establish a list of those who were active with the NLF and who were vulnerable to assassination. Counterspy, 5/1973, p. 21

Vietnam: Death Squads

Vietnam. Counterterror teams aka Provincial Reconnaissance Units (PRU). Six or dozen men carried out carefully planned forays, capturing or killing identified communists. Blaufarb, D.S. (1977). The Counterinsurgency Era, pp. 210-11

Vietnam, 1960-93. Montagnards recruited in early 1960s by Special Forces to fight Viet Cong. Did not surrender until 1992, when they yielded weapons to UN forces in Cambodia and brought to U.S. About 600 live in North Carolina. Paul Campbell, former SF who first American to recruit them. Kay Reibold head of Vietnam highlands assistance project. Montagnards live in small apartments around Raleigh with low-paying jobs. In 10/1961 Campbell, then a SF Sergeant, sent by CIA to recruit Montagnards. They to form village security, but soon being used for long-range reconnaissance and in highly mobile strike forces that hunted Viet Cong for weeks at a time. “We killed many Vietnamese.” Article by W. Booth. Washington Post, 12/27/1993

Vietnam, 1965. CIA station helped create census grievance units. CIA funded, trained and guided counter terror teams who per Chief of Station de Silva, were “to bring danger and death to Viet Cong functionaries.” Corn, D. (1994). Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIA’s Crusades, p. 175

Vietnam, 1966-71. Phoenix operation designed to help U.S. military reach crossover point, where dead and wounded exceeded Viet Cong’s ability to field replacements. In April 1967, President Johnson announced formation of Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support (CORDS) for pacification. Robert Komer as deputy commander of MACV-CORDS. CORDS budget about $4 billion from 1968-71. CORDS the management structure for pacification programs. Personnel both military and civilian. By 1971, 3000 servicemen, advisers to ARVN, placed under CORDS. 1200 civilians by 1971. U.S. AID responsible for material aid. State and USIA also provided personnel. But CIA played the crucial role. CORDS reinstated civic action teams under name Revolutionary Development cadre. RD program formed teams of 59 South Vietnamese, divided into 3 11-man security squads and 25 civic action cadres. Teams to spend 6 months in a village to fulfill “Eleven criteria and 98 works for pacification.” 1. Annihilation of …cadre; 2. Annihilation of wicked village dignitaries; etc. System placed 40,000 two-way radios in villages. Land reform failed. (Photos of Phoenix propaganda material). Teams helped create Regional and Popular Forces (RF/PFs). Ruff-puffs, suffered high casualties. They represented half of South Vietnamese government forces, they had 55-66% of casualties. They inflicted 30% of Communist casualties. Underground paramilitary effort called Phoenix, which included a “census grievance,” stay-behind. He actually a spy. All information fed into intelligence coordination and exploitation program. Vietnamese at Komer’s request set up staff that, with CIA, was responsible for coordinating intelligence reports on Viet Cong Infrastructure. Information from census grievance, military, police reports. paramilitary units, including CIA’s Provincial Reconnaissance Units and ruff-puffs. Arrestees — those not killed when captured — taken to Provincial Interrogation Centers (PIC). Also regional prisons and a national center. All financed by CIA. Problems of coordination and jealousy. Numerical quotas created saying how many VCI to be eliminated each month. Torture used in questioning. Manning, R., (ed), (1988). War in the Shadows: the Vietnam Experience, pp. 55-65

Vietnam, 1966. In 1966 recycled counter terrorists called Provincial Reconnaissance Units (PRU) and managed by CIA officer in CORDS RDC/O Office. Valentine, D. (1990). The Phoenix Program, p. 117

Vietnam, 1968. CIA issued two handbooks in June 1968. One “the Viet Cong Key Organization From Central Level Down to Village and Hamlet Levels.” Second a manual of procedures from Saigon to DIOCCs. One report said “as DIOCCs and PIOCCs have refined data bases, gained experience, and mounted more operations against targeted individuals, the neutralization rate… over 1000 per month for last 4 months.” Gia Dinh “has more than quadrupled monthly rate of killed, captured and rallied.” Valentine, D. (1990). The Phoenix Program, p. 190

Vietnam, 1971. William E. Colby on July 19, 1971, before Senate Subcommittee testified that CIA’s Operation Phoenix had killed 21,587 Vietnamese citizens between January 1968 and May 1971. Counterspy, December 1978, p. 6
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Timeline of CIA Atrocities

By Steve Kangas

INTRODUCTION

The following timeline describes just a few of the hundreds of atrocities and crimes committed by the CIA since 1943.1

CIA operations follow the same recurring script. First, American business interests abroad are threatened by a popular or democratically elected leader. The people support their leader because he intends to conduct land reform, strengthen unions, redistribute wealth, nationalize foreign-owned industry, and regulate business to protect workers, consumers and the environment.

So, on behalf of American business, and often with their help, the CIA mobilizes the opposition. First it identifies right-wing groups within the country (usually the military), and offers them a deal: “We’ll put you in power if you maintain a favorable business climate for us.” The Agency then hires, trains and works with them to overthrow the existing government (usually a democracy). It uses every trick in the book: propaganda, stuffed ballot boxes, purchased elections, extortion, blackmail, sexual intrigue, false stories about opponents in the local media, infiltration and disruption of opposing political parties, kidnapping, beating, torture, intimidation, economic sabotage, death squads and even assassination.

These efforts culminate in a military coup, which installs a right-wing dictator. The CIA trains the dictator’s security apparatus to crack down on the traditional enemies of big business, using interrogation, torture and murder. The victims are said to be “communists,” but almost always they are just peasants, liberals, moderates, labor union leaders, political opponents and advocates of free speech and democracy. Widespread human rights abuses follow.

This scenario has been repeated so many times that the CIA actually teaches it in a special school, the notorious “School of the Americas.” (It opened in Panama but later moved to Fort Benning, Georgia.) Critics have nicknamed it the “School of the Dictators” and “School of the Assassins.” Here, the CIA trains Latin American military officers how to conduct coups, including the use of interrogation, torture and murder.
The Association for Responsible Dissent estimates that by 1987, 6 million people had died as a result of CIA covert operations.2 Former State Department official William Blum correctly calls this an “American Holocaust.” The CIA justifies these actions as part of its war against communism. But most coups do not involve a communist threat. Unlucky nations are targeted for a wide variety of reasons: not only threats to American business interests abroad, but also liberal or even moderate social reforms, political instability, the unwillingness of a leader to carry out Washington’s dictates, and declarations of neutrality in the Cold War. Indeed, nothing has infuriated CIA Directors quite like a nation’s desire to stay out of the Cold War.

The ironic thing about all this intervention is that it frequently fails to achieve American objectives. Often the newly installed dictator grows comfortable with the security apparatus the CIA has built for him. He becomes an expert at running a police state. And because the dictator knows he cannot be overthrown, he becomes independent and defiant of Washington’s will. The CIA then finds it cannot overthrow him, because the police and military are under the dictator’s control, afraid to cooperate with American spies for fear of torture and execution.
The only two options for the U.S at this point are impotence or war. Examples of this “boomerang effect” include the Shah of Iran, General Noriega and Saddam Hussein. The boomerang effect also explains why the CIA has proven highly successful at overthrowing democracies, but a wretched failure at overthrowing dictatorships.

The following timeline should confirm that the CIA as we know it should be abolished and replaced by a true information-gathering and analysis organization. The CIA cannot be reformed — it is institutionally and culturally corrupt.
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TIMELINE

1929: The culture we lost
Secretary of State Henry Stimson refuses to endorse a code-breaking operation, saying, “Gentlemen do not read each other’s mail.”

1941: COI created
In preparation for World War II, President Roosevelt creates the Office of Coordinator of Information (COI). General William “Wild Bill” Donovan heads the new intelligence service.

1942: OSS created
Roosevelt restructures COI into something more suitable for covert action, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). Donovan recruits so many of the nation’s rich and powerful that eventually people joke that “OSS” stands for “Oh, so social!” or “Oh, such snobs!”

1943: Italy
Donovan recruits the Catholic Church in Rome to be the center of Anglo-American spy operations in Fascist Italy. This would prove to be one of America’s most enduring intelligence alliances in the Cold War.

1945: OSS is abolished
The remaining American information agencies cease covert actions and return to harmless information gathering and analysis.

Operation PAPERCLIP
While other American agencies are hunting down Nazi war criminals for arrest, the U.S. intelligence community is smuggling them into America, unpunished, for their use against the Soviets. The most important of these is Reinhard Gehlen, Hitler’s master spy who had built up an intelligence network in the Soviet Union. With full U.S. blessing, he creates the “Gehlen Organization,” a band of refugee Nazi spies who reactivate their networks in Russia. These include SS intelligence officers Alfred Six and Emil Augsburg (who massacred Jews in the Holocaust), Klaus Barbie (the “Butcher of Lyon”), Otto von Bolschwing (the Holocaust mastermind who worked with Eichmann) . The Gehlen Organization supplies the U.S. with its only intelligence on the Soviet Union for the next ten years, serving as a bridge between the abolishment of the OSS and the creation of the CIA. However, much of the “intelligence” the former Nazis provide is bogus.

Gehlen inflates Soviet military capabilities at a time when Russia is still rebuilding its devastated society, in order to inflate his own importance to the Americans (who might otherwise punish him). In 1948, Gehlen almost convinces the Americans that war is imminent, and the West should make a preemptive strike. In the 50s he produces a fictitious “missile gap.” To make matters worse, the Russians have thoroughly penetrated the Gehlen Organization with double agents, undermining the very American security that Galen was supposed to protect.

1947: Greece
President Truman requests military aid to Greece to support right-wing forces fighting communist rebels. For the rest of the Cold War, Washington and the CIA will back notorious Greek leaders with deplorable human rights records.

CIA created
President Truman signs the National Security Act of 1947, creating the Central Intelligence Agency and National Security Council. The CIA is accountable to the president through the NSC -there is no democratic or congressional oversight. Its charter allows the CIA to “perform such other functions and duties as the National Security Council may from time to time direct.” This loophole opens the door to covert action and dirty tricks.

1948: Covert-action wing created
The CIA recreates a covert action wing, innocuously called the Office of Policy Coordination, led by Wall Street lawyer Frank Wisner. According to its secret charter, its responsibilities include “propaganda, economic warfare, preventive direct action, including sabotage, anti-sabotage, demolition and evacuation procedures; subversion against hostile states, including assistance to underground resistance groups, and support of indigenous anti-communist elements in threatened countries of the free world.”
Italy

The CIA corrupts democratic elections in Italy, where Italian communists threaten to win the elections. The CIA buys votes, broadcasts propaganda, threatens and beats up opposition leaders, and infiltrates and disrupts their organizations. It works — the communists are defeated.

1949: Radio Free Europe
The CIA creates its first major propaganda outlet, Radio Free Europe. Over the next several decades, its broadcasts are so blatantly false that for a time it is considered illegal to publish transcripts of them in the U.S.

Late 40’s: Operation MOCKINGBIRD
The CIA begins recruiting American news organizations and journalists to become spies and disseminators of propaganda. Frank Wisner, Allan Dulles, Richard Helms and Philip Graham head the effort. Graham is publisher of The Washington Post, which becomes a major CIA player. Eventually, the CIA’s media assets will include ABC, NBC, CBS, Time, Newsweek, Associated Press, United Press International, Reuters, Hearst Newspapers, Scripps-Howard, Copley News Service and more. By the CIA’s own admission, at least 25 organizations and 400 journalists will become CIA assets.

1953: Iran
CIA overthrows the democratically elected Mohammed Mossadegh in a military coup, after he threatened to nationalize British oil. The CIA replaces him with a dictator, the Shah of Iran, whose secret police, SAVAK, is as brutal as the Gestapo.

Operation MK-ULTRA
Inspired by North Korea’s brainwashing program, the CIA begins experiments on mind control. The most notorious part of this project involves giving LSD and other drugs to American subjects without their knowledge or against their will, causing several to commit suicide. However, the operation involves far more than this. Funded in part by the Rockefeller and Ford foundations, research includes propaganda, brainwashing, public relations, advertising, hypnosis, and other forms of suggestion.

1954: Guatemala
CIA overthrows the democratically elected Jacob Arbenz in a military coup. Arbenz has threatened to nationalize the Rockefeller-owned United Fruit Company, in which CIA Director Allen Dulles also owns stock. Arbenz is replaced with a series of right-wing dictators whose bloodthirsty policies will kill over 100,000 Guatemalans in the next 40 years.

1954-1958: North Vietnam
CIA officer Edward Lansdale spends four years trying to overthrow the communist government of North Vietnam, using all the usual dirty tricks. The CIA also attempts to legitimize a tyrannical puppet regime in South Vietnam, headed by Ngo Dinh Diem. These efforts fail to win the hearts and minds of the South Vietnamese because the Diem government is opposed to true democracy, land reform and poverty reduction measures. The CIA’s continuing failure results in escalating American intervention and finally the Vietnam War.

1956: Hungary
Radio Free Europe incites Hungary to revolt by broadcasting Khruschev’s Secret Speech, in which he denounced Stalin. It also hints that American aid will help the Hungarians fight. This aid fails to materialize as Hungarians launch a doomed armed revolt, which only invites a major Soviet invasion. The conflict kills 7,000 Soviets and 30,000 Hungarians.

1957-1973: Laos
The CIA carries out approximately one coup per year trying to nullify Laos’ democratic elections. The problem is the Pathet Lao, a leftist group with enough popular support to be a member of any coalition government. In the late 50s, the CIA even creates an “Army Clandestine” of Asian mercenaries to attack the Pathet Lao. After the CIA’s army suffers numerous defeats, the U.S. starts bombing, dropping more bombs on Laos than all the U.S. bombs dropped in World War II. A quarter of all Laotians will eventually become refugees, many living in caves.

1959: Haiti
The U.S. military helps “Papa Doc” Duvalier become dictator of Haiti. He creates his own private police force, the “Tonton Macoutes,” who terrorize the population with machetes. They will kill over 100,000 during the Duvalier family reign. The U.S. does not protest their dismal human rights record.

1961: The Bay of Pigs
The CIA sends 1,500 Cuban exiles to invade Castro’s Cuba. But “Operation Mongoose” fails, due to poor planning, security and backing. The planners had imagined that the invasion would spark a popular uprising against Castro — which never happens. A promised American air strike also never occurs. This is the CIA’s first public setback, causing President Kennedy to fire CIA Director Allen Dulles.
Dominican Republic

The CIA assassinates Rafael Trujillo, a murderous dictator Washington has supported since 1930. Trujillo’s business interests have grown so large (about 60 percent of the economy) that they have begun competing with American business interests.

Ecuador
The CIA-backed military forces the democratically elected President Jose Velasco to resign. Vice President Carlos Arosemana replaces him; the CIA fills the now vacant vice presidency with its own man.

Congo (Zaire)
The CIA assassinates the democratically elected Patrice Lumumba. However, public support for Lumumba’s politics runs so high that the CIA cannot clearly install his opponents in power. Four years of political turmoil follow.

1963: Kennedy Assassination

1963: Dominican Republic
The CIA overthrows the democratically elected Juan Bosch in a military coup. The CIA installs a repressive, right wing junta.

Ecuador
A CIA-backed military coup overthrows President Arosemana, whose independent (not socialist) policies have become unacceptable to Washington. A military junta assumes command, cancels the 1964 elections, and begins abusing human rights.

1964: Brazil
A CIA-backed military coup overthrows the democratically elected government of Joao Goulart. The junta that replaces it will, in the next two decades, become one of the most bloodthirsty in history. General Castelo Branco will create Latin America’s first death squads, or bands of secret police that hunt down “communists” for torture, interrogation and murder. Often these “communists” are no more than Branco’s political opponents. Later it is revealed that the CIA trains the death squads.

1965: Indonesia
The CIA overthrows the democratically elected Sukarno with a military coup. The CIA has been trying to eliminate Sukarno since 1957, using everything from attempted assassination to sexual intrigue, for nothing more than his declaring neutrality in the Cold War. His successor, General Suharto, will massacre between 500,000 to 1 million civilians accused of being “communist.” The CIA supplies the names of countless suspects.

Dominican Republic
A popular rebellion breaks out, promising to reinstall Juan Bosch as the country’s elected leader. The revolution is crushed when U.S. Marines land to uphold the military regime by force. The CIA directs everything behind the scenes.

Greece
With the CIA’s backing, the king removes George Papandreous as prime minister. Papandreous has failed to vigorously support U.S. interests in Greece.

Congo (Zaire)
A CIA-backed military coup installs Mobutu Sese Seko as dictator. The hated and repressive Mobutu exploits his desperately poor country for billions.

1966: The Ramparts Affair
The radical magazine Ramparts begins a series of unprecedented anti-CIA articles. Among their scoops: the CIA has paid the University of Michigan [or Michigan State University? – ed.] $25 million dollars to hire “professors” to train South Vietnamese students in covert police methods. MIT and other universities have received similar payments. Ramparts also reveal that the National Students’ Association is a CIA front. Students are sometimes recruited through blackmail and bribery, including draft deferments.

1967: Greece
A CIA-backed military coup overthrows the government two days before the elections. The favorite to win was George Papandreous, the liberal candidate. During the next six years, the “reign of the colonels” – backed by the CIA – will usher in the widespread use of torture and murder against political opponents. When a Greek ambassador objects to President Johnson about U.S. plans for Cyprus, Johnson tells him: “Fuck your parliament and your constitution.”

Operation PHOENIX
The CIA helps South Vietnamese agents identify and then murder alleged Viet Cong leaders operating in South Vietnamese villages. According to a 1971 congressional report, this operation killed about 20,000 “Viet Cong.”

1968: Operation CHAOS
The CIA has been illegally spying on American citizens since 1959, but with Operation CHAOS, President Johnson dramatically boosts the effort. CIA agents go undercover as student radicals to spy on and disrupt campus organizations protesting the Vietnam War. They are searching for Russian instigators, which they never find. CHAOS will eventually spy on 7,000 individuals and 1,000 organizations.

Bolivia
A CIA-organized military operation captures legendary guerilla Che Guevara. The CIA wants to keep him alive for interrogation, but the Bolivian government executes him to prevent worldwide calls for clemency.

1969: Uruguay
The notorious CIA torturer Dan Mitrione arrives in Uruguay, a country torn with political strife. Whereas right-wing forces previously used torture only as a last resort, Mitrione convinces them to use it as a routine, widespread practice. “The precise pain, in the precise place, in the precise amount, for the desired effect,” is his motto. The torture techniques he teaches to the death squads rival the Nazis’. He eventually becomes so feared that revolutionaries will kidnap and murder him a year later.

1970: Cambodia
The CIA overthrows Prince Sihanouk, who is highly popular among Cambodians for keeping them out of the Vietnam War. He is replaced by CIA puppet Lon Nol, who immediately throws Cambodian troops into battle. This unpopular move strengthens once minor opposition parties like the Khmer Rouge, which achieves power in 1975 and massacres millions of its own people.

1971: Bolivia
After half a decade of CIA-inspired political turmoil, a CIA-backed military coup overthrows the leftist President Juan Torres. In the next two years, dictator Hugo Banzer will have over 2,000 political opponents arrested without trial, then tortured, raped and executed.

Haiti
“Papa Doc” Duvalier dies, leaving his 19-year old son “Baby Doc” Duvalier the dictator of Haiti. His son continues his bloody reign with full knowledge of the CIA.

1972: The Case-Zablocki Act
Congress passes an act requiring congressional review of executive agreements. In theory, this should make CIA operations more accountable. In fact, it is only marginally effective.

Cambodia
Congress votes to cut off CIA funds for its secret war in Cambodia.

Watergate Break-in
President Nixon sends in a team of burglars to wiretap Democratic offices at Watergate. The team members have extensive CIA histories, including James McCord, E. Howard Hunt and five of the Cuban burglars. They work for the Committee to Reelect the President (CREEP), which does dirty work like disrupting Democratic campaigns and laundering Nixon’s illegal campaign contributions. CREEP’s activities are funded and organized by another CIA front, the Mullen Company.

1973: Chile
The CIA overthrows and assassinates Salvador Allende, Latin America’s first democratically elected socialist leader. The problems begin when Allende nationalizes American-owned firms in Chile. ITT offers the CIA $1 million for a coup (reportedly refused). The CIA replaces Allende with General Augusto Pinochet, who will torture and murder thousands of his own countrymen in a crackdown on labor leaders and the political left.

CIA begins internal investigations
William Colby, the Deputy Director for Operations, orders all CIA personnel to report any and all illegal activities they know about. This information is later reported to Congress.

Watergate Scandal
The CIA’s main collaborating newspaper in America, The Washington Post, reports Nixon’s crimes long before any other newspaper take up the subject. The two reporters, Woodward and Bernstein, make almost no mention of the CIA’s many fingerprints all over the scandal. It is later revealed that Woodward was a Naval intelligence briefer to the White House, and knows many important intelligence figures, including General Alexander Haig. His main source, “Deep Throat,” is probably one of those.

CIA Director Helms Fired
President Nixon fires CIA Director Richard Helms for failing to help cover up the Watergate scandal. Helms and Nixon have always disliked each other. The new CIA director is William Colby, who is relatively more open to CIA reform.

1974: CHAOS exposed
Pulitzer Prize winning journalist Seymour Hersh publishes a story about Operation CHAOS, the domestic surveillance and infiltration of anti-war and civil rights groups in the U.S. The story sparks national outrage.

Angleton fired
Congress holds hearings on the illegal domestic spying efforts of James Jesus Angleton, the CIA’s chief of counterintelligence. His efforts included mail-opening campaigns and secret surveillance of war protesters. The hearings result in his dismissal from the CIA.

House clears CIA in Watergate
The House of Representatives clears the CIA of any complicity in Nixon’s Watergate break-in.

The Hughes Ryan Act
Congress passes an amendment requiring the president to report non-intelligence CIA operations to the relevant congressional committees in a timely fashion.

1975: Australia
The CIA helps topple the democratically elected, left-leaning government of Prime Minister Edward Whitlam. The CIA does this by giving an ultimatum to its Governor-General, John Kerr. Kerr, a longtime CIA collaborator, exercises his constitutional right to dissolve the Whitlam government. The Governor-General is a largely ceremonial position appointed by the Queen; the Prime Minister is democratically elected. The use of this archaic and never-used law stuns the nation.

Angola
Eager to demonstrate American military resolve after its defeat in Vietnam, Henry Kissinger launches a CIA-backed war in Angola. Contrary to Kissinger’s assertions, Angola is a country of little strategic importance and not seriously threatened by communism. The CIA backs the brutal leader of UNITAS, Jonas Savimbi. This polarizes Angolan politics and drives his opponents into the arms of Cuba and the Soviet Union for survival. Congress will cut off funds in 1976, but the CIA is able to run the war off the books until 1984, when funding is legalized again. This entirely pointless war kills over 300,000 Angolans.

“The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence”
Victor Marchetti and John Marks publish this whistle-blowing history of CIA crimes and abuses. Marchetti has spent 14 years in the CIA, eventually becoming an executive assistant to the Deputy Director of Intelligence. Marks has spent five years as an intelligence official in the State Department.

“Inside the Company”
Philip Agee publishes a diary of his life inside the CIA. Agee has worked in covert operations in Latin America during the 60s, and details the crimes in which he took part.

Congress investigates CIA wrongdoing
Public outrage compels Congress to hold hearings on CIA crimes. Senator Frank Church heads the Senate investigation (“The Church Committee”), and Representative Otis Pike heads the House investigation. (Despite a 98 percent incumbency reelection rate, both Church and Pike are defeated in the next elections.) The investigations lead to a number of reforms intended to increase the CIA’s accountability to Congress, including the creation of a standing Senate committee on intelligence. However, the reforms prove ineffective, as the Iran/Contra scandal will show. It turns out the CIA can control, deal with or sidestep Congress with ease.

The Rockefeller Commission
In an attempt to reduce the damage done by the Church Committee, President Ford creates the “Rockefeller Commission” to whitewash CIA history and propose toothless reforms. The commission’s namesake, Vice President Nelson Rockefeller, is himself a major CIA figure. Five of the commission’s eight members are also members of the Council on Foreign Relations, a CIA-dominated organization.

1979: Iran
The CIA fails to predict the fall of the Shah of Iran, a longtime CIA puppet, and the rise of Muslim fundamentalists who are furious at the CIA’s backing of SAVAK, the Shah’s bloodthirsty secret police. In revenge, the Muslims take 52 Americans hostage in the U.S. embassy in Tehran.
Lebanon: CIA Trains Phalangists on how to bomb civilians

El Salvador
An idealistic group of young military officers, repulsed by the massacre of the poor, overthrows the right-wing government. However, the U.S. compels the inexperienced officers to include many of the old guard in key positions in their new government. Soon, things are back to “normal” – the military government is repressing and killing poor civilian protesters. Many of the young military and civilian reformers, finding themselves powerless, resign in disgust.

Nicaragua
Anastasios Samoza II, the CIA-backed dictator, falls. The Marxist Sandinistas take over government, and they are initially popular because of their commitment to land and anti-poverty reform. Samoza had a murderous and hated personal army called the National Guard. Remnants of the Guard will become the Contras, who fight a CIA-backed guerilla war against the Sandinista government throughout the 1980s.

1980: El Salvador
The Archbishop of San Salvador, Oscar Romero, pleads with President Carter “Christian to Christian” to stop aiding the military government slaughtering his people. Carter refuses. Shortly afterwards, right-wing leader Roberto D’Aubuisson has Romero shot through the heart while saying Mass. The country soon dissolves into civil war, with the peasants in the hills fighting against the military government. The CIA and U.S. Armed Forces supply the government with overwhelming military and intelligence superiority. CIA-trained death squads roam the countryside, committing atrocities like that of El Mazote in 1982, where they massacre between 700 and 1000 men, women and children. By 1992, some 63,000 Salvadorans will be killed.

1981: Iran/Contra Begins
The CIA begins selling arms to Iran at high prices, using the profits to arm the Contras fighting the Sandinista government in Nicaragua. President Reagan vows that the Sandinistas will be “pressured” until “they say ‘uncle.'” The CIA’s Freedom Fighter’s Manual disbursed to the Contras includes instruction on economic sabotage, propaganda, extortion, bribery, blackmail, interrogation, torture, murder and political assassination.

1983: Honduras
The CIA gives Honduran military officers the Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual – 1983, which teaches how to torture people. Honduras’ notorious “Battalion 316″ then uses these techniques, with the CIA’s full knowledge, on thousands of leftist dissidents. At least 184 are murdered.

1984: The Boland Amendment
The last of a series of Boland Amendments is passed. These amendments have reduced CIA aid to the Contras; the last one cuts it off completely. However, CIA Director William Casey is already prepared to “hand off” the operation to Colonel Oliver North, who illegally continues supplying the Contras through the CIA’s informal, secret, and self-financing network. This includes “humanitarian aid” donated by Adolph Coors and William Simon, and military aid funded by Iranian arms sales.

1986: Eugene Hasenfus
Nicaragua shoots down a C-123 transport plane carrying military supplies to the Contras. The lone survivor, Eugene Hasenfus, turns out to be a CIA employee, as are the two dead pilots. The airplane belongs to Southern Air Transport, a CIA front. The incident makes a mockery of President Reagan’s claims that the CIA is not illegally arming the Contras.

Iran/Contra Scandal
Although the details have long been known, the Iran/Contra scandal finally captures the media’s attention in 1986. Congress holds hearings, and several key figures (like Oliver North) lie under oath to protect the intelligence community. CIA Director William Casey dies of brain cancer before Congress can question him. All reforms enacted by Congress after the scandal are purely cosmetic.

Haiti
Rising popular revolt in Haiti means that “Baby Doc” Duvalier will remain “President for Life” only if he has a short one. The U.S., which hates instability in a puppet country, flies the despotic Duvalier to the South of France for a comfortable retirement. The CIA then rigs the upcoming elections in favor of another right-wing military strongman. However, violence keeps the country in political turmoil for another four years. The CIA tries to strengthen the military by creating the National Intelligence Service (SIN), which suppresses popular revolt through torture and assassination.

1989: Panama
The U.S. invades Panama to overthrow a dictator of its own making, General Manuel Noriega. Noriega has been on the CIA’s payroll since 1966, and has been transporting drugs with the CIA’s knowledge since 1972. By the late 80s, Noriega’s growing independence and intransigence have angered Washington. So out he goes.

1990: Haiti
Competing against 10 comparatively wealthy candidates, leftist priest Jean-Bertrand Aristide captures 68 percent of the vote. After only eight months in power, however, the CIA-backed military deposes him. More military dictators brutalize the country, as thousands of Haitian refugees escape the turmoil in barely seaworthy boats. As popular opinion calls for Aristide’s return, the CIA begins a disinformation campaign painting the courageous priest as mentally unstable.

1991: The Fall of the Soviet Union
The CIA fails to predict this most important event of the Cold War. This suggests that it has been so busy undermining governments that it hasn’t been doing its primary job: gathering and analyzing information. The fall of the Soviet Union also robs the CIA of its reason for existence: fighting communism. This leads some to accuse the CIA of intentionally failing to predict the downfall of the Soviet Union. Curiously, the intelligence community’s budget is not significantly reduced after the demise of communism.

1992: Economic Espionage
In the years following the end of the Cold War, the CIA is increasingly used for economic espionage. This involves stealing the technological secrets of competing foreign companies and giving them to American ones. Given the CIA’s clear preference for dirty tricks over mere information gathering, the possibility of serious criminal behavior is very great indeed.

1993: Haiti
The chaos in Haiti grows so bad that President Clinton has no choice but to remove the Haitian military dictator, Raoul Cedras, on threat of U.S. invasion. The U.S. occupiers do not arrest Haiti’s military leaders for crimes against humanity, but instead ensure their safety and rich retirements. Aristide is returned to power only after being forced to accept an agenda favorable to the country’s ruling class.

1993: World Trade Centre

1995: Oklahoma City Federal Building

2001: World Trade Centre
________________________________________
EPILOGUE
In a speech before the CIA celebrating its 50th anniversary, President Clinton said: “By necessity, the American people will never know the full story of your courage.” Clinton’s is a common defense of the CIA: namely, the American people should stop criticizing the CIA because they don’t know what it really does. This, of course, is the heart of the problem in the first place. An agency that is above criticism is also above moral behavior and reform. Its secrecy and lack of accountability allows its corruption to grow unchecked. Furthermore, Clinton’s statement is simply untrue. The history of the agency is growing painfully clear, especially with the declassification of historical CIA documents. We may not know the details of specific operations, but we do know, quite well, the general behavior of the CIA. These facts began emerging nearly two decades ago at an ever-quickening pace. Today we have a remarkably accurate and consistent picture, repeated in country after country, and verified from countless different directions.

The CIA’s response to this growing knowledge and criticism follows a typical historical pattern. (Indeed, there are remarkable parallels to the Medieval Church’s fight against the Scientific Revolution.) The first journalists and writers to reveal the CIA’s criminal behavior were harassed and censored if they were American writers, and tortured and murdered if they were foreigners. (See Philip Agee’s On the Run for an example of early harassment.)

However, over the last two decades the tide of evidence has become overwhelming, and the CIA has found that it does not have enough fingers to plug every hole in the dike. This is especially true in the age of the Internet, where information flows freely among millions of people. Since censorship is impossible, the Agency must now defend itself with apologetics. Clinton’s “Americans will never know” defense is a prime example.
Another common apologetic is that “the world is filled with unsavory characters, and we must deal with them if we are to protect American interests at all.” There are two things wrong with this. First, it ignores the fact that the CIA has regularly spurned alliances with defenders of democracy, free speech and human rights, preferring the company of military dictators and tyrants. The CIA had moral options available to them, but did not take them.

Second, this argument raises several questions. The first is: Which American interests? The CIA has courted right-wing dictators because they allow wealthy Americans to exploit the country’s cheap labor and resources. But poor and middle-class Americans pay the price whenever they fight the wars that stem from CIA actions, from Vietnam to the Gulf War to Panama. The second question is: Why should American interests come at the expense of other peoples’ human rights?

The CIA should be abolished, its leadership dismissed and its relevant members tried for crimes against humanity. Our intelligence community should be rebuilt from the ground up, with the goal of collecting and analyzing information.

As for covert action, there are two moral options. The first one is to eliminate covert action completely. But this gives jitters to people worried about the Adolph Hitler’s of the world. So a second option is that we can place covert action under extensive and true democratic oversight. For example, a bipartisan Congressional Committee of 40 members could review and veto all aspects of CIA operations upon a majority or super-majority vote. Which of these two options is best may be the subject of debate, but one thing is clear: like dictatorship, like monarchy, unaccountable covert operations should die like the dinosaurs they are.
________________________________________
1. All history concerning CIA intervention in foreign countries is summarized from William Blum’s encyclopedic work, Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions since World War II, Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1995. Sources for domestic CIA operations come from Jonathan Vankin and John Whalen’s The 60 Greatest Conspiracies of All Time, Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel Press, 1997.
2. Coleman McCarthy, “The Consequences of Covert Tactics”, Washington Post, December 13, 1987.
________________________________________
Copyright 1996 Steve Kangas
Text can be quoted freely for non-commercial purposes only, with proper attribution.
Published on Serendipity 2002-11-30.
More of the late Steve Kangas’s writings at
Liberalism Resurgent: A Response to the Right.

See also:
• Activist Found Shot to Death Outside Billionaire’s Office
• Who killed Web Warrior Steve Kangas?
• Kangas Links

________________________________________
A copy of the entire Serendipity website is available on CD-ROM. Details here.
The CIA
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Italy Charges CIA Agents

By John Crewdson, Tom Hundley and Liz Sly, Tribune correspondents Tom Hundley reported from Milan and Liz Sly from Rome
Published in the Chicago Tribune, June 25, 2005

In rare act by ally, officials seek arrests of U.S. agents in kidnapping of imam who allegedly was tortured in Egypt

WASHINGTON — Four days before Osama Nasr Mostafa Hassan vanished into the thin Italian air, three middle-aged American visitors checked into the $300-a-night Milan Hilton on Via Luigi Galvani.

The Americans, a man and two women, might have been tourists or fashion buyers, the hotel’s usual foreign clientele. The U.S. passports and visa cards, the driver’s licenses, even the frequent-flyer IDs they presented to the desk clerk were genuine enough.

Only the names on those documents were bogus. So was their shared corporate address, a non-existent company with a post office box in Washington.

According to Italian authorities, there was a reason for all the cloak-and-dagger business: The three Americans really were spies, the last-arriving members of a covert action team assigned to snatch Hassan off the street and ship him back to Egypt, where he would later say he was brutally tortured.

On Thursday an Italian judge issued arrest warrants charging two of the three Americans and 11 of their colleagues with illegally detaining Hassan, a fundamentalist Muslim preacher better known in Milan’s Islamic community as Abu Omar.

The move was no less extraordinary for coming from a country whose prime minister, Silvio Berlusconi, is one of the few European leaders who support the U.S.-led intervention in Iraq and which has contributed 3,000 troops to that effort.

Current and retired CIA officers, none of whom agreed to be quoted by name, said they could not remember one of their own having been charged abroad with a crime other than espionage, and certainly not in a country friendly to the U.S.

Although the CIA refuses to talk about the Milan abduction or even acknowledge that it occurred, documents obtained by the Tribune clearly link the intelligence agency with the identities, addresses and cell phones used by several of the American operatives.

The existence of the CIA’s supersecret abduction squads has come to light since the events of Sept. 11, 2001, although the agency’s practice of snatching suspected criminals abroad goes back at least to the Reagan administration.

Congressional Democrats have called for a public inquiry into the practice of covert abductions, which the CIA euphemistically terms “extraordinary rendition,” and have introduced legislation that would ban what they term the “outsourcing of torture” to other countries such as Egypt.

News reports and human-rights organizations have identified at least 33 suspected terrorists who have been “rendered” by the U.S. since Sept. 11. Unnamed intelligence officials have been quoted as putting the number over the past two decades at closer to 100.

Egyptian Prime Minister Ahmed Nazief, whose country has received more renditions than any other, recently told a group of Tribune reporters and editors that he was aware of “60 or 70″ cases in which U.S. agents have seized Egyptian nationals abroad and flown them to Egypt.

In most of the known renditions, suspects have been arrested by local authorities in such countries as Indonesia, Sweden and Macedonia before being handed over to the CIA.

Even when such arrests are made purely at the behest of the U.S. — “there are arrests, and then there are arrests,” a senior American intelligence official said with a laugh — they technically absolve the CIA of responsibility for unlawful seizure.

In the case of Abu Omar, the absence of any prior arrest has left the CIA open to kidnapping charges. Indeed, the police in Milan, who had been tapping Abu Omar’s telephone, were as surprised as his wife and friends by his sudden disappearance.

When they learned he was gone, the puzzled police opened a missing-person investigation.

The Key Sleuth

Armando Spataro, the Milan prosecutor who requested the warrants, said the names of those accused, which have not been made public, were taken from the passports and other documents used at hotels and car rental agencies in Milan.

None of the databases accessible by the Tribune contains any indication that individuals with those names have ever had a spouse, a residence, an employer, a driver’s license, a telephone, a mortgage, a credit history or a family — in short, none of the things typically associated with real people.

Spataro, who gained his reputation by prosecuting the Mafia in Italy, said in a telephone interview Friday that he believed most of the names were probably not the true identities of the accused kidnappers.

Spataro’s investigators, however, have pictures of the suspects taken from photocopies of their passports made by hotels. He intends to ask the U.S. government to help him identify the suspects, none of whom is believed to still be in Italy.

“We have a convention for mutual cooperation with the U.S. in criminal matters,” Spataro said in a recent interview. “I will ask them to identify some people, and I will ask them to interrogate [the suspects], because I don’t believe they will surrender them to Italy voluntarily.”
Italy is part of an agreement under which any member of the European Union can arrest and extradite someone wanted by another member country, and Spataro expressed some optimism the suspects would be found if they are in Europe and are still using the same names.

“They will become fugitives in Italy but also in all the other countries” of the European Union, he said.

On Monday, Italy will issue the arrest warrants through the European police agency, Europol, and the international police agency, Interpol.
While Italy also has extradition treaties with the U.S., Spataro did not directly address the question of whether he planned to ask the U.S.
Justice Department to act on any of the suspects who might be in the U.S.

In at least one instance, the U.S. has extradited an American citizen to a European country — Germany — to stand trial in a criminal case.
Spataro dismissed suggestions that Abu Omar’s abductors, who like many CIA officers working abroad may have been posing as American diplomats, might enjoy diplomatic immunity from criminal prosecution.

“If we have evidence of their involvement in kidnapping, there is no immunity for that,” he said.
Posing as Diplomat

A senior official with the prosecutor’s office, speaking on condition of anonymity, confirmed that one of those accused was a CIA officer posing as a U.S. diplomat in Milan at the time of Abu Omar’s abduction.

The official said that the diplomat was well known as the CIA’s representative in Milan and that the dozen other suspects charged had been in cell phone contact with him during their stay in Milan.

The diplomat is believed to have left Italy, and his whereabouts are unknown. Several U.S. telephone numbers listed in his name were unanswered or disconnected on Friday.

In all, Spataro asked the court for warrants on 19 people. But the Italian judge, Chiara Nobili, refused his requests for warrants on three men and three women on the basis that they had been brought to Milan only to help monitor Abu Omar’s movements before the abduction and might not have known the reason for the surveillance.

A prosecution official said Spataro plans to appeal the judge’s decision and hopes to obtain the six arrest warrants next week.

The Italian court also issued a warrant for the arrest of Abu Omar. The 103-page document consists mostly of transcripts of conversations picked up by police wiretaps and microphones before his abduction. Prosecution sources said the warrant was sought principally in hope of forcing Egypt to return Abu Omar to Milan.

The Egyptian government has ignored two formal diplomatic requests, sent last year through the Italian Justice Ministry, asking for confirmation that Abu Omar is in Egypt and an explanation of how and why he entered Egypt.

Spataro also is seeking permission to interview Abu Omar’s mother, his two brothers, his sister and a prominent lawyer, all of whom are believed to be living in the Egyptian port city of Alexandria.

“We asked the Egyptian authorities for their cooperation, but they haven’t responded,” Spataro said.

The Egyptian Embassy in Washington has declined to respond to repeated requests from the Tribune for similar information.
Costly Web of Intrigue

Judging from the information gleaned by Spataro’s investigators, the abduction of Abu Omar on the afternoon of Feb. 17, 2003, was an elaborate and expensive operation.

The 18 people brought into the city for the operation spent at least $150,000 at the Marriott, Hilton, Sheraton and Westin hotels, according to documents obtained by the Tribune.

According to their U.S. passports, several of the first CIA operatives to arrive, and who apparently were used to track Abu Omar’s comings and goings, were of late middle age, suggesting they might have been posing as retired Americans on holiday.

Nearly all gave post office boxes as their home or business addresses.

Those names and addresses are linked to what appears to be a CIA network of dozens of post office boxes in the Washington area with hundreds of names attached.

Hotel records show that several of the 13 suspects visited Milan in early January and then left, suggesting that the abduction operation was put on hold at the beginning of 2003.

The first to return, on Feb. 1, 2003, was a 33-year-old woman with a Hispanic-sounding name whose passport said she was a native of Florida. She was joined two days later by six other alleged team members and five more the day after that.

They included a 64-year-old man whose passport said he had been born in Alaska, a 57-year-old woman whose passport said she had been born in Florida and a 50-year-old man whose U.S. passport said he had been born in the former Soviet republic of Moldova.

The Moldovan-born man listed his U.S. employer’s address as a post office box in Arlington, Va., across the Potomac River from Washington.

His name is linked, via a half-dozen post office boxes in the Washington and Boston areas, to a Massachusetts company, Premier Executive Transport Services, that until last year was the nominal owner of a Gulfstream executive jet spotted at the scene of post-Sept. 11 “renditions” in Pakistan and Sweden.

Before checking into the Sheraton’s Room 814, the man also left the hotel’s front desk a Virginia telephone number. When the Tribune first began making inquiries, the number was answered “Coughlin Enterprises” by an operator who described the company as a “management consulting” firm.
According to the operator, the company’s owner, a man she identified as Robert Coughlin, was unavailable.

“He’s in and out a lot, but he always checks his messages,” she said.

The next day, a different operator who answered the same number identified the company’s owner as “Rosemarie Coughlin,” who she said was similarly unavailable.

Neither Coughlin ever returned a reporter’s telephone calls. The operators have since been replaced by an anonymous answering machine.
Most of the aircraft known to have been used in CIA renditions are executive jets, such as Gulfstreams or Learjets, that are either owned by the agency through front companies like Premier Executive Transport or chartered for upward of $5,000 an hour.

Several planes shown by FAA records to have visited Afghanistan or the CIA’s training facility at Camp Peary, Va. — destinations not normally accessible by private corporate aircraft — are registered to companies with names like Rapid Air Transport, the Path Corp. and Braxton Management Services, with mailing addresses in Nevada, Montana and Delaware.

The plane that carried Abu Omar to Cairo was not a CIA aircraft but a chartered Gulfstream owned by Phillip H. Morse, a multimillionaire Florida businessman and a co-owner of the world champion Boston Red Sox.

Morse confirmed to the Boston Globe in March that he charters his plane to the CIA and other clients when it is not being used for Red Sox business. But Morse said he knew nothing about the uses to which the intelligence agency had put the plane.

The Globe quoted Morse saying he was “stunned” by an earlier Tribune report that the Gulfstream, with the usual Red Sox decals missing from its fuselage and tail, had been present at the Cairo airport at the time Abu Omar arrived in the early hours of Feb. 18, 2003.
Moving on their Prey

Abu Omar’s abduction began on a busy street in broad daylight, as he was walking to a mosque that has been identified as a center of radical fundamentalist activity.

The startled imam was hustled inside a parked white van that, according to a passerby, drove away at high speed, followed closely by another vehicle.

The baffled police, who had been keeping tabs on Abu Omar, had no idea where he had gone, although it seemed unlikely that he would have run away from his wife and friends in a country where he had been living lawfully.

Abu Omar was granted political asylum by the Italian government after arriving in Milan in 1997, apparently on the grounds that his membership in a radical Egyptian Islamic organization, Jamaat al Islamiya, which he had joined as a university student, left him at risk for political persecution if he returned home.

Inspector Bruno Megale, the chief of Milan’s police anti-terrorism unit that learned a great deal about the structure and functioning of radical Islamic cells in Italy from the wiretap on Abu Omar’s phone, began the investigation into his disappearance by collecting the numbers of all the cell phones in use in the area where he disappeared.

Megale and his investigators looked first for phones that had moved across the Italian cellular network in the direction of Aviano, the site of a large joint U.S.-Italian air base some 175 miles from Milan, where Abu Omar’s abductors had put him aboard a Learjet Model LJ-35 that was using the call sign “SPAR 92.”

SPAR is short for Special Air Resources, a military airlift service that uses Learjets and other executive-style jets to transport senior military officers and civilian VIPs.

Abu Omar was a VIP of sorts, and at 6:20 p.m. on Feb. 17, SPAR 92, with Abu Omar aboard, departed from Aviano and headed to an air base at Ramstein, Germany, where Abu Omar was moved to the Red Sox Gulfstream.

At 8:31 P.M. the Gulfstream took off and turned southeast, headed for Cairo, where it arrived in the early hours of Feb. 18.
Records showed that the phones singled out had also been in use at a number of Milan hotels in the weeks preceding the abduction. When the hotel registers were scoured, police learned that a few of the operatives, including the Moldovan-born man, had given the hotels their cell phone numbers

In all, 17 cell phones were identified as belonging to members of the abduction team. Records showed numerous calls among the team members and several others that proved interesting: to a U.S. Air Force colonel at Aviano, to the American Consulate in Milan and to four numbers in northern Virginia, where the CIA headquarters is.

One of those numbers is listed to a man in Ashburn, Va., who has the same name as one of the names used by the CIA operatives in Milan and who apparently registered at a Milan hotel using his real name. A message left on the man’s answering machine was not returned Friday.

After 14 Months, a Call

Fourteen months after Abu Omar disappeared without a trace, the telephone rang in his Milan apartment. His wife, whom Abu Omar married after moving to Italy, still had no clue what had become of her husband.

Now she was astounded to hear him explaining that he had just been released from an Egyptian prison, reportedly after a ruling by an Egyptian judge that he was not a terrorist threat.

The police in Milan had continued tapping his telephone in his absence. While their tape recorders turned, Abu Omar told his wife he had been held incommunicado in Egypt since being grabbed off the street in Milan.

During that call and in a later conversation with another Egyptian imam in Milan, Mohammed Reda, whose cell phone was also tapped, Abu Omar said he had been tortured by the Egyptian security service.

According to Reda’s account of that conversation, published in the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera, Abu Omar “underwent terrible tortures” after arriving in Cairo.

“He told me that the initial seven months were very tough,” Reda said. “They hit him day and night. They made him listen to sounds at full blast, which was the reason why his hearing was impaired.

“They closed him in a sort of sauna and then in a refrigerator cell, causing him dire pain, as if his bones were shattered. They hung him head downward, applying electrodes onto his most sensitive parts, including his genitals. The electric shocks made him become incontinent. He could not walk.”

The Milan police concluded that Abu Omar’s account hadn’t been invented for their benefit, because it evidently hadn’t occurred to him that his telephone was still being tapped. Among his requests to his wife was that she erase the hard drive on his computer before it fell into the hands of the police.

Shortly after his telephone conversations with his wife and Mohammed Reda, Abu Omar was rearrested by Egyptian authorities. He has not been heard from since.

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Copyright © 2005 Chicago Tribune
This article originally appeared on the Tribune’s website here.
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• John Hooper, UK Guardian, 2005-07-02: CIA methods exposed by kidnap inquiry
Agents’ use of commercial mobiles gives Italian police detailed picture of how Muslim cleric was abducted.
• Human Rights Watch Report To The Canadian Commission Of Inquiry Into the Actions Of Canadian Officials In Relation To Maher Arar
• Reuters, 2005-12-23: Italy issues arrest warrant for CIA team
Reuters has removed (censored) the content of this page, but it has been preserved here.
• Robert Stevens: Council of Europe report reveals European collusion with US torture flights
• Richard Phillips: Another exposure of Australian government involvement in citizen’s torture
• Salman Rushdie: Ugly phrase conceals an uglier truth
BEYOND any shadow of a doubt, the ugliest phrase to enter the English language last year was “extraordinary rendition”. To those of us who love words, this phrase’s brutalisation of meaning is an infallible signal of its intent to deceive.
• Mohamad Bazzi: The CIA’s Italian Job
[Hassan Osama Nasr said:] “If I accepted, he [the Egyptianinterior minister] said, I would be returned to Italy right away before anyone noticed my disappearance.” Nasr refused, and the two men left. That’s when the torture began. He testified that he was beaten with wooden sticks, given electric shocks and hung upside down. He was sometimes shackled to an iron rack, nicknamed “the Bride” and zapped with stun guns.
At other times, Nasr testified, he was tied to a wet mattress on the floor. … Another interrogator would then flip a switch, sending jolts of electricity into the mattress coils. For most of his four years in prison, Nasr was kept in solitary confinement. He testified that his cell had no toilet and no lights, and “roaches and rats walked across my body.”
• Wanted Poster: Robert Lady of CIA (Also here.)
• WANTED: Robert Seldon Lady (Bob Lady), an ex-CIA agent), for overseeing the abduction-for-torture (extraordinary rendition, as the CIA calls it) of Muslim cleric Osama Mustafa Hassan Nasr, aka Abu Omar. Nasr was abducted by the CIA on February 17, 2003, in Milan, Italy, and transported via the USAF Aviano base to Egypt.
• Prosecutors in Milan have charged Bob Lady, the Milan station chief of the CIA; Jeffrey Castelli, the Rome station chief and ranking CIA man in Italy; Joseph Romano, a US Air Force colonel who was in charge of security at Aviano; 24 other CIA operatives; and 8 Italian security men, including Luciano Pironi.
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A copy of (almost) the entire Serendipity website is available on CD-ROM. Details here.
Links to Further Documents Concerning the CIA

The CIA
Serendipity Home Page

The CIA
America’s Premier International (and Domestic) Terrorist Organization
(But with strong competition from Pentagon Special Ops)

Italian version (1998)

• The CIA’s Drug-Trafficking Activities
• The CIA, Cocaine Smuggling at Mena and the Train Deaths
• Mind Control and the CIA’s Use of LSD
• Ralph McGehee and CIABASE
• The CIA and Torture
• More about the CIA
• Secret CIA Documents on Mossad
• Links to Further Documents Concerning the CIA

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Question by Congressman William Alexander, Jr. So you worked for Mr. [John] Gotti as well as for the CIA?
Answer by Richard Brenneke. Actually the CIA told me to do that on his behalf.
Q. So the CIA was in, would you say, partnership or association with Mr. Gotti?
A. Yes, sir. I would say a partnership.
Q. And can you describe the nature of that partnership?
A. Sure. The organized crime members had a need for two things: they needed drugs brought into the country on a reliable, safe basis; they needed people taken out of the country or people brought into the country without alerting customs or INS to the fact that they were being brought into the country; they also needed their money taken offshore so that it would not be subject to United States tax where they might have to declare its source. And so we performed these kinds of functions for them.
Q. Mr. Brenneke, are you saying that the CIA was in the business of bringing drugs into the United States?
A. Yes, sir. That’s exactly what I’m saying.
— New York Mob at Mena
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CIA operations follow the same recurring script. First, American business interests abroad are threatened by a popular or democratically elected leader. The people support their leader because he intends to conduct land reform, strengthen unions, redistribute wealth, nationalize foreign-owned industry, and regulate business to protect workers, consumers and the environment.

So, on behalf of American business, and often with their help, the CIA mobilizes the opposition. First it identifies right-wing groups within the country (usually the military), and offers them a deal: “We’ll put you in power if you maintain a favorable business climate for us.” The Agency then hires, trains and works with them to overthrow the existing government (usually a democracy). It uses every trick in the book: propaganda, stuffed ballot boxes, purchased elections, extortion, blackmail, sexual intrigue, false stories about opponents in the local media, infiltration and disruption of opposing political parties, kidnapping, beating, torture, intimidation, economic sabotage, death squads and even assassination.

These efforts culminate in a military coup, which installs a right-wing dictator. The CIA trains the dictator’s security apparatus to crack down on the traditional enemies of big business, using interrogation, torture and murder. The victims are said to be “communists” [or these days “terrorists”] but almost always they are just peasants, liberals, moderates, labor union leaders, political opponents and advocates of free speech and democracy. Widespread human rights abuses follow.

— Steve Kangas: Timeline of CIA Atrocities
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Alongside and underneath these visible structures is a veritable menagerie of secret planning cabals and “operational units” that try to put the contending strategies of different power centers of capital into effect. This is, broadly speaking, the principal charge of the CIA, the biggest snake in the pit. The “Agency” is precisely that; it is the active force that puts the plans and schemes of the most powerful Wall Street, armaments and oil interests into operation. Within the CIA the lines between the state and private, corporate power are totally blurred, in fact have melded into one.

— Max Kollskeg: 9/11 In Context: Plans and Counterplans
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The CIA’s Drug-Trafficking Activities

The CIA’s operational directorate, in other words that’s their covert operations, para-military, dirty tricks — call it whatever you want — has for at least 40 years that we can document paid for a significant amount of its work through the sales of heroin and cocaine. — Guerrilla News Network’s Interview with Christopher Simpson

ClA-supported Mujahedeen rebels [who in 2001 were part of the “Northern Alliance” fighting the Taleban which became the core of the new Afghani government following the U.S. attack on Afghanistan in late 2001] engaged heavily in drug trafficking while fighting against the Soviet-supported government and its plans to reform the very backward Afghan society. The Agency’s principal client was Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, one of the leading druglords and a leading heroin refiner. CIA-supplied trucks and mules, which had carried arms into Afghanistan, were used to transport opium to laboratories along the Afghan/Pakistan border. The output provided up to one half of the heroin used annually in the United States and three-quarters of that used in Western Europe. U.S. officials admitted in 1990 that they had failed to investigate or take action against the drug operation because of a desire not to offend their Pakistani and Afghan allies. — The Real Drug Lords

The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, as is by now well-known by anyone who has cared to be informed, has long been deeply involved in the international trafficking of the addictive drugs heroin and (since the early 1980s, if not earlier) cocaine, the enormous profits from which have financed, and continue to finance, both U.S. covert operations and the U.S. military (via payments to Pentagon contractors).

The main reason why this is not more widely known is that the main players in the U.S. media have always worked to protect the Agency and to keep the American public in the dark as to the nature of its activities (as documented in great detail in Carl Bernstein’s article in the October 20, 1977, issue of Rolling Stone: “The CIA and the Media: How America’s Most Powerful News Media Worked Hand in Glove with the Central Intelligence Agency and Why the Church Committee Covered It Up”). The information you will find on this web page, and the web pages it links to, is not considered by the editors of the New York Times and other mainstream U.S. “news” media as proper for the public to know.
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By the end of the 1980’s it was calculated that the illegal use of drugs in the United States now netted its controllers over $110 billion a year. — Modern Times, p.782.

Covert government by defense contractor means corrupt wars of conquest, government by dope dealer. When the world’s traditional inebriative herbs become illegal commodities, they become worth as much as precious metal, precious metal that can be farmed. … Illegal drugs, solely because of the artificial value given them by Prohibition, have become the basis of military power anywhere they can be grown and delivered in quantity. … To this day American defense contractors are the biggest drug-money launderers in the world.— Drug War: Covert Money, Power and Policy, p.318.

Most of this page concerns the CIA’s involvement in drug trafficking, but we should first note that this is only one part of its activities, the means by which it finances its operations in addition to the billions of dollars it gets from U.S. taxpayers courtesy of the U.S. federal government (the exact amount, of course, being kept secret from U.S. taxpayers). In addition to being the principal source of U.S. propaganda for domestic and foreign consumption the CIA is the covert operations division of the U.S. Government and as such has engaged in many terrorist activities. In fact the CIA is a terrorist organization, funded by the profits of international drug smuggling.
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Kennedy’s intended change in Vietnam policy — his plan to unilaterally withdraw from the imbroglio — infuriated not only the CIA but elements in the Pentagon and their allies in the military-industrial-complex. By this time, of course, the Lansky Syndicate had already set-up international heroin running from Southeast Asia through the CIA-linked Corsican Mafia in the Mediterranean. The joint Lansky-CIA operations in the international drug racket were a lucrative venture that thrived as a consequence of deep U.S. involvement in Southeast Asia as a cover for drug smuggling activities. — Michael Collins Piper, The Final Judgment, quoted at Vietnam, the CIA’s Illegal Drug Trafficking, and JFK’s Assassination

From the days of the Vietnam War the CIA has been at the forefront of heroin trafficking. When the Reagan administration needed to finance its war against Nicaragua the CIA applied what it had learned in Vietnam to importing vast quantities of cocaine (sometimes 20 tons at a time) from Latin America, selling it to the Mafia, and using the profits to finance its “covert activities”, activities so contrary to America’s professed values that they must be concealed at all costs from the American people.

I ask Dennis [Dayle, former head of DEA’s Centac], “If the following statement were made to American citizens would you agree with it? ‘Enormously powerful criminal organizations are controlling many countries, and to a certain degree controlling the world, and controlling our lives. Your own [U.S.] government to some extent supports them, and is concealing this fact from you.'”

“I know that to be true. That is not conjecture. Experience, over the better part of my adult life, tells me that that is so. And there is a great deal of persuasive evidence. But I also believe that what you just said can be dealt with very effectively. You can contain drug trafficking by the immobilization of the few cartels who truly control it. There must be conscious decisions, based on fact rather than propaganda, at the grass-roots level of the global community, that the global drug-trafficking situation should not be tolerated.” — The Underground Empire, p.1161.

Because (some) drugs are illegal, there are huge profits to be made in supplying them to those who want or need them. Legalization would eliminate the enormous profits now being made and would provide a social context in which education concerning the use of drugs was not only respectable but also a social obligation. In the meantime the “War on Drugs” works only to keep (some) drugs illegal and to maintain the profits of the traffickers.

Much information about the CIA is already available (see Audiotapes, Videos, CD-ROMs, Books and Articles), but the mainstream media has deliberately ignored this information, and as others have said, if it’s not on TV then for many Americans it isn’t real. But this is real, and it affects everyone.

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• William Blum: The Real Drug Lords: A brief history of CIA involvement in the drug trade
• Bo Gritz Letter to George Bush
• The CIA Paid
• The CIA and Cocaine: Some Quotes
• How the U.S. Drug War Plays in the European Media
• CIA “Smoking Files” at COPA ’97

• Celebrating a Golden Anniversary: 50 Years of Drug Dealing by the CIA
• National ‘Clear Yourself’ Day Announced!
• The Duplicity of the War on Drugs
The intent of this essay is to demonstrate that the War on Drugs was America’s first great psy-war campaign perpetrated against its own people and that such abuse of power is likely to happen again.
• Noam Chomsky: The War on (Certain) Drugs
• Xymphora: George W. Bush, Cocaine and Community Service
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The CIA, Cocaine Smuggling at Mena and the Train Deaths
• Sally Denton and Roger Morris: THE CRIMES OF MENA

Of this Michael Rivero has written:

This is the article which had been scheduled to appear in the Washington Post. After having cleared the legal department for all possible questions of inaccurate statements, the article was scheduled for publication when, just as the presses were set to roll, Washington Post Managing Editor Bob Kaiser (Like George Bush, a member of the infamous Skull & Bones Fraternity) killed the article without explanation. According to the sidebar which appeared with the Penthouse Magazine version of this story, Bob Kaiser refused to even meet with Sally Denton and Roger Morris, hiding in his office while his secretary made excuses.

Mena, Arkansas, was (and perhaps still is) one of the major centers for the smuggling of cocaine and heroin into America. This article is about the late Barry Seal, a CIA agent who is said to have smuggled between $3 billion and $5 billion worth of drugs into the U.S. It is based in part upon an extensive archive of Seal’s personal records. Denton and Morris write:

If the Seal documents show anything, an attentive reader might conclude, it is that ominous implication of some official sanction. Over the entire episode looms the unmistakable shape of government collaboration in vast drug trafficking and gunrunning, and in a decade-long cover-up of criminality.

• The “Train Deaths”

August 23, 1987, in a rural community just south of Little Rock, police officers murdered two teenage boys [Kevin Ives and Don Henry] because they witnessed a police-protected drug drop. The drop was part of a drug smuggling operation based at a small airport in Mena, Arkansas. … There were CIA operatives who took advantage of the protection their positions gave them, and they participated in saturating our country with drugs. Kevin and Don were victims of this atrocious crime, and it is up to us to expose those responsible.

This site includes:
o CIA Operatives and Drug Smuggling
o Mena and
o information on the video Obstruction of Justice

• Jean K. Duffey:
o Mena, Drugs and the Train Deaths Case
o Bipartisanship Outrage
o WE FINALLY WON ONE!
• Mara Leveritt:

o A review of the book The Boys on the Tracks
o Asa and Me
What does Asa Hutchinson (George W. Bush’s nominee as head of the DEA) know about Arkansas’s biggest drug smuggler? And when did he know it?
o Mara Leveritt’s web site

“… the site is a significant collection of government documents about the murders of Kevin and Don, Berry Seal’s drug smuggling, and the federal cover-up of the Mena guns-for-drugs operation.”
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• Alexander Cockburn: Chapters in the Recent History of Arkansas
• The Mena Scandal
A chronological summary and archive of the Washington Weekly, with links to many supporting documents.
• More on the CIA-Drugs Connection
• Ace R. Hayes: New York Mob at Mena

America is losing its mind. The two-party system has been utterly homogenized by corrupt money. The mob and Mossad have cut a deal with Wall Street and the CIA to run the world as a global plantation for the benefit of the global plutocracy. Only impoverished presses like the PFP, some talk radio and the Internet are yet outside the hegemonic power of transnational corporate fascism. However, when the Imperial pigs succeed in driving 80 percent of the world into the new serfdom, they will probably wish they had not let their greed glands run wild. When the middle class discovers that they are part of the impoverished and imprisoned rather than the privileged, they will lead the “underclass” in a revolution against the plutocracy and its gun thugs. Failure to deal with the Mena cesspool will continue to erode the credibility of a terminally corrupt governing class.

• Ace R. Hayes: CIA Drug-Money Laundering
… knowledge of drug-running through Mena, Arkansas has been known to the FBI and the head of the Arkansas State Police since January 1988 …

The Arkansas Attorney General and Special Prosecutor Walsh have known of this since June 1991 … How in the hell have the corporate media and government law enforcement succeeded in playing dumb for the past decade?

• The Oral Deposition of Richard J. Brenneke (multipage; a single page version is here)
Joint Investigation by the Arkansas State Attorney General’s Office and the U.S. Congress; very revealing testimony.

• Daniel Hopsicker: The Secret Heartbeat of America: A New Look at the Mena Story

What in my opinion has been involved is a CIA or rogue CIA operation, conducted by the CIA or CIA operatives. To smuggle drugs into the United States from South America, using Barry Seal’s drug smuggling operation in Mena. — Linda Ives, mother of Kevin Ives, one of the boys murdered in the Train Deaths.

• The Mena Scandal
• Two messages from Daniel Hopsicker:
o J’accuse
o The Dixie Mafia
• Bill Clinton’s Skeleton Closet has links to many articles concerning Mena, Barry Seal, etc.
• Dick Russell: Spook Wars in Cyberspace — Is the FBI Railroading Charles

Asked if then-Governor Bill Clinton was aware of the Mena operation, Hayes responded, “No, but his associates were involved.” He elaborated that some of the money was laundered through two powerful Arkansas companies with ties to Clinton.
• The Crimes of Mena: GRAY MONEY
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Mind Control and the CIA’s Use of LSD

The CIA’s interest in drugs goes beyond heroin and cocaine. They have always been very interested in LSD and other drugs for use in interrogation and brainwashing.

• G. J. Krupey: The High and the Mighty: JFK, MPM, LSD and the CIA

Could it have been possible that some faction of CIA agents, their typical cold war super-patriot minds blown by acid, indeed flooded the country with LSD, not as part of some plot to forestall change or stifle rebellion, but to encourage it, especially in the aftermath of Kennedy’s assassination by their dark counterparts within the agency?

This shows part of the front page of The Washington Post, 1975-06-11. The report is the Rockefeller Commission investigation into the CIA’s domestic activities, in which it was revealed that a U.S. Army scientist had died a week after having been given LSD. This is the “Suicide Revealed”. The “suicide” was actually a murder. For further details see The Frank Olson Murder.

• THE OLSON FILE: A secret that could destroy the CIA

Gordon Thomas has his own idea of what it [the vital clue to the murder of CIA researcher Dr Frank Olson in 1953] was. “The CIA was using German SS prisoners and Norwegian Quislings [collaborators] taken from jails and detention centres as guinea pigs to test Cameron’s theories about mind control. The Agency preferred to conduct such clinical trials outside the United States because sometimes they were terminal — the human guinea pig ended up dead. … I believe that he [Olson] wanted out.” …

The CIA has always maintained as a matter of historical record that it has never murdered an American citizen on American soil. If … this turns out to be a lie, it could well be the beginning of the end of the Agency.

For more on these topics see The CIA, MKULTRA and Timothy Leary and Project Monarch.
• The Sleep Room’s Missing Memories

How mental patients in Montreal were subjected to CIA-sponsored brainwashing, including the use of LSD and PCP.
• In fact a book has been written on this subject — Father, Son and CIA, by Harvey Weinstein. Here is Chapter 9 from that book, Supply and Demand, concerning the origins of the CIA and its interest in brainwashing techniques.
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Was Sirhan Sirhan hypnotically programmed by CIA operatives to fire a gun at Robert Kennedy on the night he was assassinated? Sirhan’s role in the assassination was not to be the actual assassin but rather to be a patsy.

Mr. Teeter [Sirhan’s lawyer] claims his client attended a hypnosis demonstration in Pasadena a month before the Kennedy assassination and may have been recruited by unnamed CIA members who he claims were experimenting with hypnosis at the time. — SIRHAN DEMANDS RETRIAL AS VICTIM OF CIA

MIND CONTROL

Another crazy conspiracy theory? (A ‘conspiracy theory’ is any hypothesis or explanation of a crime which is inconsistent with the official story.) Not if you are aware of the evidence that Sirhan never got close enough to Kennedy to fire the fatal shot, and that there is physical evidence that there must have been more than one shooter.

[The] CIA was, by 1968, extremely experienced in various mind-control scenarios that involved drugs, hypnosis and a combination of the two. One of the CIA’s initial forays into this area came through a project code-named ARTICHOKE. One ARTICHOKE document presents the question: “Can an individual … be made to perform an act of attempted assassination involuntarily under the influence of ARTICHOKE?” This program later evolved into the MKULTRA program, an umbrella designation for hundreds of experiments that involved drugs, hypnosis and biological and chemical warfare.

— Lisa Pease, The other Kennedy conspiracy

But why would the CIA want to kill Robert Kennedy? The answer is supplied by one JMWeleski in a comment on Lisa Pease’s article:

As president, RFK could have [and presumably would have] waged an absolute jihad (both behind-the-scenes and public) against his brother’s assassins. It would have been war. And if RFK came out on top, you can almost count on the fact that numerous high-ranking, very public figures would have been implicated, convicted of treason, and sentenced to death. The conspirators (cough, CIA, cough) couldn’t let that happen. And what did they care? By that time they had already become experts at assassinating political leaders and subverting democracy. RFK was just another feather in their cap.

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Ralph McGehee and CIABASE

Ralph McGehee was a CIA agent for 25 years, active mainly in South-East Asia, and received a career achievement medal upon retirement. Initially a gung-ho anti-communist crusader, McGehee’s experiences in Vietnam, where he witnessed American bombing and napalming of villages, and of the men, women and children who lived in them, led him to examine closely what the CIA was really all about. He concluded that:

The CIA is not now nor has it ever been a central intelligence agency. It is the covert action arm of the President’s foreign policy advisers. In that capacity it overthrows or supports foreign governments while reporting “intelligence” justifying those activities. It shapes its intelligence, even in such critical areas as Soviet nuclear weapons capability, to support presidential policy. Disinformation is a large part of its covert action responsibility, and the American people are the primary target of its lies.

After a long legal battle with the CIA censors Ralph McGehee published in 1983 his account of the CIA in his book Deadly Deceits (from which the paragraph above is quoted). A synopsis of this book is at Ralph McGehee, The CIA and Deadly Deceits (specifically here).

As part of his efforts to demonstrate that nothing in his book contravened the secrecy agreement that he signed when he joined the CIA McGehee set up his CIABASE

… a computer data base on the Central Intelligence Agency that provides a vital, easy-to-use historical resource for policy makers, academicians, journalists, and students.

The CIA has officially acknowledged that McGehee’s CIABASE activities were legal and constituted no threat to “national security” (click on the image at right). Yet he has recently been harassed both by the CIA and by the FBI, involving bodily injury, and his CIABASE website was shut down.

Here is a statement from Ralph McGehee (given to Wade Frazier and copied from his website):

I moved to Florida in July 2000. Immediately the harassment I experienced in Herndon transferred here. A major difference is that the FBI here openly advises I am a threat to National Security — because, I assume, I tell unclassified truths to the American people.

In 1990 the CIA officially advised me in writing that I may use any information in the public domain — making the FBI’s actions against me false if not illegal as I have never and will never expose secret persons or information.

Harassment here has grown to such a degree that I fear staged incidents to arrest me for something — anything.

I base my actions on what is in the best interests of the United States. This may be difficult to believe given my negative commentary, but I participated in and watched CIA operations in Vietnam and other countries nearly destroy the US/us.

The CIA said I was an analyst with few peers and awarded me its Career Intelligence Medal. I use this ability and those experiences to inform about the CIA’s many opportunities and deficiencies.

Anyone wishing to know more may find details via a Google search under my name.
— Ralph McGehee

Here are reports by Ralph McGehee copied from his CIABASE website as at 2001-11-14 CE:
• The CIA Past, Present and Future, Part I
• The CIA Past, Present and Future, Part II
• CIABASE on the Crisis of Democracy
• Congress Attacks the CIA
• Ignorant, Arrogant and Incompetent
See also Ralph McGehee’s:
• CIA and Operation Phoenix in Vietnam — Information about the CIA’s assassination program in Vietnam.
• CIA Support of Death Squads
William E. Colby on July 19, 1971, before Senate Subcommittee testified that CIA’s Operation Phoenix had killed 21,587 Vietnamese citizens between January 1968 and May 1971.
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The CIA and Torture
In 2005 it began to become widely known (to the public) that the CIA routinely practices torture (or rather, outsources this to Syria, Egypt and other countries) and routinely abducts people and flies them around the world to be interrogated in torture centers. Here are some articles on this site relating to this:

• CIA Support of Death Squads
• Timeline of CIA Atrocities
• Italy Charges CIA Agents
• Torture: It’s the new American way
• Torture (with quite a few recent links here)
• CIA Rendition Flights, including the Summary of Amnesty International’s UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Below the radar: Secret flights to torture and ‘disappearance’
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More about the CIA

• Mike Lehman: The 1954 CIA Coup in Guatemala
Information warfare, the manipulation of public opinion, in particular US public opinion, is the final determinant of the success of [a CIA] operation. In this sense, it can be said that the US public is one of the main targets of the CIA in any covert action. This level of organizational hubris, combined with the cloak of secrecy, render the CIA as a threat to the continuation of our democratic system.

• Walter Pincus: CIA Had Hit List of 58 Guatemalans
In 1953, the CIA included plans for ‘K’ groups, or assassin teams, to work with sabotage groups, and rebels began training assassins. CIA headquarters in Washington sent 20 silencers for .22-caliber rifle to the rebel killers training in Honduras, said a Jan. 11, 1954, cable. In the spring of 1954, CIA officers made official requests to the State Department to implement assassinations. … Three weeks before President Arbenz resigned, a CIA field officer met with officials in Washington to submit the political assassination plan in person.

• FBI Probed Alleged CIA Plot to Kill Saddam
• Italy Charges CIA Agents
•Rosa Brooks: Torture: It’s the new American way

•Transcript of 9/11 in Context: The Strategy of Tension Gone Global, Guns and Butter, January 24, 2007
So he [L. Fletcher Prouty] got to understand what the C.I.A. was doing, and the interpenetration of the C.I.A. and the Pentagon. What he saw over time was that the C.I.A. was infiltrating the Pentagon. He developed this analysis that the C.I.A. is much bigger than the C.I.A. that’s visible, and that there are C.I.A. agents in virtually every government department, as well as in many other institutions in American society. And the people who run this secret, very large C.I.A. he calls the Secret Team. He connects them to Wall Street; he says they’re mostly connected to Wall Street and they’re instructing their operatives to do the bidding of Wall Street, but all surreptitiously, that they’ve infiltrated departments and that the heads of the departments don’t even know that they’re actually C.I.A. with this task.
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• The Central Intelligence Agency — the lair of the beast itself.
The CIA’s web site has been through several versions. Here’s an early version (with links to their site removed). At that time (1996-09-19) their website was broken into by some Swedish hackers, who replaced the CIA’s home page by this (much more interesting) version:

Welcome to the Central Stupidity Agency

The CIA then cleaned up their act, but the next version had this on their home page:

You are entering an Official United States Government System, which may be used only for authorized purposes. Unauthorized modification of any information stored on this system may result in criminal prosecution. The Government may monitor and audit the usage of this system, and all persons are hereby notified that use of this system constitutes consent to such monitoring and auditing.

Sounds like the CIA alright. We could hardly expect otherwise from a bunch of control freaks. They’ve now moved this notice to a lower-level page.
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• Rodney Stich: Defrauding America
• A letter from Rodney Stich
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• Domestic Surveillance: The History of Operation CHAOS

An article by Verne Lyon, former CIA undercover operative. “For over fifteen years the CIA … conducted a massive illegal domestic covert operation called Operation CHAOS … [during which] the CIA spied on thousands of U.S. citizens.” This article concludes:

Given the power granted to the office of the presidency and the unaccountability of the intelligence agencies, widespread illegal domestic operations are certain. We as a people should remember history and not repeat it. It is therefore essential that the CIA be reorganized and stripped of its covert operations capability. Effective congressional oversight is also an important condition for ending the misuse of the intelligence apparatus that has plagued every U.S. administration since the formation of the CIA. A great deal is at risk our personal freedoms as well as the viability of this society. The CIA must be put in its place. Should we demand or allow anything less, we will remain vulnerable to these abuses and face the risk of decaying into a lawless state destined to self-destruction.
• Campus Surveillance

A sidebar to the preceding article.

• The Secret Wars of the CIA
Excerpts from a talk by John Stockwell, who served as a CIA case officer in Africa and in Vietnam. He was commander of the CIA’s secret war in Angola in 1975 and 1976.

• Producing the Proper Crisis
Philip Agee on the connections between Bush’s military adventures in the Gulf and Truman’s military adventures in Korea.

• The CIA and the Gulf War A talk by John Stockwell.
But the key to understanding this system is that these ARE NOT U.S. corporations. Not anymore! They are multinational corporations, on a welfare dole from the U.S. taxpayers, producing MX missiles which are put in holes in the ground, which can never be used, and producing Tomahawk missiles and everything that we’re pouring into the desert at a million dollars a shot … [The] course that we are on will definitely lead, eventually, to rendering this planet UNINHABITABLE. Now, it won’t happen in five years or ten years. But eventually, unless we profoundly change what we are doing, there will BE NO MORE warm-blooded life on this planet. Sooner or later, we MUST change or we will destroy ourselves.
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• The CIA in Australia, Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5
A transcript of a five-part radio program series on the CIA and its involvement in Australia and in New Zealand, including an account of its overthrow of the Whitlam Government (originally at http://www.cia.com.au/vic/cia.html [but now disappeared]).
• See also a transcript of the 1982-05-23 Australian 60 Minutes program: A Spy’s Story
Just two days before a Federal Parliamentary debate was due on the American satellite bases, a CIA telex arrived in Canberra. It warned that Prime Minister Whitlam was in danger of blowing the lid off Pine Gap. The next day, the Whitlam Labor Government was dismissed [by the Australian Governor-General].
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• The #59 issue of CovertAction Quarterly has a very interesting article by New Zealand writer Nicky Hagar about the Global Surveillance Network, which is the means whereby the spooks of the U.S. and the U.K. (and to a lesser extent those of Canada, Australia and New Zealand, making up the five countries in the UKUSA espionage ‘alliance’) are able to eavesdrop on every international telex, fax and email message (including yours). This is the ECHELON system.

Plenty of other governments besides the U.S. and the U.K. are interested in spying on their own citizens. Germany (though it does not receive information from the ECHELON system) is one such country.
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• Excerpts from The Underground Empire — Where Crime and Governments Embrace, by James Mills (Doubleday, New York, 1986; Sidgwick & Jackson, London, 1987). These were uploaded to the CIADRUGS mailing list in June 1997.

The CIA may argue that it dirties itself in the narcotics industry because that is where it finds the leaders of nations it seeks to comprehend and influence. Over a period of five years I became convinced of the participation in the drug traffic of high officials in at least thirty-three countries: Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia … France, Haiti, Honduras, Italy … and the United States. — from Excerpt 5

o Excerpt 1
Information [about Centac] continued to pour in. Phone calls came from as far away as Hong Kong, classified documents appeared in envelopes with no return addresses, a forty-pound cardboard carton arrived packed with CIA documents stamped SECRET.

o Excerpt 2
No more than a handful of men in the world understood completely what Centac was and what it did. Though Centac was controlled from a position within the Drug Enforcement Administration, its operations and power reached far beyond that agency.

o Excerpt 3
But leaders of source country governments, seeking foreign exchange or personal enrichment, frequently participated in the [drug] traffic themselves, and the American State Department and CIA, seeking to retain military, diplomatic, and intelligence allies, were loath to blow the whistle.

o Excerpt 4
Another secret cable, four pages in length, from the CIA’s Bahamas station reported government corruption with astonishing precision, detailing not only the names of a half-dozen bribe-taking officials but the exact amount of the bribes ($50,000 to over $100,000) and specifically what favors they bought. At least one DEA official expressed shock, not so much at the revelations as at the thoroughness with which they were known. It was almost as if the CIA had been involved in some way.

o Excerpt 5
When Noriega later visited Washington, the CIA tried to prevent his meeting with DEA Administrator Francis Mullen. … Evidently the CIA did not want Panama’s boss establishing direct relations with the leadership of DEA. “Why not?” I asked an agent familiar with Noriega’s visit. “Because the CIA takes the position that ‘We have the total picture. We see things you don’t see. You don’t know it all.'” And surely that is true. Only the CIA knows it all.

o Excerpt 6
You do not have to be a ClA-hater to trek around the world viewing one major narcotics group after another and grow amazed at the frequency with which you encounter the still-fresh footprints of American intelligence agents. You might never be absolutely certain the footprints shouldn’t be there, but you will always be uncomfortable that so many solemn men in pinstriped vests are lying about them. The tracks are everywhere.
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• Clandestine Drug Study Commission Act
But the CIA defied the DEA and they shipped this pure cocaine into the United States in 1990, and they have since acknowledged that they defied the laws of this government and allowed the drugs to be sold on the streets of the United States of America. I challenge anybody to tell me that it did not happen, because it is documented.

This document concerns an amendment to legislation pending before the U.S. House of Representatives. This amendment, put forward by Ms. Maxine Waters, Democrat from California, would establish a commission to be known as the “Clandestine Drug Study Commission” to investigate the involvement of the CIA in the smuggling of drugs (in particular, cocaine, in ton quantities) into the U.S. and the subsequent distribution of those drugs. The amendment was opposed by representatives Goss from Florida and Dixon from California. The discussion ends with the withdrawal of the amendment by Ms. Waters, perhaps because the votes were not there to pass it. The discussion is interesting, revealing on one hand the courage of Ms. Waters and her desire to bring the facts of this matter to the attention of the American people and, on the other hand, the willingness of representatives Goss and Dixon (despite their apparent agreement with the aims of Ms. Waters) to block this inquiry and to participate in the cover-up-as-usual.

• Senator Barbara Boxer Calls for CIA Probe
• Of Conspiracies and Conspiracy Theories
Some would have us believe that only paranoids believe in conspiracies. Is this what certain people want us to believe? And why?
• Dope Story: Doubts Rise on Report Reagan Cited in Tying Sandinistas to Cocaine
Jonathan Kwitney’s Wall Street Journal article on the attempt of the Reagan administration to accuse the Sandinistas of smuggling cocaine into the U.S.
• Tim Weiner: House Panel Says CIA Lacks Expertise to Carry Out Duties
• Michael Ravnitzky: 1996 CIA FOIA Case Log Highlights
Information available from the CIA under the Freedom of Information Act.
• Norman Solomon: Media Focus on CIA’s Cocaine Links is Long Overdue
• Cocaine Politics – Drugs, Armies and the CIA in Central America A book by an academic and a journalist which exposes the lies and hypocrisy behind the Drug War.
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The Bay of Pigs — it seems that the CIA sabotaged its own operation in order to try to force President Kennedy into ordering a full-scale invasion of Cuba. For details see Michael D. Morrissey’s The Bay of Pigs Revisited.
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Newsgroup and Mailing List
There was a Usenet newsgroup concerned with the CIA, alt.politics.org.cia. Here are some postings from this newsgroup.
There was a mailing list concerned with the drug-smuggling activities of the CIA: the CIADRUGS mailing list. See some messages to this list.
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Audiotapes, Videos, CD-ROMs, Books and Articles
A CIA Reading List
Links to Further Documents Concerning the CIA
________________________________________
A copy of the Serendipity website is available on CD-ROM. Details here.
Prohibition: The So-called War on Drugs

Top of page
Serendipity Home Page

Posted in 4th Media, China, China-U.S. Relations, CIA Terrorism, Faces of Fascism, Fascism in America, Neoliberalism as Neoimperialism, New World Order, Nuremberg Precedents, Operation GLADIO, present and future, Psychopaths and Sociopaths in Politics, Psychopaths in Management, Social Systems Engineering Campaigns, U.S. IMPERIAL DECLINE, U.S. Terrorism, US and Candian Holocausts, Zionism as Racism and Fascism | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 4 Comments

CRISES OF CAPITALISM AND ITS NEOLIBERAL AND NEOCLASSICAL THEORY

capitalismrevised

These core imperatives of capitalism form the core "logic" of the System driving it. But the imperative for lowering COSTS to PRODUCE Surplus Value compromises the [also] MASS INCOMES needed to BUY and REALIZE the potential profit. Thus production outstrips  consumption; and GREED and SELFISHNESS show up in the workplace not only in the places of conspicuous debt-fueled consumption

These core imperatives of capitalism form the core “logic” of the System driving it. But the imperative for lowering COSTS to PRODUCE Surplus Value compromises the [also] MASS INCOMES needed to buy and REALIZE the embodied potential profit. Thus MASS production outstrips MASS consumption; and GREED and SELFISHNESS show up in the workplace not only in the places of conspicuous debt-fueled consumption

Imperial Expansion Spiral Fed by Core Imperatives and Expansionary "Logic" of Capitalism

Imperial Expansion Spiral Fed by Core Imperatives and Expansionary “Logic” of Capitalism

Contractionary and Decline-Decay Spiral of Imperialism driven by Core Imperatives and "Logic" of Capitalism in Late-Phase Stages

Contractionary and Decline-Decay Spiral of Imperialism driven by Core Imperatives and “Logic” of Capitalism in Late-Phase Stages

Slide1

Presentation at Tsinghua Aug 2012

The Theoretical System and Predictions of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: A Compendium of Assumptions, Postulates and Predictions
By James M. Craven/Omahkohkiaaiipooyii

Presentation to the International Symposium on the Development and Innovation of Marxist Economics Center for Political Economy at Tsinghua University (CPET) and Editorial Department of Economic Research Journal at the Chinese Academy of Social Science (CASS) August 26-27, 2012

“If socialism doesn’t occupy the battlefront, capitalism surely will.” Chairman Mao Zedong

ABSTRACT

This paper, and presentation based upon it, explores the theoretical system of Marx and Engels as an integrated and largely coherent system of theory and praxis from which Marx made a compendium of definite and testable predictions about the logic, dynamics and trajectories of capitalism; it is important to be clear as to what Marx and Engels really wrote and argued. These predictions, one of the tests of theory and its application, are identified and sourced. Also presented in this paper and presentation are: a) some of the essential differences between Marxist versus Neoclassical or “mainstream” economics; b) some recurring and failed attempts to rescue Neoclassical economics from its own contradictions and failures in prediction and applications via policy; c) some suggestions on future approaches, modeling and projects in pedagogy and research in political economy based on Marxism and applied to the concrete conditions and realities of China. KEYWORDS: Marxist Economics, Neoclassical or Mainstream Economics, Compendium of Predictions, Pedagogy, Current Global Crises.

Theoretical System of Marx and Engels, completed and proofed.(3) pdf

Slide1

Neoclassical Economics and Neoliberalism as Neo-Imperialism (2)slide show

Sunday, February 27, 2005
The Evolving Concept of Social Capital, Markets, Market-Based Processes and Socialist Construction

Paper delivered Sept 1-2, 2004 at the International Symposium on the Reform of Property Rights and Enterprise Development in Transitional Countries at Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

The Evolving Concept of Social Capital, Markets, Market-Based Processes and Socialist Construction

By James M. Craven (Blackfoot Name: Omahkohkiaaiipooyii)
Professor, Economics; Chairman, Business Division, Clark College, Vancouver, WA.

“Every nation in the world has its own history and its own strengths and weaknesses. Since earliest times excellent things and rotten things have mingled together and accumulated over long periods. To sort them out and distinguish the essence from the dregs is a difficult task…Of course this does not mean that we do not need to learn from foreign countries. We must learn many things from foreign countries and master them…We learn foreign things because we want to study and develop Chinese things…We must not be like the Empress Dowager Tz’u-hsi who blindly rejected all foreign things. Blindly rejecting foreign things is like blindly worshipping them. Both are incorrect and harmful…In learning from foreign countries we must oppose both conservatism and dogmatism…To study foreign things does not mean importing everything, lock, stock and barrel…We must give our attention to the critical acceptance of foreign things, and especially to the introduction of things from the socialist world and from the progressive people of the capitalist world…”

(Chairman Mao Zedong, “Talk to Music Workers”, pp. 85-88, in Chairman Mao Talks to the People: Talks and Letters 1956-1971, Stuart Schram ed., Pantheon Books, N.Y. 1974)

Evolving Concept of Social Capital Markets and Socialism pdf

IndigenousModelDevel100%

Indigenous Approaches to Economic Development: Lecture Given at Yunnan University, Kunming, China, July 25, 2009

Indigenous Approaches to Economic Development and Sustainability
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Lecture/Paper Delivered to the Faculty of Anthropology and Ethnology, Yunnan University, Kunming, China, July 25, 2009
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By James M. Craven/Omahkohkiaaiipooyii
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Professor of Economics and Geography, Clark College, Vancouver, WA. USA
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Member, Blackfoot Nation

Indigenous Approaches to Economic Development and Sustainability

Many of the core principles and approaches of Indigenous science are as much or beyond what passes for Eurocentric "Mainstream Science" and parallels in many ways the basic principles of Marxist epistemology.

Many of the core principles and approaches of Indigenous science are as much or beyond what passes for Eurocentric “Mainstream Science” and parallels in many ways the basic principles of Marxist epistemology.

Indigenous Epistemology and Science: Some Parallels and Contrasts with Neoclassical Theory(NT), Chaos Theory(CT) and Dialectical-Materialism(DHM)

Indigenous Epistemology and Science: Some Parallels and Contrasts with Neoclassical Theory (NT), Chaos Theory (CT) and Dialectical-Historical Materialism (DHM)

Presented at the 16th Congress of the IUAES, Kunming, China July 26-31

By James Craven/Omahkohkiaaiipooyii

“If the construction of the future and its completion for all time is not our task, all the more certain is what we must accomplish in the present; I mean, the ruthless criticism of everything that exists—the criticism being ruthless in the sense that it neither fears its own results nor fears conflict with the powers that be.”

(Karl Marx, from Letter to Arnold Ruge, 1843)

Indigenous Epistemology and Science

Neoclassical theory treats capitalism and markiets as morphophostatic systems (self-generating/stabilizing/sequilibrating/renewing/reproducing/expanding) whereas human history and the present shows them as morphogenetic systems subject to both + and - feeback loops and thus dynamic instability

Neoclassical theory treats capitalism and markiets as morphophostatic systems (self-generating/stabilizing/sequilibrating/renewing/reproducing/expanding) whereas human history and the present shows them as morphogenetic systems subject to both + and – feeback loops and thus dynamic instability

The Survival and Sustainability of the Blackfoot Nation and Culture

By James Craven/Blackfoot Name: Omahkohkiaaiipooyii

Professor of Economics and Geography, Clark College, Vancouver Washington

Presented at the 16th Congress of the IUAES, Kunming, China July 26-31

The Past [is] Alive in the Present [and] Shaping the Future

“Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past.” (George Orwell).

When we speak of the survival and sustainability of Blackfoot “Culture”, we are speaking of more than the survival and sustainability of the Blackfoot Nation and people who are the primary creators, definers, carriers, learners, transmitters and expanded reproducers of that nation and culture. We are also speaking about the survival and sustainability of the potential energy and influences—even on other cultures—embodied in and transmitted by that culture. And since all culture is dynamic and never static, we are also speaking of the survival and sustainability of all that it takes for Blackfoot culture to grow, adapt to new challenges and new conditions, and, to continually challenge itself and its own traditions and sacred practices and assumptions, some of which are functional and worth keeping, and some dysfunctional and not worth keeping. That means that the survival and sustainability of what is left of the Blackfoot nation and culture, as with other Indigenous nations, nationalities and cultures also on the brink of total extinction, means dealing not only with conditions, practices, forces and interests nominally “endogenous” or internal to the Blackfoot nation and culture that may threaten it, but also it means dealing with those forces and interests, historical and present-day, that are nominally “exogenous” or external to the Blackfoot nation and culture, that have threatened, and still threaten to this day, its survival and sustainability.[1]

As with any individual, so it is with any nation, that history is never really past and dead; it lives within, constrains and shapes, the present and thus also the future. This does not mean that individuals or whole nations cannot transcend the constraints of history, but they ignore them, or engage in historical revisionism, at their own peril. To understand and deal with the past, and the extent to which it is embodied in and thus constraining, the present and future, it is imperative that an honest examination and accounting, with no equivocation, and without fear or favor to anyone, of that past—and present shaped by that past—be done. Otherwise it is like someone going to see a physician or lawyer for help but not being honest and forthright about what practices in the past led them in the present to be in crisis and thus to need and seek help.
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The Survival and Sustainability of the Blackfoot Nation and Culture

Notice for my graduate course on Critiques of Neoclassical Economics

Notice for my graduate course on Critiques of Neoclassical Economics

5th Forum of the World Association for Political Economy
THE CRISIS OF CAPITALISM AND ITS SOLUTION: SOCIALISM OF THE 21ST CENTURY

MAY 29-30, 2010 SUZHOU, CHINA

CRITIQUES OF NEOCLASSICAL ECONOMICS: AN EXAMINATION OF SOME OF THE CRITIQUES OF STEVE KEEN

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(ENGLISH VERSION)

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(CHINESE VERSION)

Posted in 4th Media, Academia and Academics, China, China-U.S. Relations, Economic Development, Logic of Capitalism and Imperialism, MEMEONOMICS: Economics and EconomistS;: Capitalism and its Theories, NED and other Fronts of Imperialism, Neoclassical Economics and Neoliberalism as Neo-Imperialism, New World Order, Political Economy, Science and Method, U.S. IMPERIAL DECLINE | Tagged , | Leave a comment

I LEARNED ABOUT FLYING [AND MASS WORK] FROM THAT…

I Learned About Flying [and Mass Work] From That…
Reprinted in 4th Media By Jim Craven Omahkohkiaayiipooyii

flying from that 2 books

flying from that

Flying Magazine has a regular column called “I Learned About Flying From That”. Each article deals with a flight situation (hanger stories) from which lessons were learned and what those lessons were. In my own case, as a former commercial pilot and as pilot over 40 years, I am here and able to write this partly because of what I learned in some of those articles I read; lessons that helped to get me out of some tight and potentially fatal situations.

Well the same applies in struggle, There are lessons to be learned that may help reduce costs, avoid mistakes and even losses of lives. Practical tips and lessons, principles, sources, data, heads-ups, pithy quotes, legal principles and tactics–weapons for effective struggle–that increase scope, depth and effectiveness of outreach and debate and thus overall resistance to that which literally threatens the survival of this planet and all life forms.

In my classes I have many veterans as well as active-duty military. And I have had many students, Vietnam, Afghanistan, Iraq, Gulf I and II wars, that I could spot the infamous and not mythical “1000-yard-stare” they manifested in so many ways. The first moments of all my classes all students get “the treatment” so that they are all fully informed as to what to expect in terms of diversity of thought allowed and encouraged, all issues relevant to the course subjects are wide open, that I am most assuradely not for everyone, so they can make an informed choice to stay or leave.

I do this by posing a question: “If someone hands you say a textbook, with no title or author on it, how would you go about figuring out the ideological biases and rhetorical (persuasion) intentions of the author without reading any of the MAIN content of the book? “. Most answer going to the preface, to recommendations of other authors with known biases, and others argue that is still part of the main content of the book you have to wait to discover.

Then I get to the index. What is the purpose of an index? It is to give a quick reference to pages where different concepts, names, terms etc are to be found? Yes. But an index is even more revealing in other ways. An index also reveals what is NOT in the main content of the book and that is quite revealing of the paradigm and likely rhetorical intent of the author and publishers by what is missing or absent or addressed in shallow ways if at all.

So I ask: “Please give me page references for the following concepts” and I have a long list: Commodification, Imperialism, Racism, Sexism, Homophobia, Colonialism, Karl Marx, Monopoly Capitalism, Unconscionability, Primitive Accumulation of Capital, Feudalism, Slavery, Communalism, Social Structures of Accumulation, Social Darwinism, Eugenics Movement, Skull and Bones, Power, Enron, Council on Foreign Relations, Genocide, Fascism, Indigenous Peoples…

I typically ask: “Does anyone disagree with the proposition that all of these things mentioned, or at least the ones that you already know something about, have something to do with economics and economics has something to do with them? No one disagrees–not publicly at least.

Then I lay it out that some may well have for them, as they define it, a better experience somewhere else. If anyone does not like hearing, or hearing about, ideas, opinions, paradigms, data etc that are different from, and perhaps even challenge, their own sacreds, then my class may not be for them. All ideas are welcome but all “thought experiments” will be, like any experiments, tested by attempts to refute (nullify) them with counter evidence, counter reasoning, counter sources and counter anecdotes etc. I tell them if you hear something you disagree with, then don’t just sit there in the passive-aggressive-pissed-off position simmering, because you just heard something you didn’t like or agree with but perhaps you lack the courage and/or preparation and/or dedication to your own particular sacreds to take it on. If you are worried about your grade suffering because of your expressed opinions, now you are making an assumption about my character and integrity, that I would even even contemplate reprisals for opinions not like mine, and then this is definitely not the place for you. This is all also spelled out in my syllabus so that no one can claim they were not fully warned that my class is not Capitalist Triumphalism 101 or America Uber Alles 101 or Homo Oeconomicus 101 as is commonly the case in “mainstream economics”.

I give them one of my favorite quotations from Karl Marx from a letter to Arnold Ruge in 1843:

“If the construction of the future, and completion for all time is not our task, all the more certain is what we must accomplish in the present: I mean, the ruthless criticism of everything that exists; the criticism being ruthless in the sense that it does not fear its own results and never fears conflict with the powers-that-be.”

Now imagine after all that one of my students was an active duty (working with a Reserve unit) Sergeant Major in the U.S. Marine Corps whose medals showed heavy duty combat and sacrifice. A very quiet man, very studious, made few comments but took diligent notes. Now what, in some people’s mind, what would the common stereotype be: A Jarhead? A Redneck? full of macho swagger and Southern “White Trash” grateful for the “home” the USMC gave him?; Not much “formal education”? All wrong on so many levels, about Marines in general I might add, except for the mere fact of his being from the South and White.

Well this Sergeant Major approached me after the class had been going for about 8 weeks. It was an Intro to Economics 101 at night. For me I love teaching the basic courses where people are getting their first taste of economics. He said to me: “Could I ask you a big favor?” So I said “Well if I can, and it does not violate my principles.” He laughed. He said “I am on active duty and work as an advisor with a Marine Reserve Unit across the river and we have to put on, as a requirement, some kind of cross-cultural sensitivity training for a certain amount of hours per year. Could you do two hours on Native American ways of thinking and customs and perhaps something about famous Native Americans in the USMC?”

I said “Well there is no such thing as “Native American” whatever from the perspective of many Indians. We are different Nations with different languages, etc But yet there are some common denominators.” I also noted, with a smile: “If your purpose is for me to give you information on how best to get potential recruits from Indigenous peoples, then… ” He laughed and said no. “We just want you to expand our knowledge and horizons.” I then said to him out of genuine concern for him as a human being, student and member of the military: “You have been in this class eight weeks, are you sure you want me speaking to your unit with your Commanding Officer present? This might do for your career what the movies “JAWS I, II and III” did for ocean bathing.” I told him I would have to discuss the proposition that genocide was committed and is being committed against Indigenous Peoples and why some conditions on the Reserves drive Indians into the military; and he said whatever you want to say..

Well of I went to give my talk to this Marine Corps unit with a bunch of officers, enlisted and NCOs and a Lt. Colonel present. The first hour I talked about “holistic thinking” versus linear thinking and how what may appear to be a strong point in linear thinking terms, turns out to be a major weak point when viewed “holistically” and strategically. I talked about famous Indigenous Marines like Ira Hamilton Hayes, a Pima Indian who was one of those who raised the flag at Iwo Jima and wound up after the war back on the Rez were he died in a ditch from alcoholism and hypothermia. I noted that like so many Vets, he had been used up and thrown away and that the death certificate should have read as cause of death: ”Genocide”.

Ira_Hayes_WW2_Flag

Now in the Marine Corps, there is one icon no one will dare try to trash: Major General Smedley Darlington Butler, three times nominated, twice a winner of the Medal of Honor. Every Marine learns in boot camp about the “Marine’s Marine” General Butler.

smedley-butler1

Actually they learn only some aspects of the life of General Butler. Actually General Butler was nominated for the Medal of Honor three times, but once, in 1905, it had to be rescinded because then officers could not earn it until 1914. The Marines did not know this. Then I got into the “Warrior Code” that recruiters often allude to with potential Indian recruits, which is like “Semper Fidelis” (Always Faithful”) and asked: “But that begs the question: “Faithful to what?” And they all answered first “Traditions of the Corps” and then,”The Constitution”. I asked “How about the Commander in Chief?” They answered “only if he gives ‘lawful orders’; our allegiance is to The Constitution and the Laws, the chain of command and all LAWFUL orders of our superiors; but not to any person as a person.” I knew I just hit a goldmine.

I also did ask “Since unlawful orders can be given, and should not be obeyed, even in an essentially lawful and defensive (according to international law) war, that begs the question: can ‘lawful orders’ ever be given, and should they ever be followed in an unlawful (according to international law) war?” That one went by the wayside with the notion that they are not in a position to determine if a war is lawful or unlawful.

I then went into the 1934 plot to overthrow FDR. This involved a conspiracy to overthrow FDR and the Government of the U.S. and replace him with General Butler as a sort of figurehead to mobilize veterans as shock troops and to set up and run a fascist regime over America. They wanted General Butler because he was charismatic and beloved by rank-and-file troops whereas the alternative, Douglas MacArthur, was hated because of his arrogance and slaughter (against orders of Herbert Hoover the Commander in Chief)of “Bonus March” WWI veterans in 1932.

I showed how General Butler pretended to join the conspiracy and sucked the plotters in only to blow the whistle on them publicly and stop the fascist plot from being completed. I also passed along the History Channel’s program on it Called “The Plot to Overthrow FDR to show that this is covered even in the “mainstream”.

Of course none of them had ever heard about this. I noted that you can see General Butler was a greater hero than most people know because when it came time for “Semper Fi” he stood up against a plot to overthrow the government and set up full-blown fascism in America. I also pointed out that among the plotters, many tied-in with the “America First” isolationists and the German-American [Nazi] Bund, all were let go and not prosecuted because if this were known, it would have ripped the nation wide open. Among the plotters were: General Douglas MacArthur, the Duponts, JP Morgan Co, Committee for a Sound Dollar, American Liberty League (with Bushes in it), Skull and Bones, John Davis, Al Smith, etc.

“My interest is, my one hobby is, maintaining a democracy. If you get these 500,000 soldiers advocating anything smelling of Fascism, I am going to get 500,000 more and lick the hell out of you, and we will have a real war right at home.”

[Reply to Gerald MacGuire, after being asked to organize WWI veterans (for military support) in a fascist-coup of FDR, as related by Butler in testimony before Congress, 1934. A reporter (a Butler confidant) testified MacGuire said, “We might go along with Roosevelt and then do with him what Mussolini did with the King of Italy.” Which was, made him a figure-head.]

Here are some of the points and sources I raised:

1934 Attempted Overthrow of FDR Government and Replacement with a Fascist Dictatorship (Foiled By Maj. General Smedley Butler). Note, in addition to the Duponts and various other industrialists in the American Liberty League, George Herbert Walker and Prescott Bush and other Skull and Bones members were intimately involved in the plot.

[At about the same time the Du Ponts were serving the Nazi cause in Germany, they were involved in a Fascist plot to overthrow the United States government. ]

“Along with friends of the Morgan Bank and General Motors,” in early 1934, writes Higham, “certain Du Pont backers financed a coup d’etat that would overthrow the President with the aid of a $3 million-funded army of terrorists .” The object was to force Roosevelt “to take orders from businessmen as part of a fascist government or face the alternative of imprisonment and execution. . .”

Higham reports that “Du Pont men allegedly held an urgent series of meetings with the Morgans,” to choose who would lead this “bizarre conspiracy.” “They finally settled on one of the most popular soldiers in America, General Smedly Butler of Pennsylvania.” Butler was approached by “fascist attorney” Gerald MacGuire (an official of the American Legion), who attempted to recruit Butler into the role of an American Hitler.–R. William Davis, “The Elkhorn Manifesto,”July 4, 1996] [Butler exposed the plot in a famous press conference to the public.]

[If one were to look closely at the past 58 years, one would be hard pressed to find a single U.S. military or C.I.A. intervention that has brought us one iota of safety, or, for that matter, that has actually been done for national defense purposes.] As Butler illustrated in 1933, and it is even truer now than then, the U.S. engages in interventions meant to protect the interests of the powerful and wealthy of our nation and our allies, and rarely, if ever, in order to actually protect its citizens. This is what General Butler wrote about in his book “War is a Racket””

Smedley Butler War_Is_a_Racket_(cover)

From Wikipedia General Butler’s Recommendations

In his penultimate chapter, Butler argues that three steps are necessary to disrupt the war racket:

1. Making war unprofitable. Butler suggests that the owners of capital should be “conscripted” before other citizens are: “It can be smashed effectively only by taking the profit out of war. The only way to smash this racket is to conscript capital and industry and labour before the nation’s manhood can be conscripted. … Let the officers and the directors and the high-powered executives of our armament factories and our steel companies and our munitions makers and our ship-builders and our airplane builders and the manufacturers of all other things that provide profit in war time as well as the bankers and the speculators, be conscripted — to get $30 a month, the same wage as the lads in the trenches get”;

2. Acts of war to be decided by those who fight it. He also suggests a limited plebiscite to determine if the war is to be fought. Eligible to vote would be those who risk death on the front lines.;

3. Limitation of militaries to self-defense. For the United States, Butler recommends that the navy be limited, by law, to within 200 miles of the coastline, and the army restricted to the territorial limits of the country, ensuring that war, if fought, can never be one of aggression.

Chris White, “Is War Still a Racket?” CounterPunch, January 9, 2003

Charlie Liteky, “An Open Letter to the U.S. Military: Congressional Medal of Honor recipient addresses U.S. forces in Iraq,” Veterans Against the Iraq War, May 7, 2003

John S.D. Eisenhower, “War Turned Eisenhower Into a Pacifist,” International Herald Tribune, June 6, 2004

Then I closed with this excerpt of speech from General Butler in 1933:

SmedleyButler90px-US_Navy_Medal_of_Honor_(1913_to_1942)

“War is just a racket. I wouldn’t go to war again as I have done to protect some lousy investment of the bankers. There are only two things we should fight for. One is the defense of our homes and the other is the Bill of Rights. War for any other reason is simply a racket. It may seem odd for me, a military man, to adopt such a comparison. Truthfulness compels me to. I spent thirty-three years and four months in active military service as a member of this country’s most agile military force, the Marine Corps. I served in all commissioned ranks from Second Lieutenant to Major-General. And during that period, I spent most of my time being a high class muscle-man for Big Business, for Wall Street and for the Bankers. I was a gangster for Capitalism. I suspected I was just part of a racket at the time. Now I am sure of it. Like all the members of the military profession, I never had a thought of my own until I left the service.

My mental faculties remained in suspended animation while I obeyed the orders of higher-ups. This is typical with everyone in the military service. I helped make Mexico safe for American oil interests in 1914. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefits of Wall Street. I helped purify Nicaragua for the international banking house of Brown Brothers in 1909-1912. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for American sugar interests in 1916. In China I helped to see to it that Standard Oil went its way unmolested. During those years, I had, as the boys in the back room would say, a swell racket. Looking back on it, I feel that I could have given Al Capone a few hints. The best he could do was to operate his racket in three districts. I operated on three continents.”

I had a great time with these Marines and they had a lot of guts just to sit and listen to what was presented to them. They all got the message I believe, that when push comes to shove, The Constitution to which they swore allegiance, does not sanction fascism or anyone trying to use them to bring it about. I noted that The U.S. Constitution can be nefariously used, under various pretexts, as was the case with the Weimar Constitution in Germany, to bring about Fascism and its own negation; that, General Butler understood well, was part of what “Semper Fi” is supposed to be all about.

Posted in 4th Media, Faces of Fascism, Fascism in America, Government Corruption, International Law and Nuremberg Precedents, U.S. IMPERIAL DECLINE, U.S. Terrorism, Uncategorized, Veterans issues, Whistleblowers | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments